Lemna minor L.
  • Sp. Pl.
  • Common duckweed


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2021): Lemna minor L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000224440. Accessed on: 21 Sep 2021'

General Information

Fronds free floating on water surface, 1-8 coherent in one small group, without green stalk at base (but with a thin white stipe connecting fronds), shiny green, sometimes reddish on upper surface, scarcely reddish on lower surface (always deeper red on upper surface than on lower), obovate to elliptic, 2-6(-10) mm, 1.3-2 × as long as wide, flat, with mostly distinct papillae on upper surface near apex and above node, margin entire, base rounded; veins 3(-5), nearly reaching apex, greatest distance between lateral veins near or proximal to middle. Root 0.5-15 cm, sheath not winged, apex mostly rounded. Turions absent. Ovary with 1 ovule; utricular scale with narrow opening at apex. Fruit winged laterally toward apex. Seed with 10-16 distinct ribs. Fl. (rare) May-Sep. 2n = 20, 40, 42, 50, 63, 126.

  • Provided by: [F].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Roots to 15 cm, tip mostly rounded; sheath not winged. Stipes white, small, often decaying. Fronds floating, 1 or 2--5 or more, coherent in groups, ovate, scarcely gibbous, flat, 1--8 mm, 1.3--2 times as long as wide, margins entire; veins 3(--5) (if more than 3, outer ones branching from inner ones), greatest distance between lateral veins near or proximal to middle; papillae not always distinct (one near apex usually larger); lower surface very seldom slightly reddish (much less than on upper), coloring beginning from attachment point of root, upper surface occasionally diffusely reddish; air spaces 0.3 mm or shorter; distinct turions absent. Flowers: ovaries 1-ovulate, utricular scale with narrow opening at apex. Fruits 0.8--1 mm, laterally winged toward apex. Seeds with 8--15 distinct ribs, staying within fruit wall after ripening. 2n = 40, 42 (B), 50, 63, 126.

  • Provided by: [K].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    "Thallus rotund to elliptic or obovate, (1.5–)2.5–6 mm, nearly symmetrical, commonly in groups of 2–5, very often anthocyanic beneath, dark green above, or anthocyanic on both sides, ± evidently 3-nerved, usually flat or only slightly convex on both sides, the upper surface with ± prominent papillae; spathe sac-like, open only at the top; fr not winged; seed solitary, smooth or only inconspicuously ribbed; 2n=20, 30, 40, 50. Nearly cosmop., and common throughout our range. (L. obscura, a small form; L. turionifera, overwintering by small, rootless turions at the bottom of the water)"

  • Provided by: [H].New York Botanical Garden
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Fronds free floating, almost symmetrical, elliptical to ovate-obovate or oblong, 1.5-4 x 1.5-3 mm, flat on both surfaces, never gibbous and ± rounded apices, usually green above, solitary or several joined together by a hyaline stipe. Papillae absent or if present only at apex and above node with many meshes. Roots solitary with a wingless sheath, root cap obtuse, floral pocket lateral. Flowering specimens not seen.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora of Pakistan
    • Source: [
    • 14
    • ]. 

    Morphology

    Root solitary, arising along a shallow groove; sheath unwinged; root-cap obtuse.

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Thallus dark green, symmetrical, flat, oblong-ovate. 2.5–6 mm. long, 1.5–4 mm. wide, rather obscurely 3-nerved, without large airspaces evident beneath.

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Free-floating aquatic.

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Seed solitary, not ribbed, reticulate.

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Pistillate flower solitary.

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Staminate flowers 2, each with a single stamen.

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Floral pocket lateral; spathe open at the top.

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Fig. 1/3, p. 3.

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Frondes flottantes; limbe de 1-8 (-10) mm de long sur 0,6-5 (-7) mm de large, 1 1/3-2 fois aussi long que large, jamais épais de plus de 1 mm, à 3(-5) nervures, les externes, lorsqu'il y en a plus de 3, partant du bas des nervures latérales internes; racines à gaine tubulaire non ailée, à coiffe ordinairement arrondie sur le frais et sur le sec, ne dépassant pas 1,2 mm de long.' Fleurs occasionnelles; ovule 1. Graine 1, de 0,7-1 mm de long sur 0,4-0,6 mm d'épaisseur, à 10-16 côtes, restant à l'intérieur du péricarpe après maturation.

  • Provided by: [E].Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    Sehr klein, auf der Wasseroberfläche schwimmend, aus einem flachen, ovalen bis kreisrunden, 2–6 mm langen, 3–5nervigen blattartigen Spross und einer einzigen daran hängenden, bis 10 cm langen Wurzel bestehend. Die Sprosse vermehren sich vegetativ u

  • Provided by: [G].Flora Helvetica – Illustrierte Flora der Schweiz
    • Source: [
    • 12
    • ]. 

    Aquatic herb. Root sheath not winged. Root tip mostly rounded. Roots often longer than 30 mm. Fronds often red below, or with red spots on either side, ± round.

  • Provided by: [C].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 13
    • ]. 

    Minute, floating aquatic forming colonies. Leaves thin. Flowers minute.

  • Provided by: [C].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 15
    • ]. 

    Su yüzeyinde serbest yüzen bitkiler. Tek tek veya kısa zarsı saplar ile birbirlerine bağlı 2-4(-5) bireyli öbeklerde. Fırontlar 2-5 × 1,5-4,5 mm, tersyumurtamsı ilâ eliptik, eliptik-dikdörtgensi, hemen hemen simetrik; her iki yüzeyde yassı ilâ hafifçe dışbükey; koyu yeşil; uçta hafifçe küçük kabarcıklı ya da kabarcık bulunmaz; kenarda bazen şeffaf zarsı; altta yüzey bazen mor ilâ kırmızımsı-mor pigmentli; üst yüzey pigmentsiz, nadiren kenarlarda kırmızı-mor pigmentli. Damarlar genellikle 3 adet, nadiren 4-5 adet, belirgin değil; Kökşapkası düz, uçta yuvarlağımsı. Çiçekdurumu 1 dişi ve 2 erkek çiçekli; torbacık şekilli sıpata sadece tepeden açılır. Meyve geniş yumurtamsı, kanatsız; tohum 1 adet, tersyumurtamsı. Uyku tomurcuğu oluşturmaz veya nadiren yüksek rakımlardaki popülasyonlarda rastlanır; turiyon kısa köklü.

  • Provided by: [I].Resimli Türkiye Florası (the Illustrated Flora of Turkey)
    • Ecology

      5–9. Stehende und langsam fliessende, nährstoffreiche Gewässer, kollin-subalpin. CH.

    • Provided by: [G].Flora Helvetica – Illustrierte Flora der Schweiz
      • Source: [
      • 12
      • ]. 

      Habitat

      Eaux douces stagnantes.

    • Provided by: [E].Flore d'Afrique Centrale
      • Source: [
      • 11
      • ]. 

      Dams, pools.

    • Provided by: [C].e-Flora of South Africa
      • Source: [
      • 13
      • ]. 

      Pools.

    • Provided by: [C].e-Flora of South Africa
      • Source: [
      • 15
      • ]. 

      Distribution

      Afrique intertropicale orientale et Afrique du Sud. Indigène vraisemblablement dans toute l'Europe sauf l'Islande et la Scandinavie arctique, en Asie occidentale et centrale, dans le sud-ouest de l'Arabie, en Amérique du Nord tempérée, en Afrique du Nord. Probablement seulement naturalisé dans le sud-ouest de l'Australie et en Nouvelle-Zélande.

    • Provided by: [E].Flore d'Afrique Centrale
      • Source: [
      • 11
      • ]. 

      Uitenhage, cosmopolitan.

    • Provided by: [C].e-Flora of South Africa
      • Source: [
      • 15
      • ]. 

      Distribution Map

       
      • Native distribution
      Found in
      • Europe Northern Europe Ireland

      Nationally Preferred Names

      NameLanguageCountry
      Common duckweedEnglishIE
      Ros lachanIrishIE
      SumercimeğiTurkishTR

      Other Local Names

      NameLanguageCountry
      Lenticchia d'acqua minoreItalianCH
      Duck’s meatEnglishIE
      Grán tonnógIrishIE
      Lentiglia d'auaRaeto-RomanceCH
      Lenticule mineure
      Petite lentille d'eauFrenchCH
      Kleine WasserlinseGermanCH
      Grán tonógIrishIE
      Lus gan athair gan mháthairIrishIE
      Grán lachanIrishIE
      Grán tonnóigeIrishIE

        Bibliography

       Information From

      Araceae
      World Flora Online Data. 2017.
      • A CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
      Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
      http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
      • B
      e-Flora of South Africa
      e-Flora of South Africa. v1.21. 2018. South African National Biodiversity Institute. http://ipt.sanbi.org.za/iptsanbi/resource?r=flora_descriptions&v=1.21
      • C All Rights Reserved
      Flora of Pakistan
      http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Pakistan
      Flora of Pakistan. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2020.
      • D Missouri Botanical Garden
      Flore d'Afrique Centrale
      https://www.floredafriquecentrale.be
      • E http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)
      Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
      http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
      'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
      • F Missouri Botanical Garden
      Flora Helvetica – Illustrierte Flora der Schweiz
      http://www.flora-helvetica.ch
      Flora Helvetica – Illustrierte Flora der Schweiz, Konrad Lauber, Gerhart Wagner, Andreas Gygax. Haupt Verlag 2018.
      • G All Rights Reserved
      New York Botanical Garden
      Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
      • H Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
      Resimli Türkiye Florası (the Illustrated Flora of Turkey)
      http://www.turkiyeflorasi.org.tr
      Güner, A., Kandemir, A., Menemen, Y., Yıldırım, H., Aslan, S., Ekşi, G., Güner, I. ve Çimen, A.Ö. (edlr.) (2018). Resimli Türkiye Florası, Cilt 2. ANG Vakfı Nezahat Gökyiğit Botanik Bahçesi Yayınları. İstanbul.
      • I All Rights Reserved
      • J Resimli Türkiye Florası (the Illustrated Flora of Turkey).
      Flora of North America @ efloras.org
      http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
      'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
      • K Flora of North America Association
      Irish Vernacular Names
      https://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/plant-science/plant-science/research-staff/article/380/wyse-jackson-peter-s.aspx
      • L All Rights Reserved
      World Flora Online consortium
      http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
      World Flora Online Data. 2018.
      • M CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
      International Union for Conservation of Nature v.3
      https://www.iucnredlist.org/
      IUCN 2019. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2019-1.
      • N See IUCN Terms and conditions of use http://www.iucnredlist.org/info/terms-of-use
      International Union for Conservation of Nature
      https://www.iucn.org/
      IUCN 2016. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-2
      • O All Rights Reserved