Sonchus oleraceus (L.) L.
  • Sp. Pl.
  • Grespino comune


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2021): Sonchus oleraceus (L.) L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000069236. Accessed on: 18 Sep 2021'

General Information

Sonchus oleraceus L., Sp. Pl. 794. 1753.

Tallos 0.1–1.4 m de alto, solitarios y a veces ramificados, parte superior frecuentemente con tricomas glandulares. Hojas runcinado-pinnatífidas o liradas, 5–25 cm de largo, márgenes espinuloso-dentados, glabras. Capitulescencias de corimbos, pedúnculos y pedicelos frecuentemente blanco-tomentosos; capítulos 10–20 mm de ancho; filarias en 4 series, linear-lanceoladas, 10–20 mm de largo, las series exteriores muy cortas, glabras a hispídulo-glandulares. Aquenios oblongos, arrugados entre las costillas, débilmente comprimidos, no alados; vilano 5–8 mm de largo.

Maleza muy común en orillas de caminos, en todo el país; 0–1600 m; fl y fr todo el año; Araquistain 807, Stevens 10332; maleza cosmopolita, introducida de Europa, común en América tropical y templada.

  • Provided by: [L].Flora de Nicaragua
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    Robust, short-lived herb to 1 ( ?-1.5) m tall; stems terete, striate, hollow; rootstock stout, sometimes branched; sap milky. Leaves mostly cauline, obovate to oblanceolate, to 30 cm long, mostly incised, denticulate, the apical segment truncate to hastate, apically obtuse or rounded, the basal portion often narrowed into a distinct, winged, mostly entire-margined petiole, expanded into denticulate, pointed auricles clasping the stem, the teeth callose-mucronate, glabrous. Inflores- cence an open panicle; peduncles with gland-tipped bristles; pedicels bracteate, mostly 1-3 cm long, glabrous. Heads showy, ligulate; involucre 10-20 mm tall, the bracts numerous in several, graded, imbricate series, narrow, herbaceous, glabrate or with a few bristles; florets all ligulate, all perfect, all fertile, the corollas yellow, the outermost series slightly exceeding the involucral bracts, yellow but sometimes dorsally reddish, the inner series slightly smaller, yellow, pilose at the base of the limb, glabrate above and below, apically mostly 5-denticulate, the anthers with yellow or darkened appendages, basally sagittate, the style apically ascending-pubescent, the branches narrow, puberulent. Achenes compressed lachrymiform, rugose with 2 fine sulci on each side, russet, the outermost achenes sometimes slightly thicker and lighter colored, beak wanting; pappus of numerous silky, persistent hairs and fewer, stouter, strigulose, deciduous bristles.

  • Provided by: [K].Flora de Panama
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    "Annual 1–20 dm from a short taproot, glabrous except sometimes for a few spreading gland-tipped hairs on the invols and peduncles; lvs pinnatifid to occasionally merely toothed, soft, the margins only weakly or scarcely prickly, 6–30 × 1–15 cm, all but the lowermost ones prominently auriculate, the auricles well rounded but eventually sharply acute; lvs progressively less divided upward and ± reduced; heads several in a corymbiform infl, relatively small, 1.5–2.5 cm wide in fl; invol 9–13 mm in fr; fls 80–250 per head; cor-tube about equaling the ligule; achenes 2.5–3.5 mm, transversely rugulose and evidently to rather obscurely 3–5-ribbed on each face; 2n=32, 36. A cosmopolitan weed, native to Europe. July–Oct."

  • Provided by: [J].New York Botanical Garden
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    Morphology

    Occasionally with glular hairs on stems peduncles

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
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    Florets yellow

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
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    A milky sap

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 7
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    A weed.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 7
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    A coarse erect annual herb 1-3 ft. high

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 7
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    All leaves ± spathulate at first, often deeply laciniate in depauperate specimens.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 18
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    Capitula stalked, many in corymbiform cymes, stalks glabrous or glandular-setose; involucres up to c. 13 mm. long and 10 mm. in diam., very broadly cylindrical later spreading, densely white tomentose below soon glabrescent, involucre becoming swollen in fruiting capitula.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 18
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    Phyllaries many-seriate imbricate increasing in length from c. 3 mm. on the outside to c. 13 mm. inside, narrowly lanceolate, glaucous, glabrous except for ciliate apicies and occasionally 1-several large glandular-setae up to c. 2 mm. long along the midrib, the midribs below becoming swollen and corky.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 18
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    Florets numerous; corollas yellow up to c. 13 mm. long, tube slender and pubescent above, ligule c. 5.5 mm. long and strap-shaped.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    A stout erect annual herb.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Stem up to c. 150 cm. tall, simple or sparsely branched in the upper half, leafy hollow usually reddish-tinged often glaucous, stem and branches glabrous or sometimes ± densely glandular-setose and somewhat viscid, setae up to c. 1 mm. long patent purplish; branches up to c. 45 cm. long ascending.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 18
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    Lower leaves crowded, up to c. 28 x 9 cm., ± oblanceolate in outline, usually pinnately-lobed to coarsely runcinate-pinnatipartite, each with a broadly ovate-hastate apical lobe rounded to acute at the apex; margins usually coarsely and somewhat irregularly dentate with spinulose-acicular teeth; midrib narrowly winged, ± auriculate and semi-amplexicaul below; auricles ± sagittate-spreading, entire to dentate.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Upper leaves sessile, smaller, lanceolate, ± deeply lobed to subentire, coarsely and sharply dentate on the margins, basal auricles usually large with acute spreading lobes.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    • 18
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    Achenes light to reddish-brown, up to c. 3 x 1 mm., narrowly obovoid and somewhat flattened, ± uniformly many-ribbed; ribs minutely muricate with numerous retrorse projections.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
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    Pappus white copious c. 7 mm. long, composed of barbellate setae intermixed with down-like hairs.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Fig. 25.

  • Provided by: [I].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Florets many; corolla yellow, tube cylindric, 6–7.5 mm long, ligule 5.5–6 mm long.

  • Provided by: [I].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Achenes (reddish)brown, narrowly obovoid, slightly flattened, 2.5–4 mm long, ribbed, minutely muricate; pappus white, 7–8 mm long.

  • Provided by: [I].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Leaves dull green, often glaucous beneath, (ob-)lanceolate in outline, entire to pinnatilobed, 4–30 cm long, 1–9(–17) cm wide, base amplexicaul, auriculate with sagittate auricles, blade pinnatilobed to pinnatipartite, midrib narrowly winged and toothed, lobes few, reflexed, coarsely dentate, sometimes with spinulose teeth, the apical lobe ovate-hastate, apex rounded or acute, glabrous; distal leaves becoming smaller and less lobed to subentire.

  • Provided by: [I].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 19
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    Capitula few to many in lax leafy corymbs or panicles; involucre 10–13 mm long; phyllaries green with paler tips, lanceolate, 2.5–13 mm long, obtuse, glabrous but for the ciliate apex, or rarely glandular-setose on the midrib, the outer becoming swollen at base.

  • Provided by: [I].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Annual or biennial herb, 0.1–1.4 m high; stems (glaucous) green with reddish or purplish tinge, slightly succulent, hollow, stout and erect, simple or branched, ridged, glabrous or sometimes glandular-setose near the inflorescence.

  • Provided by: [I].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Plante annuelle ou bisannuelle; herbacée, 10-140 cm de hauteur, généralement ramifiée, glabre, sauf les capitules qui sont quelquefois tomenteux … la base ou munis de poils glanduleux. Racin pivotantes, 10-35 x 0.5-1.5 cm, ligneuses vers le collet chez les bisannuelles. Collet simple ou ramifié, cylindrique. Tige tendre, cylindrique ou faiblement anguleuse, creuse. Feuilles du collet plus petites que les caulinaires, non auriculées, et possédant des pétioles étroitement ailés. Feuilles caulinaires 8-35 x 4-17 cm, très variables, donc entières, pinnatifides, pennipartite, pinnatiséquées, lyrées, etc.; amplexicaules … oreillettes acuminées; lobes entiers, dentés ou serrés-épineux. Pédoncule 0.5-7.0 cm, … une bractée, glabre ou muni de poils glanduleux. Capitules généralement nombreux, 10 x 6 mm, les ouvertes 20-30 mm diam. Nombre de fleurs par capitule 80-230. cailles de l'involucre 27-35 par capitule; les externes 11-14, 2.5-7.5 x 1-2.5 mm, sommet obtus, glabre ou pourvu au niveau de la nervure médiane de poils glanduleux; les intermédiaires 8-11, étroitement triangulaires, 8-12 x 2-3 mm, nervure médiane souvent poilue glanduleuse; les internes 8-12, … sommet obtus, 9-12 x 1-2 mm. Corolle jaunâtre ou jaune-citron, ligules extérieures pourpres au-dessous, ±12 mm. Ligule 6 x 1.5 mm. Tube de la corolle ± de la même longueur que la ligule. Anthères jaunâtres, brunâtres au sommet. Akènes: le rang extérieur jaune-verdâtre ou jaune-brunâtre, rugueux; les intérieures plus foncés, moins rugueux; tous oblancéolés, comprimés, non-ailés, 2.5-3.75 x 0.75-1.0 mm, … 2-4 c'tes principales, irrégulièrement rugueuses. Aigrette deux fois plus longue que l'akène, ± persistante.

  • Provided by: [G].e-Flora of South Africa
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    30–100 cm hoch. Stängel hohl, kahl oder zerstreut drüsig. Blätter kahl, glanzlos dunkelgrün, unterseits blasser, eiförmg bis lanzettlich, fiederteilig, selten ungeteilt, spitz gezähnt, kaum stechend, sitzend und mit breiten,

  • Provided by: [C].Flora Helvetica – Illustrierte Flora der Schweiz
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    Annual herb, up to 1.5 m high. Involucral bracts glabrous or glandular-hairy. Achenes slightly compressed, transversely wrinkled, minutely retrorsely hispid, narrowly obovate, attenuate towards base, margins thickened. Flowers pale yellow.

  • Provided by: [G].e-Flora of South Africa
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    Annual herb, up to 1.5 m high; with milky latex. Stems hollow, reddish tinged. Leaves crowded basally and along flowering stems; blade of lower leaves obovate in outline, 200 x 50 mm, pinnately lobed or coarsely runcinate-pinnatifid, with broad ovate-hastate apical lobe, apex rounded to acute, margins dentate, with petiole-like base; upper leaves runcinate-pinnatifid or coarsely and sharply dentate, base auriculate, auricles large, acute, sessile, amplexicaul. Heads ligulate, 15 x 10 mm, several in irregular, corymbose umbel, pedunculate. Involucral bracts in several series, imbricate, glabrous or glandular-hairy. Flowers: ligules pale yellow; Oct.-Jan., Jun. Fruit with cypsela light to reddish brown, narrowly obovate, attenuate towards base, slightly compressed, ribbed, transversely wrinkled, minutely retrorsely hispid, margins thickened, ± 3 mm long. Pappus of barbellate bristles intermixed with down-like hairs.

  • Provided by: [G].e-Flora of South Africa
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    Herbe' annuelle à bisannuelle, de 10-140 cm de haut, glabre à l'exception des inflorescences; racine pivotante.' Feuilles' caulinaires de 8-35 × 4-17 cm, indivises à pennatiséquées, molles, mates sur la face supérieure, à dents non ou peu spinescentes, à oreillettes basilaires aiguës à acuminées et étalées dans le prolongement du limbe. Capitules ± nombreux; involucre à 27-35 bractées, les externes de 2,5-7,5 × 1-2,5 mm, obtuses au sommet, glabres ou portant sur leur nervure médiane des poils glanduleux, les intermédiaires de 8-12 × 2-3 mm.' Fleurs 80-230 par capitule; corolle à tube et ligule de même longueur, soit environ 6 mm. Akènes à corps de 2,5-3,75 × 0,75-1 mm, oblancéolé, à 2-4 côtes principales, irrégulièrement rugueuses; pappus deux fois aussi long que le corps de l'akène, ± persistant.

  • Provided by: [F].Flore d'Afrique Centrale
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    Erect annual, with hollow stems, up to 1.5 m tall. Leaves mostly in a basal tuft, runcinate-pinnatifid, toothed, with winged petiole, upper leaves clasping. Flowerheads in irregular, corymbose umbels at branch tips, with peduncles sometimes glandular-hairy, ligulate, pale yellow, ± 10 mm diam.

  • Provided by: [G].e-Flora of South Africa
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    Habit

    herb

  • Provided by: [K].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
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    Ecology

    6–10. Äcker, Gärten, Schuttplätze, kollin-montan(-subalpin). CH.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora Helvetica – Illustrierte Flora der Schweiz
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    Habitat

    Sonchus oleraceus est une espèce très plastique du point de vue écologique. Dans les régions arides, o— la pluie est très faible, il est chétif et sa période de végétation est courte. Son habitat normal est les jardins, les champs cultivés et, surtout, les régions humides et subhumides. Au milieu du Sahara, on ne le rencontre que dans les champs irrigués des oasis. Cette espèce n'a pas d'exigences du point de vue édaphique; on la rencontre sur tous les types de sols. Elle monte aussi … des altitudes très élevées.

  • Provided by: [G].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
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    Weed of cultivation, roadsides and waste places.

  • Provided by: [G].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
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    Dry Grassland; Dwarf Karroid Shrubland. Weed of cultivation, roadsides and waste places.

  • Provided by: [G].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 26
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    Introduit et naturalisé; terrains cultivés, sites rudéraux, jachères, rare au-dessus de 2000 m, mais observé exceptionnellement jusqu'à 2400 m.

  • Provided by: [F].Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    • Source: [
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    Waste places and roadsides.

  • Provided by: [G].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 28
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    Distribution

    Sonchus oleraceus est une mauvaise herbe¯ cosmopolite. Elle existe en Europe, Afrique, Asie et Australie. Elle est également bien distribuée lans le nouveau monde et y fut très probablement introduite, mélangée aux graines importées de l'Europe. Une fois introduite, elle s'est bien établie et demeure aujourd'hui une des mauvaises herbes la plus répandue dans les deux continents Américains. Nous citons ici quelques exemples pour illustrer l'extrême plasticité écologique et l'immense distribution géographique de cette espèce: Groenland, Siberie (Jenisei), Nepal (9000 pieds), Tibet, Corée, Ta‹wan, Nouvelle Zélande, Iles Atlantiques, Pacifiques et Antarctiques.

  • Provided by: [G].e-Flora of South Africa
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    Native to Europe and Asia.

  • Provided by: [G].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
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    Native to Europe and Asia.

  • Provided by: [G].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 26
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    Afrique tropicale, du Sénégal à l'Éthiopie et à la Rép. sud-africaine; Europe, Asie occidentale et septentrionale, Afrique du Nord, Macaronésie. Devenu subcosmopolite.

  • Provided by: [F].Flore d'Afrique Centrale
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    Eurasian weed.

  • Provided by: [G].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 28
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    Uses

    La décoction des feuilles est employée au Rwanda en lavement contre les vers et les maux de ventre ches les femmes.

  • Provided by: [F].Flore d'Afrique Centrale
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    Synonyms

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Grespino comuneItalianCH
    Kohl-GänsedistelGermanCH
    Sow thistle Cerraja
    Laiteron maraîcherFrenchCH
    Latitschun cuminRaeto-RomanceCH

      Bibliography

     Information From

    Compositae
    CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0). https://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0
    • A CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    MBG Floras Images
    http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
    Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora Helvetica – Illustrierte Flora der Schweiz
    http://www.flora-helvetica.ch
    Flora Helvetica – Illustrierte Flora der Schweiz, Konrad Lauber, Gerhart Wagner, Andreas Gygax. Haupt Verlag 2018.
    • C All Rights Reserved
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • D The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • E
    Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    https://www.floredafriquecentrale.be
    • F http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)
    e-Flora of South Africa
    e-Flora of South Africa. v1.21. 2018. South African National Biodiversity Institute. http://ipt.sanbi.org.za/iptsanbi/resource?r=flora_descriptions&v=1.21
    • G All Rights Reserved
    Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020
    http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br
    Brazil Flora G (2014): Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020. v393.147. Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botanico do Rio de Janeiro. Dataset/Checklist. doi:10.15468/1mtkaw
    • H Group Brazil Flora, REFLORA Program
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • I
    New York Botanical Garden
    Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
    • J Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
    Flora de Panama
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
    Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
    • K Missouri Botanical Garden
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    http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
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    • L Missouri Botanical Garden
    World Flora Online consortium
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    • M CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).