Helianthus annuus L.
  • Girasole comune


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2021): Helianthus annuus L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000088131. Accessed on: 21 Sep 2021'

General Information

Annuals, 100-300 cm. Stems erect, usually hispid. Leaves mostly cauline, mostly alternate; petiole 2-20 cm; blade ovate-lanceolate to ovate, 10-40 × 5-40 cm, abaxially usually ± hispid, sometimes gland-dotted, base cuneate to subcordate or cordate, margin serrate. Capitula 1-9; peduncles 2-20 cm; involucres hemispheric or broader, 15-40(-200) mm in diam.; phyllaries 20-30(-100), ovate to ovate-lanceolate, 13-25 × (3-)5-8 mm, abaxially usually hirsute to hispid, rarely glabrate or glabrous, usually gland-dotted, margin usually ciliate, apex abruptly narrowed, long acuminate; paleae 9-11 mm, 3-toothed, middle teeth long acuminate, glabrous or hispid. Ray florets (13-)17-30(-100+); lamina 25-50 mm. Disk florets 150-1000; corollas 5-8 mm, throats bulbous at bases, lobes usually reddish, sometimes yellow; anthers brownish to black, appendages yellow or dark. Achenes (3-)4-5(-15) mm, glabrate; pappus of 2 lanceolate scales 2-3.5 mm plus 0-4 obtuse scales 0.5-1 mm. Fl. Jul-Sep, fr. Aug-Oct. 2n = 34.

  • Provided by: [H].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Annuals, 100–300 cm. Stems erect, usually hispid. Leaves mostly cauline; mostly alternate; petioles 2–20 cm; blades lance-ovate to ovate, 10–40 × 5–40 cm, bases cuneate to subcordate or cordate, margins serrate, abaxial faces usually ± hispid, sometimes gland-dotted . Heads 1–9. Peduncles 2–20 cm. Involucres hemispheric or broader, 15–40(–200+) mm diam. Phyllaries 20–30(–100+), ovate to lance-ovate, 13–25 × (3–)5–8 mm, (margins usually ciliate) apices abruptly narrowed, long-acuminate, abaxial faces usually hirsute to hispid, rarely glabrate or glabrous, usually gland-dotted. Paleae 9–11 mm, 3-toothed (middle teeth long-acuminate, glabrous or hispid). Ray florets (13–)17–30(–100+); laminae 25–50 mm. Disc florets 150+(–1000+); corollas 5–8 mm (throats ± bulbous at bases), lobes usually reddish, sometimes yellow ; anthers brownish to black, appendages yellow or dark (style branches yellow) . Cypselae (3–)4–5(–15) mm, glabrate ; pappi of 2 lanceolate scales 2–3.5 mm plus 0–4 obtuse scales 0.5–1 mm. 2n = 34.

  • Provided by: [E].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    "Coarse, rough-hairy annual (0.5–)1–3 m; lvs chiefly alternate (except the lowermost), mostly toothed, long-petiolate, ovate or broader, at least the lower cordate in well developed plants; heads large, the red-purple (yellow) disk seldom under 3 cm wide; invol bracts ovate or ovate-oblong and abruptly narrowed above the middle to the acuminate tip, ciliate and with some rather long coarse hairs on the back; receptacle flat or nearly so, its bracts inconspicuously hairy at the tip; 2n=34. A weed in disturbed sites, especially in moist, low ground, throughout the U.S. and adj. Can. and Mex. July–Sept. Typical wild plants are branched, with several or many heads. Cult. forms, which readily escape, have solitary (or few), often much larger heads. (H. lenticularis; H. aridus)"

  • Provided by: [G].New York Botanical Garden
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Morphology

    Fig. 143 (page 707).

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Sunflower, originally from America, is cultivated in many places in East Africa for its seeds, as an oil crop. Occasionally it seems to escape and become naturalised, as in T 6, Uzaramo District: Dar es Salaam on airport road, Apr. 1977, Wingfield 3392a! and T 8, Songea District: Mkaku River SW of Kitai, Mar. 1956, Milne-Redhead & Taylor 9075!.

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    These escapes are small annual herbs, 20–120 cm high.

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Leaves alternate, ovate, to 8 x 3.5 cm and scabridulous to the touch, petiolate.

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    In cultivation the plant and all its parts may become much larger. Both the cited specimens came from road-sides.

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Capitula terminal and solitary; ray florets ± 14, yellow, 35 x 10 mm; disc florets very many, yellow orange.

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    0,5–2,5 m hoch, kaum verzweigt, rauhaarig. Blätter wechselständig, herz- bis eiförmig, spitz gezähnt. Blütenköpfe einzeln oder wenige, nickend, Durchmesser 10–40 cm. Zungenblüten 20–70, 6–10 cm lang und bis 2 cm breit, meist gelb. Röhrenb

  • Provided by: [C].Flora Helvetica – Illustrierte Flora der Schweiz
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Annual herb, up to 4 m high; usually branching from base. Leaves alternate, sometimes opposite below; blade ovate to triangular, up to 100 x 60 mm, apex acuminate, base cordate to truncate and abruptly descending on petiole, margins dentate or denticulate, scabrid-pubescent on both surfaces; petiole up to ± 100 mm long. Heads radiate, generally 80-100 mm in diameter, sometimes larger, solitary on long peduncles terminating upper branches. Involucral bracts 3-seriate, ovate, usually > 4 mm wide, mostly abruptly long-acuminate, scabridulous. Receptacle with paleae enfolding disc florets. Flowers: ray florets neuter, yellow; disc florets bisexual, brownish or purplish black; Mar. Fruit with cypsela narrowly obovate, ± 5 mm long, somewhat compressed, thinly hispid. Pappus of 2 small scales, soon caducous.

  • Provided by: [D].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Annual herb to 4 m, usually branching from the base. Leaves alternate, sometimes opposite below, lamina of upper leaves up to c. 10 x 6 cm, lower leaves often much larger, ovate to triangular, apex acuminate, base cordate to truncate and abruptly descending on the petiole, scabrid-pubescent on both surfaces, petiole up to c. 10 cm long. Heads generally 8-10 cm across the expanded rays but sometimes much larger, solitary on long peduncles terminating the upper branches. Involucral bracts triseriate, ovate-lanceolate, mostly abruptly long-acuminate, scabridulous. Rays yellow, disc brownish- or purplish-black. Achenes c. 5 mm long, narrowly obovate, somewhat compressed, thinly hispid, pappus of 2 small narrow scales, soon caducous.

  • Provided by: [D].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    Ecology

    7–9. Schuttplätze, Bahndämme, Wegränder, kultiviert und verwildert, kollin.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora Helvetica – Illustrierte Flora der Schweiz
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Habitat

    It sometimes occurs as a ruderal, either the small-headed typical plant described here, well established in sandy waste ground at the head of Durban Bay, or the selected, giant-headed garden and agricultural forms, which are occasionally seen in waste ground near habitation or along roadsides.

  • Provided by: [D].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    Mesic Grassland. Escaped from cultivation, disturbed areas; probably more widespread but herbarium material scanty.

  • Provided by: [D].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Distribution

    Native to North America.

  • Provided by: [D].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Native throughout the U.S.A. but commonest east of the Mississippi, extending into Canada and Mexico. H. annuus is the common sunflower, extensively cultivated, particularly in Russia, India and Egypt, less widely in Europe and S. Africa.

  • Provided by: [D].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    Distribution Map

     
    • Introduced distribution
    Introduced into
    • Southern America Brazil Alagoas
    • Bahia
    • Ceará
    • Pernambuco
    • Piauá
    • Rio Grande do Norte
    • Sergipe
    • Paraní
    • Santa Catarina
    • Espirito Santo
    • Minas Gerais
    • São Paulo
    • Brazilia Distrito Federal
    • Goiás
    • Mato Grosso
    • Mato Grosso do Sul

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Girasole comuneItalianCH
    TournesolFrenchCH
    Flur-sulegl annualaRaeto-RomanceCH
    Einjährige SonnenblumeGermanCH

      Bibliography

     Information From

    Compositae
    CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0). https://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0
    • A CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • B
    Flora Helvetica – Illustrierte Flora der Schweiz
    http://www.flora-helvetica.ch
    Flora Helvetica – Illustrierte Flora der Schweiz, Konrad Lauber, Gerhart Wagner, Andreas Gygax. Haupt Verlag 2018.
    • C All Rights Reserved
    e-Flora of South Africa
    e-Flora of South Africa. v1.21. 2018. South African National Biodiversity Institute. http://ipt.sanbi.org.za/iptsanbi/resource?r=flora_descriptions&v=1.21
    • D All Rights Reserved
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • E Flora of North America Association
    Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020
    http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br
    Brazil Flora G (2014): Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020. v393.147. Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botanico do Rio de Janeiro. Dataset/Checklist. doi:10.15468/1mtkaw
    • F Group Brazil Flora, REFLORA Program
    New York Botanical Garden
    Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
    • G Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • H Missouri Botanical Garden
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • I CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).