Trifolium pratense L.
  • Sp. Pl. : 768 (1753)
  • Seamair dhearg

Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2023): Trifolium pratense L. Published on the Internet; Accessed on: 08 Feb 2023'

General Information

Perennial herbs, sparsely villous or glabrescent. Stems nu­merous from crown, erect or ascending, 20-70 cm, stout, stri­ate. Leaves palmately 3-foliolate, basal and cauline, long petio­late in lower leaves, shortly petiolate in upper leaves; stipules ovate-lanceolate, membranous, base adnate to petiole, apex acu­minate-subulate; leaflets ovate-elliptic or obovate, rarely ellip­tic, 1.5-3.5(-5) × 1-2 cm, lateral veins 15, base broadly cu­neate, margins obscurely serrulate, apex obtuse, rarely retuse. Flowers 30-70, in dense globose or ovoid, terminal, sessile to shortly pedunculate heads, subtended by involucre of stipules of reduced leaves. Calyx slightly pubescent or glabrous, veins 10; teeth subulate, unequal, lower tooth ca. 2 × others. Corolla pur­ple, rarely pink or white, 12-14(-18) mm; standard spatulate, apex rounded, retuse. Ovary elliptic. Legume ovoid. Seed 1, yellow or brown, ovoid. Fl. and fr. May-Sep.

  • Provided by: [G].Flora of China @
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Hierba generalmente erecta, 0.25–0.8 m, cespitosa, las ramitas pubescentes; estípulas hasta ca. 2 cm, la porción libre ca. 0.7 cm. Hojas palmadamente compuestas; pecíolo 8–25 cm; folíolos hasta ca. 4 X 2.3 cm, obovados a elíptico-lanceolados, obtusos a agudos en el ápice, glabros y con una mancha clara en forma de “V” en el haz, pubescentes en el envés. Infls. terminales, capituladas, de numerosas fls., el pedúnculo casi nulo. Fls. blancas (raramente) o rosadas a rosado lila; cáliz ca. 3 mm, tubular-campanulado; estandarte 13–17 mm, alargado. Frs. ca. 0.23–0.25 X 0.15–0.18 cm, ampliamente elipsoides a obdeltoides; semilla 1, ca. 2–2.3 mm, oblongo-ovoide.

  • Provided by: [C].Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Short-lived perennial, ascending or suberect, to 8 dm, the stem appressed-hairy; stipules oblong, the free part short, abruptly narrowed to a short awn; lower lvs long- petioled, upper short-petioled to sessile; heads sessile or on peduncles to 2 cm, globose to round-ovoid; fls 13–20 mm; cal glabrous to sparsely pilose, the tube 3–4 mm, the lobes setaceous, one 4–7 mm, four 2–5 mm; cor magenta, varying to nearly white; standard obovate-oblong, equaling or a little longer than the oblong obtuse wings; 2n=14. Native of Europe, widely cult. and escaped in fields and roadsides nearly throughout temperate N. Amer. May–Aug.

  • Provided by: [H].Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern US and Canada
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Erect to decumbent perennial. Leaflets 1.5-3.0 cm long, obovate to broadly elliptic, obscurely dentate; stipules ovate-lanceolate, free portion abruptly mucronate. Inflorescence a head, 7-22 mm wide, globose to ovoid, sessile or rarely pedunculate, usually with an involucre of stipules or reduced bracts. Calyx pubescent, lowest tooth longer than others and the calyx cup. Corolla reddish-purple to pink, rarely whitish. Vexillum 13-18 mm long. Fruit 1-seeded, opening by a lid.

  • Provided by: [F].Flora of Pakistan
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 


    Tallo: crescimiento erecto(s). Hoja: tipo digitada(s) trifoliolada(s). Inflorescencia: bractea(s) presente(s); número de flor(es) más que 20. Flor: cleistogamia ausente(s); color violeta; cáliz no acrescente(s); cáliz no urceolado(s); estandarte liso(s).

  • Provided by: [D].Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Stem: growth erect. Leaf: type digitate trifoliolate. Inflorescence: bract(s) present; number of the flower more than 20. Flower: cleistogamy absent; colour purplish; calyx non accrescent; calyx non urceolate; standard smooth.

  • Provided by: [D].Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Caule: crescimento ereto(s). Folha: tipo digitado(s) trifoliolada(s). Inflorescência: bráctea(s) presente(s); número de flor(es) mais de 20. Flor: cleistogamia ausente(s); cor violácea; cálice(s) não acrescente(s); cálice(s) não urceolado(s); estandarte liso(s).

  • Provided by: [D].Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    15–40 cm hoch, aufsteigend, oft verzweigt, mit grundständiger Blattrosette. Blätter 3zählig. Teilblätter eiförmig oder oval, meist ganzrandig, bis 3 cm lang. Freier Teil der Nebenblätter eiförmig, plötzlich in eine Granne zusammengezogen. Blütenstä

  • Provided by: [E].Flora Helvetica – Illustrierte Flora der Schweiz
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Distribution Map

    • Native distribution
    • Introduced distribution
    Found in
    • Europe Northern Europe Ireland
    Introduced into
    • Southern America Brazil Bahia
    • Paraní
    • Rio Grande do Sul
    • Santa Catarina
    • Minas Gerais
    • São Paulo

    Nationally Preferred Names

    Seamair dheargIrishIE
    Red cloverEnglishIE

    Other Local Names

    Seamar chapaillIrishIE
    Clóbhar deargIrishIE
    Seamar bóIrishIE
    Seamar capullIrishIE
    Trèfle des présFrenchCH
    Cow cloverEnglishIE
    Traifegl cotschenRaeto-RomanceCH
    Trifoglio pratenseItalianCH

     Information From

    World Flora Online Data. 2022.
    • A CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    MBG Floras Images
    Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica
    Hammel, B. E.; Grayum, M. H.; Herrera, C.; Zamora, N. Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2003-2014
    • C Missouri Botanical Garden
    Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020
    The Brazilian Flora Group (2018): Brazilian Flora 2020. Dataset/Checklist:
    • D Group Brazil Flora, REFLORA Program
    Flora Helvetica – Illustrierte Flora der Schweiz
    Flora Helvetica – Illustrierte Flora der Schweiz, Konrad Lauber, Gerhart Wagner, Andreas Gygax. Haupt Verlag 2018.
    • E All Rights Reserved
    Flora of Pakistan
    Flora of Pakistan. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2020.
    • F Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora of China @
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • G Missouri Botanical Garden
    Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern US and Canada
    Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
    • H Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
    Irish Vernacular Names
    • I All Rights Reserved
    World Flora Online Data. 2021.
    • J CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online Consortium
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • K CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).