Cichorium intybus L.
  • Sp. Pl.


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Cichorium intybus L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000080671. Accessed on: 25 Oct 2020'

General Information

Herbs 40-110 cm tall, perennial, with a strong taproot. Stem usually solitary, erect; branches spreading-ascending, subglabrous. Basal leaves rosulate, obovate to oblanceolate, 15-34 × 2-4 cm, attenuate into a petiole-like basal portion, undivided to usually runcinately pinnatipartite, sparsely covered with long multicellular hairs, base attenuate, margin dentate; lateral lobes 3-6 pairs, triangular; terminal lobe distinctly larger than lateral ones, apex rounded to acute. Stem leaves similar to basal leaves but smaller and less divided, gradually reduced toward stem apex, base clasping, apex acute. Synflorescence of main axis and larger branches spiciform-paniculiform. Capitula axillary and terminal, solitary or in clusters of a few, sessile or on a several cm long, thick, and apically slightly inflated peduncle, with usually 15-20 florets. Involucre cylindric, 0.9-1.4 cm. Phyllaries abaxially sparsely with glandular or simple hairs, apex ± acute; outer phyllaries lanceolate, longest > 1/2 as long as to approaching inner ones in length, spreading-erect, margin ciliate; inner phyllaries linear-lanceolate. Florets blue or exceptionally pink or bluish white. Achene brown, subcylindric to obovoid, 2-3 mm, stout, rugulose, apex truncate. Pappus (0.1-)0.2-0.3 mm. Fl. May-Oct. 2n = 18.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
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    Perennials (sometimes flowering first year). Leaves: blades of basal 5–35+ × 1–8(–12+) cm; cauline similar, smaller, narrower, distal mostly linear. Peduncles mostly 0–2 mm, some narrowly clavate, 12–45(–85+) mm. Phyllaries: outer 5–6 lance-ovate to lanceolate, 4–7 mm, basally cartilaginous, distally herbaceous, inner 8+ lance-linear to linear, 6–12 mm, herbaceous, all usually with some gland-tipped hairs 0.5–0.8 mm on margins near bases or on abaxial faces toward tips. Cypselae 2–3 mm; pappi 0.01–0.2 mm. 2n = 18.

  • Provided by: [G].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 4
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    "Perennial 3–17 dm from a long taproot; lower lvs oblanceolate, petiolate, toothed or more often pinnatifid, 8–25 × 1–7 cm, becoming reduced, sessile, and entire or merely toothed upwards; heads to 4 cm wide in fl, mainly matutinal, sessile or short-pedunculate, borne 1–3 together in the axils of the much reduced upper lvs, the long branches thus racemiform; invol 9–15 mm, its outer bracts loose, fewer than the inner and at least half as long, becoming callous-thickened at base; achenes 2–3 mm, pappus-scales numerous, minute, narrow; 2n=18. Roadsides, fields, and waste places; native of Europe, now a cosmopolitan weed. June–Oct."

  • Provided by: [C].New York Botanical Garden
    • Source: [
    • 5
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    Morphology

    A stiffly erect ± robust perennial herb up to c. 120 cm. tall, from a long stout taproot.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 1
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    Phyllaries 2-seriate, coriaceous, glandular-ciliate on the margins and midrib, or glabrous; outer phyllaries up to 8 mm. long, narrowly ovate, patelliform-thickened below, apices acute becoming recurved; inner phyllaries up to 11(14) mm. long, lanceolate, erect, apically pubescent Corollas c. 18 mm. long; the lower portion c. 2 mm. long, cylindric, pubescent or pilose-hairy above; ligule c. 16 mm. long, widening to c. 4 mm. at about the middle, lorate, right blue rarely pink or white, pubescent or glabrous outside, densely pubescent on the apical lobes, ligules spreading.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 1
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    Achenes c. 2.5 mm. long, obconic, truncate above, somewhat 5-angled, rugose-scabridulous; pappus several-seriate of numerous persistent short scales up to c. one quarter of the length of the achene.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 1
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    Stems annual, usually divaricately branched above, striate, densely hispid-setose to glabrescent.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Basal leaves 7–30 x 1–12 cm., oblanceolate in outline, runcinate-pinnatifid, obtuse-acute at the apex, semi-amplexicaul below, dentate to remotely denticulate on the margins, hispid or pilose to glabrescent; cauline leaves smaller, mostly oblong-lanceolate and undivided, sessile and amplexicaul, dentate to entire, hispid or glabrescent.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 1
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    Capitula 2.5–3 cm. in diam. measured across the expanded ligules, 2–4 sessile in axillary clusters on the usually very long ± flexuous patent-ascending branches, the clusters subtended by large foliaceous bracts, or capitula solitary and terminal on apically thickened stalks up to c. 9(14) cm. long.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 1
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    Involucres to c. 11(14) mm. long, cylindric.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 1
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    Might be encountered but has so far never been collected in our area.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 2
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    Perennial herb, up to 1.2 m high. Basal leaves large, irregularly lobed and toothed; stem leaves smaller, amplexicaul. Heads solitary or in few-headed clusters, sessile in axils of upper leaves. Achenes obscurely 5-angled. Pappus of small scales. Flowers sky-blue, rarely pink or white.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 7
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    A stiffly erect ±robust perennial herb up to c. 120 cm tall, from a long stout taproot. Stems annual, usually divaricately branched above, striate, densely hispid-setose to glabrescent. Basal leaves 7-30 x 1-12 cm, oblanceolate in outline, runcinate-pinnatifid, obtuse-acute at the apex, semi-amplexicaul below, dentate to remotely denticulate on the margins, hispid or pilose to glabrescent; cauline leaves smaller, mostly oblong-lanceolate and undivided, sessile and amplexicaul, dentate to entire, hispid or glabrescent. Capitula 2.5-3 cm in diam. measured across the expanded ligules, 2-4 sessile in axillary clusters on the usually very long ±flexuous patent-ascending branches, the clusters subtended by large foliaceous bracts, or capitula solitary and terminal on apically thickened stalks up to c. 9(14) cm long. Involucres to c. 11(14) mm long, cylindric. Phyllaries 2-seriate, coriaceous, glandular-ciliate on the margins and midrib, or glabrous; outer phyllaries up to 8 mm long, narrowly ovate, patelliform-thickened below, apices acute becoming recurved; inner phyllaries up to 11(14) mm long, lanceolate, erect, apically pubescent. Corollas c. 18 mm long; the lower portion c. 2 mm long, cylindric, pubescent or pilose-hairy above; ligule c. 16 mm long, widening to c. 4 mm at about the middle, lorate, bright blue rarely pink or white, pubescent or glabrous outside, densely pubescent on the apical lobes, ligules spreading. Achenes c. 2.5 mm long, obconic, truncate above, somewhat 5-angled, rugose-scabridulous; pappus several-seriate of numerous persistent short scales up to c. one quarter of the length of the achene.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 8
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    Ecology

    Recorded in the Flora Zambesiaca area as a cultivated herb and also as a garden escape, occurring on roadsides and in disturbed areas.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 1
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    Habitat

    Roadsides and cultivated lands.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 6
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    Escaped from cultivation, occurring as a weed in disturbed areas.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 7
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    Occurring on roadsides and in disturbed areas.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Distribution

    Native of northern Europe.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Northern European native.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Native to Europe and Asia.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Recorded in the Flora Zambesiaca area as a cultivated herb and also as a garden escape.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Uses

    Cultivated as a garden ornamental, or as a medicinal herb or salad plant, an extract of the root is used as a substitute for, or an additive to, coffee.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    It is cultivated elsewhere to provide root extract, used as a coffee additive.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Common Names

    “Chicory”.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Synonyms

      Bibliography

     Information From

    Compositae
    CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0). https://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0
    • A CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    e-Flora of South Africa
    e-Flora of South Africa. v1.21. 2018. South African National Biodiversity Institute. http://ipt.sanbi.org.za/iptsanbi/resource?r=flora_descriptions&v=1.21
    • B All Rights Reserved
    New York Botanical Garden
    Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
    • C Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • D Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • E
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • F
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • G Flora of North America Association
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • H CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).