Manihot esculenta Crantz
  • Inst. Rei Herb. 1: 167 (1766)
  • man mai (มันไม้)(Peninsular)


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2022): Manihot esculenta Crantz. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000235507. Accessed on: 28 Nov 2022'

General Information

Erect shrubs 1.5-5 m tall; root tubers terete. Stipules triangular-lanceolate, 5-7 mm, entire or with 1 or 2 bristly segments; petiole 6-35 cm, slightly peltate, inserted less than 5 mm from margin; leaf blade palmately 3-9-lobed, 5-20 cm, lobes oblanceolate to narrowly elliptic, 8-18 × 1.5-4 cm, apex acu-minate, entire; lateral veins 5-15. Racemes terminal or axillary, 5-8 cm; bracts oblong-lanceolate; pedicels 4-6 mm. Male flowers: calyx ca. 7 mm, purple-red, divided to or over middle, lobes long ovate, 3-4 × ca. 2.5 mm, hairy inside; stamens 6-7 mm; anthers white pubescent at apex. Female flowers: calyx ca. 10 mm, lobes oblong-lanceolate, ca. 8 × 3 mm; ovary ovoid, longitudinally 6-angled; stigmas recurved, plaited. Capsule ellipsoidal, 1.5-1.8 × 1-1.5 cm, longitudinally 6-winged, scabrous. Seeds slightly triangular, ca. 1 cm; testa crustaceous, smooth, with spot-stripes. Fl. Sep-Nov.

  • Provided by: [N].Flora of China @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 15
    • ]. 

    Shrubs, 1–4 m. Roots thickened. Stems erect, terete when young; nodes conspicuously swollen; leaf and stipule scars elevated, especially on older stems. Leaves persistent; stipules lanceolate, entire; petiole 3–20 cm; blade basally attached, usually 3–10-lobed, sometimes unlobed, lobes without secondary lobes, median lobe 5–18 cm, margins neither thickened nor revolute, entire to ± repand, apex acuminate, surfaces glabrous or hairy, abaxial finely reticulate. Inflorescences axillary, panicles, 2–10 cm. Pedicels: staminate 2–4 mm; pistillate 20 mm in fruit, straight. Staminate flowers: calyx campanulate, 10–15 mm, lobes erect or spreading; stamens 10. Capsules 1.5 cm, usually winged. Seeds subglobose to oblong, 12 mm. 2n = 36.

  • Provided by: [G].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 16
    • ]. 

    Manihot esculenta Crantz, Inst. Rei Herb. 1: 167. 1766; Jatropha manihot L.; M. utilissima Pohl; M. dulcis (J.F. Gmel.) Pax.

    Arbustos, 1–4 m de alto, nudos hinchados. Hojas mayormente 3–5 (7–9)-lobadas, a veces no lobadas, 5–30 cm de largo y 8–30 cm de ancho, no peltadas o muy angostamente peltadas, pubescentes especialmente a lo largo de los nervios, lobos lanceolados a obovados, acuminados; pecíolos 5–17 cm de largo, estípulas 7–8 mm de largo. Panículas terminales, 5–10 cm de largo; cáliz estaminado 3–5 mm de largo, lobado hasta cerca de la mitad, pubescente por dentro, amarillento o verdoso, anteras 1.8–2 mm de largo; flores pistiladas con pedicelos 1.5–2.5 cm de largo cuando en fruto, ovario conspicuamente alado. Cápsulas 1.5–2 cm de ancho, aladas; semillas adaxialmente carinadas, 7–9.5 mm de largo.

    Cultivada y ocasionalmente naturalizada; 0–1000 m; fl y fr todo el año; De Angelis 279, Rueda 4732; nativa probablemente de Sudamérica y cultivada en los trópicos; usada contra la fiebre y diarrea por los habitantes de la costa atlántica. "Yuca".

  • Provided by: [M].Flora de Nicaragua
    • Source: [
    • 17
    • ]. 

    Herb or shrub, sometimes arborescent, ca 1-3 m high, glabrous. Leaves with petioles 5-17 cm long; stipules lanceolate, acuminate, 7-8 mm long, deciduous; blades mostly deeply 3-5-lobed (less commonly 7-lobed, or sometimes undivided); lobes mostly elliptic-lanceolate, acuminate, glaucous beneath, the middle lobe ca 9-17 cm long, (1-)2-5 cm broad, the lateral lobes mostly smaller. Panicles 0.5-1 dm long at anthesis, lengthening in fruit; flowers on spreading or somewhat reflexed pedicels. Staminate flowers with pedicels 4-6 mm long; calyx campanulate, yellowish-green, ca 3-4.5 mm long, glabrous outside; calyx-lobes ca 2-2.5 mm long, deltoid, densely puberulent within; disc 10-lobed (i.e. of 5 concrescent bibbed segments), ca 2 mm wide; stamens 10, the filaments unequal, the longer not over 2 mm long, the anthers linear-oblong, 1.8-2 mm long, those on shorter filaments with apical tufts of hairs; pistillode absent. Pistillate flowers with pedicels 7-12 mm long, becoming ca 1.5-2 cm in fruit; calyx-lobes 5, oblong-lanceolate, acute, ca 7.5-10 mm long; disc massive, ca 3-3.5 mm wide; ovary with 6 sharp ribs or wings, the styles ca 1.8-2 mm long, dilated and divided into several capitate tips. Capsules ca 1.5 cm long, 1.3 cm in diam, rugose' and 6-winged; seeds compressed, bluntly beaked, grayish or pale brownish, dark-flecked, 7.1-9.3 mm long, 4.1-5.1 mm broad, the caruncle broadly deltoid, entire, 1.3-1.7 mm long, 2.8-3.2 mm broad.

  • Provided by: [H].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 18
    • ]. 

    Arbusto, 1.7–4 m. Hojas con la lámina 5–17 X 6–20 cm, (3)5–7(–11)-lobulada. Infls. 4–10 cm. Fls. 5–13 mm. Frs. 1–1.7 cm, ± rugosos, conspicuamente acostillados o sulcados.

  • Provided by: [I].Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica
    • Source: [
    • 19
    • ]. 

    A large glabrous or sparingly pubescent woody herb or subshrub up to 5 m, rarely more. Root tubers to 50 cm long, farinaceous. Bark smooth, often reddish. Young shoots greenish-grey. Petioles 5-13 (-17) cm long. Leaves deeply palmati-partite, 3-5 (-8)-partite, rarely simple, shallowly cordate, sometimes slightly peltate, the lobes oblanceolate, 6-17 x 1-6 cm, acuminate, attenuate to the base, entire, lateral nerves up to 18 pairs, dark green above, glaucous beneath. Stipules triangular-lanceolate, 5 mm long, soon falling. Inflorescences up to 11 cm long; bracts resembling the stipules. Male flowers: peidcels decurved, 5 mm long; bud cylindric-conic; calyx-lobes triangular, 6 x 4 mm, subacute, greenish, tinged orange and crimson and sometimes veined with purple; long filaments 7 mm long, short ones 2.5 mm long, slender, white, anthers 1.5 mm long, pale yellow; disc concave, 10-lobed, the lobes acute. Female flowers: pedicels decurved, 7 mm long, extending to 2.5 cm and thickening in fruit; sepals triangular-ovate, 10 x 5 mm, otherwise as in the ♂; disc shallowly 5-lobed; ovary 2 x 2 mm, 6-winged or -angled, pink; styles botryoidal, 2 mm long. Fruits ellipsoid-subglobose, 1.5-1.7 x 1.5 cm, rugulose, 6-winged. Seeds ellipsoid, l l x 5.5 x 3.5 mm, pale grey, sometimes mottled; caruncle 3 mm wide.

  • Provided by: [L].Flora of Pakistan
    • Source: [
    • 22
    • ]. 

    (Herb to) shrub (to treelet) up to 7 m high, sparingly branching; branchlets often tinged reddish. Stipules entire or somewhat split. Leaves: blade basally attached or slightly (up to 2 mm) peltate, dark green above, pale light greenish greyish underneath, sometimes variegated; lobes narrow, 2.9–12.5 times as long as wide; central unlobed part usually short, lobes 15–21 times as long as unlobed part; nerves in 5–18 pairs, usually not very distinct, especially above, veins reticulate to scalariform. Inflorescences lax, with 3–5 together in fascicles. Staminate flowers: calyx divided to halfway or more, green to white to reddish, glabrous except for apex of tube and inner side of segments; filaments white; anthers yellow; disc yellow to light orange. Pistillate flowers: calyx green with red margin and midrib, hairy along the margin and on the midrib inside; disc pink; ovary with 6 longitudinal ridges, green to orange; pistil and stigmas white. Fruit subglobose, green (to light yellow, white, dark brown), with 6 longitudinal wings. Seeds up to 12 mm long.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of Thailand
    • Source: [
    • 23
    • ]. 

    Tropical shrubs, 1 to 4 m tall; all parts of plant with varying concentrations of a cyanogenic glucoside. Roots from seed a tap root, with secondary roots generally slender; adventitious roots arising from stem cuttings tuberous, variously shaped, from long and slender to globose. Stems woody, glabrous, or sparsely pubescent, except at the heavily pubescent apex, variously branched, from low, many-branched plants to tall and essentially unbranched; pith usually massive; leaf and stipule scars usually raised, sometimes not raised; predominantly brown, but sometimes yellow or silver. Leaves simple, frequently of two forms, either palmately lobed or nonlobed, the former predominant, the latter mostly associated with the inflorescence. Leaf lobes (2-)3-10(-12), linear, obovate or pandurate. The upper and lower lamina surfaces slightly pubescent between the veins, slightly to heavily pubescent on major veins; abaxial surface of lamina with a farinose layer, generally in a hexagonal pattern about the stomata; margins entire or slightly sinuate; stipules caducous, linear or laciniate; petioles from 5 to 25 cm long, frequently slightly S-shaped, attached basally to the lamina or slightly peltate, glabrous or slightly pubescent at base, and frequently a tuft of hairs at apex; leaves associated with inflorescence generally smaller, frequently 3-lobed, or sometimes simple, entire; lamina generally dark green, sometimes with red veins; petioles green, yellow-green, red or mixed red and green; young foliage at stem apices green, bluish green to dark red, very heavily pubescent. Inflorescence a panicle, generally from 2 to 10 cm long, glabrous; bracts and bracteoles strap-shaped, generally inconspicuous and caducous. Flowers monoecious, the pistillate basal, opening first, the staminate apical, opening later. Pistillate flower hypogynous; perianth of 5 separate, strap-shaped tepals, red, green or purplish, pubescent along inner margins, and frequently with a tuft of hairs at the interior apex; ovary subtended by a nonlobed disc, 3 carpellate, glabrous, style short, with 3 finely dissected stigmas. Staminate flower with a 5 lobed perianth of tepals united about half the length, glabrous externally, pubescent internally; stamens usually 10 (infrequently 8) in 2 whorls, 5 short and 5 longer, the filaments slender, glabrous, arising between the lobes of the basal disc, supporting versatile anthers; pollen 3-colpate, large, sticky, with spine-covered exine, in some cultivars sterile. Fruit a schizocarp, usually winged, but sometimes smooth-surfaced; dehiscence septicidal and loculicidal, leaving a central stalk. Seeds carunculate, elongate or rounded, variously marked, mottled brown and light brown, or plain.

  • Provided by: [O].Flora Neotropica
    • Source: [
    • 24
    • ]. 

    Detailed Cultivar Description: Surface of tuberous roots most frequently rough but often smooth. External root color most frequently brown, dark brown or reddish brown but often light brown, tan or light tan, seldom light brown-yellow, pinkish white, light pink or pink or pinkish brown or pinkish tan. Root flesh usually white to cream, sometimes cream-yellow or yellow, rarely with some pink intermixed. Stems commonly brown, but often silver, sometimes yellow, seldom silver-brown. Storey length usually 9 to 20 cm, but sometimes short, 4-8 cm or long, 21-28 cm. Scars on stem usually either slightly raised or moderately raised, sometimes very large, seldom not raised (stem smooth). Stems most frequently more than two-branched, but commonly with one or two branches (excluding any branches at the top), less frequently unbranched, or a single branch at the top. Leaves with basic number of lobes odd, but occasionally with an even number of lobes; most frequently 7 or 8 lobed, sometimes 9 or 10 lobed, occasionally 5 or 6 lobed, rarely 3 or 4 lobed, or variable, 3, 4, and 5 lobed, or 4, 5, or 6 lobed. Leaf lobe shape prevalently obovate but sometimes linear; margins of obovate leaves usually simple, sometimes sinuous and rarely pandurate, of linear-shaped lobes, margins commonly sinuous, occasionally simple, rarely pandurate. Length of median lobe most frequently long, greater than 17 cm, often of moderate length, 14 to 17 cm and occasionally short, less than 14 cm. Width of median lobe predominantly moderate, 2.6 cm to 4.8 cm, sometimes narrow, 1.5 cm to 2.4 cm, or wide, 5 cm or more. Petioles mostly green, frequently red, occasionally reddish green, seldom greenish red. Young foliage most frequently green, often reddish blue, sometimes bluish green.

  • Provided by: [O].Flora Neotropica
    • Source: [
    • 24
    • ]. 

    Morphology

    Raiz: espessamento(s) tuberosa(s) elongada(s) redonda(s); xilopódio rígido(s) sem forma. Caule: característica(s) entre 1 e 2.9 alt. (m)/lisa(s)/ereto(s)/glabro(s); látex branco. Folha: limbo pecíolo(s) cilíndrico(s)/simples/glabro(s)/lobado(s)/3 lobado(s)/5 lobado(s)/7 lobado(s)/lobo(s) elíptico(s)/lobo(s) curto(s) lanceolado(s)/lobo(s) oval(ais)/lobo(s) oblongo(s)/lobo(s) panduriforme(s)/lobo(s) mediano(s) maior(es) que os lobo(s) lateral(ais)/lobo(s) não sobreposto(s); estípula(s) triangular(es)/persistente(s). Inflorescência: tipo racemo(s); posição terminal(ais); sexualidade bissexual. Flor: posição pistilada(s) basal(ais); bráctea-involucral(ais) setácea(s) 0.1 cm largura/glabra(s)/filiforme(s); botão-floral estaminada(s) ovoide(s)/glabro(s); botão-floral pistilada(s) piramidal(ais)/glabro(s). Fruto: tipo cápsula(s); forma ovoide(s)/orbicular(es); superfície(s) glabra(s)/estriado(s); costela(s) presente(s). Semente: forma ovoide(s); superfície(s) lisa(s); carúncula(s) presente(s).

  • Provided by: [C].Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Root: thickening tuberous elongated rounded; rootstock stiff without form. Stem: characteristic between 1 and 2.9 height (m)/smooth/erect/glabrous; latex white. Leaf: limb petiole cylindric/simple/glabrous/lobate/3 lobate/5 lobate/7 lobate/lobe(s) elliptic/lobe(s) short lanceolate/lobe(s) ovate/lobe(s) oblong/lobe(s) panduriform/lobe(s) median bigger than the lobe(s) lateral/lobe(s) non overlapped; stipule triangular/persistent. Inflorescence: type raceme; position terminal; sexuality bisexual. Flower: position female basal; involucral-bract(s) setaceus 0.1 cm width/glabrate/filiform; flower-bud male ovoid/glabrous; flower-bud female pyramidal/glabrous. Fruit: type capsule; form ovoid/orbicular; surface glabrate/striate; rib present. Seed: form ovoid; surface smooth; caruncule present.

  • Provided by: [C].Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Raiz: espesamiento(s) tuberosa(s) elongada(s) redonda(s); xilopodio rígido(s) sin forma. Tallo: característica(s) entre 1 y 2.9 alt. (m)/lisa(s)/erecto(s)/glabro(s); latex blanco. Hoja: limbo pecíolo(s) cilíndrico(s)/simples/glabro(s)/lobado(s)/3 lobado(s)/5 lobado(s)/7 lobado(s)/lobo(s) elíptico(s)/lobo(s) corto(s) lanceolado(s)/lobo(s) oval(es)/lobo(s) oblongo(s)/lobo(s) panduriforme(s)/lobo(s) mediano(s) mayor(es) que los lobo(s) lateral(es)/lobo(s) no sobrepuesto(s); estípula(s) triangular(es)/persistente(s). Inflorescencia: tipo racimo(s); posición terminal(es); sexualidad bisexual. Flor: posición pistilada(s) basal(es); bractea-involucral(es) setacea(s) 0.1 cm anchura/glabra(s)/filiforme(s); botón-floral estaminada(s) ovoide(s)/glabro(s); botón-floral pistilada(s) piramidal(es)/glabro(s). Fruto: tipo cápsula(s); forma ovoide(s)/orbicular(es); superficie(s) glabra(s)/estriado(s); costilla(s) presente(s). Semilla: forma ovoide(s); superficie(s) lisa(s); carúncula(s) presente(s).

  • Provided by: [C].Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    A shrub 6–10 ft. high, glabrous

  • Provided by: [P].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Very variable in colour of bark, tint of foliage, etc. Cassava, a cultivated food-plant; native of Brazil. (See Appendix, p. 150.)

  • Provided by: [P].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Digitate leaves glaucous beneath

  • Provided by: [P].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Tuberous roots

  • Provided by: [P].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Fig. 68.

  • Provided by: [J].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 13
    • ]. 

    Seeds ellipsoid, subpentagonal in section, 1.1 cm. long, 5.5 mm. wide, 3.5 mm. deep, pale grey, sometimes mottled, somewhat shiny, with a caruncle 3 mm. wide.

  • Provided by: [J].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 13
    • ]. 

    Fruit ellipsoid-subglobose, 1.5–1.7 cm. long, 1.5 cm. wide, rugulose, 6-winged, the wings undulate-subcrenate, endocarp woody.

  • Provided by: [J].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 13
    • ]. 

    Young shoots glaucous greenish grey.

  • Provided by: [J].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 13
    • ]. 

    Bark smooth, often reddish.

  • Provided by: [J].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 13
    • ]. 

    Root tubers up to 50 cm. long, very farinaceous.

  • Provided by: [J].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 13
    • ]. 

    A large glabrous woody herb or subshrub up to 5 m. tall, rarely a tree 7–8 m. tall.

  • Provided by: [J].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 13
    • ]. 

    Male flowers: pedicels patent-decurved, 5 mm. long, slender; calyx cylindric-conic in bud, campanulate, the lobes imbricate, triangular, 6 mm. long, 4 mm. wide at the base, subacute, glabrous without, sparingly pubescent within towards the apex, greenish, tinged orange and crimson and sometimes veined with purple, the tube 6 mm. long; long filaments 7 mm. long, short filaments 2.5 mm. long, slender, glabrous, white, anthers 1.5 mm. long, with a tuft of hairs at the apex, pale yellow; disc 10-lobed, concave at the centre, the lobes acute.

  • Provided by: [J].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 13
    • ]. 

    Inflorescence paniculate, 8–11 cm. long; bracts resembling the stipules.

  • Provided by: [J].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 13
    • ]. 

    Stipules triangular-lanceolate, 5 mm. long, setaceous-acuminate, ± entire, readily deciduous.

  • Provided by: [J].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 13
    • ]. 

    Leaves deeply palmatipartite, with 3–5(–7) lobes, rarely simple, shallowly cordate, sometimes slightly peltate, membranous-chartaceous, the lobes oblanceolate, occasionally lanceolate or obovate, 6–14(–17) cm. long, 1–6 cm. wide, acute, gradually acuminate, ± attenuate towards the base, entire, with up to 18 pairs of lateral nerves, midrib scarcely prominent above or beneath, dark green above, glaucous beneath; petiole (0–)5–13(–17) cm. long.

  • Provided by: [J].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 13
    • ]. 

    Female flowers: pedicels somewhat decurved, 7 mm. long, extending to 2.5 cm. in fruit and thickening to 3 mm.; sepals imbricate, triangular-ovate, 1 cm. long, 5 mm. wide, subacute, glabrous without, pubescent within near the margin; disc shallowly 5-lobed; ovary 2 mm. long, 2 mm. diameter, 6-winged or -angled, pink; styles botryoidal, 2 mm. long.

  • Provided by: [J].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 13
    • ]. 

    Seeds 1.1 cm × 5.5 mm × 3.5 mm, ellipsoid, depressed-pentagonal, somewhat shiny, pale grey, sometimes mottled, caruncle 3 mm wide.

  • Provided by: [F].Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    • Source: [
    • 14
    • ]. 

    Stipules 4–5 × 2 mm, triangular-lanceolate, soon falling.

  • Provided by: [F].Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    • Source: [
    • 14
    • ]. 

    Male flowers: pedicels 5 mm long, slender; buds 2 × 1 mm, cylindric-conic; calyx lobes 6 × 4 mm, triangular, subacute, glabrous without, pubescent within near the apex, greenish, tinged orange or crimson and sometimes purple-veined; stamen filaments slender, the longer 7 mm long, the shorter 2.5 mm long, glabrous, white, anthers 1.5 mm long, with an apical hair tuft, pale yellow; disk 10-lobed, concave, the lobes acute.

  • Provided by: [F].Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    • Source: [
    • 14
    • ]. 

    Inflorescence 2–11 cm long, paniculate; bracts resembling the stipules.

  • Provided by: [F].Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    • Source: [
    • 14
    • ]. 

    Fruit 1.3–1.7 × 1.3–1.5 cm, ellipsoid-subglobose, rugulose, 6-winged, the wings undulate-subcrenate, greenish.

  • Provided by: [F].Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    • Source: [
    • 14
    • ]. 

    Female flowers; pedicels 7 mm long, extending to 2.5 cm and thickening to 3 mm in fruit, decurved; sepals 1× 0.5 cm, triangular-ovate, subacute; disk shallowly 5-lobed; ovary 2 × 2 mm, hexagonal, pink; styles 2 mm long, botryoidal.

  • Provided by: [F].Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    • Source: [
    • 14
    • ]. 

    Leaf blades 6–25 cm across, deeply palmatipartite, 3–7-lobed, rarely simple, shallowly cordate, sometimes very slightly peltate with 1–2 mm width of lamina below the petiole-insertion; the lobes usually oblanceolate, the median 6.5–15 × 2–6 cm, gradually acutely acuminate at the apex, narrowed at the base, entire, sparingly pubescent near the midrib or subglabrous, dark green above, glaucous beneath; lateral nerves up to 20 pairs.

  • Provided by: [F].Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    • Source: [
    • 14
    • ]. 

    Petiole 4–25 cm long, often reddish.

  • Provided by: [F].Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    • Source: [
    • 14
    • ]. 

    Young shoots glaucous.

  • Provided by: [F].Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    • Source: [
    • 14
    • ]. 

    Latex whitish, watery.

  • Provided by: [F].Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    • Source: [
    • 14
    • ]. 

    Bark smooth.

  • Provided by: [F].Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    • Source: [
    • 14
    • ]. 

    Root tubers up to 50 cm long, farinaceous.

  • Provided by: [F].Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    • Source: [
    • 14
    • ]. 

    A brittle-stemmed dichotomously branched shrub or small tree up to 5 m tall.

  • Provided by: [F].Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    • Source: [
    • 14
    • ]. 

    Plante'arbustive, de 1-5 m de haut; racines tubéreuses, très farineuses, atteignant généralement 30-50 cm de long ou parfois davantage, pouvant peser plusieurs kilos; tiges à moelle abondante.'Feuilles'à stipules allongées, entières ou 1-2-lacinulées, caduques; pétiole allongé; limbe membraneux, ± glauque-pruineux à la face inférieure, polymorphe, les uns parfois entiers, la plupart généralement 3-7(9-11)-palmatipartis, à lobes entiers ou parfois dentés.'Panicules'à pédoncule allongé; bractées petites, entières, caduques.'Fleurs'♂ à calice campanulé, 5-fide, glabre à la face externe, pubérulent à la partie supérieure de la face interne; disque et filets glabres; anthères courtes, pubescentes au sommet.'Fleurs'♀ à calice campanulé, 5-parti; disque glabre; ovaire glabre, parcouru par 6 ailes longitudinales.'Capsules'globuleuses-ellipsoïdes, parcourues par 6 ailes longitudinales, ondulées, subcrénelées.'Graines jaspées.

  • Provided by: [K].Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    • Source: [
    • 21
    • ]. 

    Habit

    Herb or shrub

  • Provided by: [H].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 18
    • ]. 

    Ecology

    Cultivated or found in waste places of mainly abandoned gardens and along roads, probably not escaped; locally common. Soil: clay, limestone, red loam, peaty soil, usually well-drained; altitude: 0–1,700 m. Flowering and fruiting whole year through, though less so in September and October. See also Veltkamp & de Bruijn 1996.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of Thailand
    • Source: [
    • 23
    • ]. 

    Habitat

    Cultivé, anciens villages, jachères.

  • Provided by: [K].Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    • Source: [
    • 21
    • ]. 

    Distribution

    Apparently native to South America; widely cultivated in the tropics, includ- ing Panama, where the plant at least occasionally escapes.

  • Provided by: [H].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 18
    • ]. 

    Probably originally cultivated in NE Brazil, nowadays only known from cultivation and found throughout SE Asia and Malesia.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of Thailand
    • Source: [
    • 23
    • ]. 

    Manihot esculenta, as a cultigen, is cultivated in all tropical countries of the world. The species is not known in a purely wild state. The limitations upon its growth are largely those of low temperature. In some subtropical areas, the cultigen is raised where there are a few periods of frost, but in these areas, the crop is of little economic significance. For this reason, we have cited only specimens which were selected to indicate the range of variability within the species. The collections made by Rogers form a part of the monographic study of the species, published separately (Rogers and Fleming, 1973), and all are deposited in the herbarium of the National Arboretum, Washington, D.C. An outline of the classification of the subspecific "groups" is given at the end of this section. (Table II). Other specimens cited are those confined to the Western Hemisphere, and were chosen because they represent the more important variations within the species. The crop is American in origin, and specimens from other areas of the world do not vary significantly from those we have selected.

  • Provided by: [O].Flora Neotropica
    • Source: [
    • 24
    • ]. 

    Uses

    Le manioc, préparé sous forme de « chikwangues », constitue le féculent de base de l'alimentation des habitants en régions guinéo-congolaises. Des racines on retire une fécule nommée tapioca. Feuilles cuites comestibles.

  • Provided by: [K].Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    • Source: [
    • 21
    • ]. 

    The roots constitute one of the world’s most important stock crops for starch. It is mainly used for human consumption, less for animal consumption and (far less) for industrial purposes, though this may be very different depending on the country (Thailand mainly animal fodder). Presently, one of the most important stock crops in the Northeastem of Thailand. The roots can rarely be eaten fresh and are usually cooked, steamed, fried or roasted when fresh or after drying or fermenting. It is advisable to peel, grind or cut, and dry the roots in order to diminish the contents of cyanogenic glucosides (mainly linamarin). Only sweet cassava can be eaten fresh in small quantities (the peel contains most HCN); the bitter ones have to be treated due to a much higher HCN content. The leaves are also eaten, they contain reasonable amounts of carotene and vitamin C, though they too have to be cut in pieces and they have to be cooked to rid the HCN. Food poisoning hardly occurs, because most people know how to prepare the roots and leaves. See also Veltkamp & de Bruijn 1996. Plants, especially with variegated leaves, are also used in horticulture. No satisfactory system of classification exists for the manifold of cultivars.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of Thailand
    • Source: [
    • 23
    • ]. 

    Literature

    SELECTED REFERENCES Allem, A. C. 1994. The origin of Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae). Genet. Resources Crop Evol. 41: 133–150. Olsen, K. and B. A. Schaal. 1999. Evidence on the origin of cassava: Phylogeography of Manihot esculenta. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96: 5586–5591. Olsen, K. and B. A. Schaal. 2001. Microsatellite variation in cassava (Manihot esculenta, Euphorbiaceae) and its wild relatives: Further evidence for a southern Amazonian origin of domestication. Amer. J. Bot. 88: 131–142. Rogers, D. J. 1965. Some botanical and ethnological considerations of Manihot esculenta. Econ. Bot. 19: 369–377.

  • Provided by: [G].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 16
    • ]. 

    Distribution Map

     
    • Native distribution
    • Introduced distribution
    Found in
    • Southern America Brazil Acre
    • Amapí
    • Amazonas
    • Parí
    • Rondônia
    • Alagoas
    • Bahia
    • Ceará
    • Maranh
    • Pernambuco
    • Piauá
    • Minas Gerais
    • São Paulo
    • Brazilia Distrito Federal
    • Goiás
    • Mato Grosso
    Introduced into
    • Asia-Tropical Indo-China Thailand

    Synonyms

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    man mai (มันไม้)(Peninsular)ThaiTHA
    aipimPortuguese
    man hio (มันหว)(Phangnga)ThaiTHA
    macaxeiraPortuguese
    sampalang (สําปะหลัง)(Central)ThaiTHA
    man samrong (มันสําโรง)(Central)ThaiTHA
    u-bi-ka-yu (อุบีกายู)(Malay-Peninsular)ThaiTHA
    man tan (มันต้น)(Peninsular)ThaiTHA
    mandiocaPortuguese
    tang ban (ต้างบ้าน)(Northern)ThaiTHA
    tang noi (ต้างน้อย)(Northern)ThaiTHA
    man sampalang (มันสําปะหลัง)(Central)ThaiTHA

      Bibliography

     Information From

    e-Flora of Thailand
    https://www.dnp.go.th/botany/eflora/aboutus.html
    Chayamarit, K. & Balslev, H. (eds.) (2019). Flora of Thailand. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.
    • A All Rights Reserved
    • B Forest Herbarium All rights reserved
    Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020
    https://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br
    The Brazilian Flora Group (2018): Brazilian Flora 2020. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/2175-7860201869402 Dataset/Checklist: https://ckan.jbrj.gov.br/dataset/thebrazilfloragroup_feb2018
    • C Group Brazil Flora, REFLORA Program
    Euphorbiaceae
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/Euphorbiaceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2021.
    • D CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    MBG Floras Images
    http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
    Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
    • E Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • F
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • G Flora of North America Association
    Flora de Panama
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
    Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
    • H Missouri Botanical Garden
    Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Costa%20Rica
    Hammel, B. E.; Grayum, M. H.; Herrera, C.; Zamora, N. Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2003-2014
    • I Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • J
    Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    https://www.floredafriquecentrale.be
    • K http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)
    Flora of Pakistan
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Pakistan
    Flora of Pakistan. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2020.
    • L Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora de Nicaragua
    http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
    W. D. Stevens, C. Ulloa Ulloa, A. Pool & O. M. Montiel. 2001–. Flora de Nicaragua, Tropicos Project. Loaded from Tropicos Project: October 2017
    • M Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora of China @ efloras.org
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • N Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora Neotropica
    Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
    • O Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • P The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    World Flora Online Consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • Q CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    Global Tree Search
    https://tools.bgci.org/global_tree_search.php
    BGCI. 2022. GlobalTreeSearch online database (version 1.6). Botanic Gardens Conservation International. Richmond, UK. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.34206.61761 Available at https://tools.bgci.org/global_tree_search.php. Accessed on (15/06/2022).
    • R Botanic Gardens Conservation International