Manihot esculenta Crantz
  • Inst. Rei Herb.
  • aipim


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2021): Manihot esculenta Crantz. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000235507. Accessed on: 18 Sep 2021'

General Information

Erect shrubs 1.5-5 m tall; root tubers terete. Stipules triangular-lanceolate, 5-7 mm, entire or with 1 or 2 bristly segments; petiole 6-35 cm, slightly peltate, inserted less than 5 mm from margin; leaf blade palmately 3-9-lobed, 5-20 cm, lobes oblanceolate to narrowly elliptic, 8-18 × 1.5-4 cm, apex acu-minate, entire; lateral veins 5-15. Racemes terminal or axillary, 5-8 cm; bracts oblong-lanceolate; pedicels 4-6 mm. Male flowers: calyx ca. 7 mm, purple-red, divided to or over middle, lobes long ovate, 3-4 × ca. 2.5 mm, hairy inside; stamens 6-7 mm; anthers white pubescent at apex. Female flowers: calyx ca. 10 mm, lobes oblong-lanceolate, ca. 8 × 3 mm; ovary ovoid, longitudinally 6-angled; stigmas recurved, plaited. Capsule ellipsoidal, 1.5-1.8 × 1-1.5 cm, longitudinally 6-winged, scabrous. Seeds slightly triangular, ca. 1 cm; testa crustaceous, smooth, with spot-stripes. Fl. Sep-Nov.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
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    Shrubs, 1–4 m. Roots thickened. Stems erect, terete when young; nodes conspicuously swollen; leaf and stipule scars elevated, especially on older stems. Leaves persistent; stipules lanceolate, entire; petiole 3–20 cm; blade basally attached, usually 3–10-lobed, sometimes unlobed, lobes without secondary lobes, median lobe 5–18 cm, margins neither thickened nor revolute, entire to ± repand, apex acuminate, surfaces glabrous or hairy, abaxial finely reticulate. Inflorescences axillary, panicles, 2–10 cm. Pedicels: staminate 2–4 mm; pistillate 20 mm in fruit, straight. Staminate flowers: calyx campanulate, 10–15 mm, lobes erect or spreading; stamens 10. Capsules 1.5 cm, usually winged. Seeds subglobose to oblong, 12 mm. 2n = 36.

  • Provided by: [E].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
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    Manihot esculenta Crantz, Inst. Rei Herb. 1: 167. 1766; Jatropha manihot L.; M. utilissima Pohl; M. dulcis (J.F. Gmel.) Pax.

    Arbustos, 1–4 m de alto, nudos hinchados. Hojas mayormente 3–5 (7–9)-lobadas, a veces no lobadas, 5–30 cm de largo y 8–30 cm de ancho, no peltadas o muy angostamente peltadas, pubescentes especialmente a lo largo de los nervios, lobos lanceolados a obovados, acuminados; pecíolos 5–17 cm de largo, estípulas 7–8 mm de largo. Panículas terminales, 5–10 cm de largo; cáliz estaminado 3–5 mm de largo, lobado hasta cerca de la mitad, pubescente por dentro, amarillento o verdoso, anteras 1.8–2 mm de largo; flores pistiladas con pedicelos 1.5–2.5 cm de largo cuando en fruto, ovario conspicuamente alado. Cápsulas 1.5–2 cm de ancho, aladas; semillas adaxialmente carinadas, 7–9.5 mm de largo.

    Cultivada y ocasionalmente naturalizada; 0–1000 m; fl y fr todo el año; De Angelis 279, Rueda 4732; nativa probablemente de Sudamérica y cultivada en los trópicos; usada contra la fiebre y diarrea por los habitantes de la costa atlántica. "Yuca".

  • Provided by: [J].Flora de Nicaragua
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    Herb or shrub, sometimes arborescent, ca 1-3 m high, glabrous. Leaves with petioles 5-17 cm long; stipules lanceolate, acuminate, 7-8 mm long, deciduous; blades mostly deeply 3-5-lobed (less commonly 7-lobed, or sometimes undivided); lobes mostly elliptic-lanceolate, acuminate, glaucous beneath, the middle lobe ca 9-17 cm long, (1-)2-5 cm broad, the lateral lobes mostly smaller. Panicles 0.5-1 dm long at anthesis, lengthening in fruit; flowers on spreading or somewhat reflexed pedicels. Staminate flowers with pedicels 4-6 mm long; calyx campanulate, yellowish-green, ca 3-4.5 mm long, glabrous outside; calyx-lobes ca 2-2.5 mm long, deltoid, densely puberulent within; disc 10-lobed (i.e. of 5 concrescent bibbed segments), ca 2 mm wide; stamens 10, the filaments unequal, the longer not over 2 mm long, the anthers linear-oblong, 1.8-2 mm long, those on shorter filaments with apical tufts of hairs; pistillode absent. Pistillate flowers with pedicels 7-12 mm long, becoming ca 1.5-2 cm in fruit; calyx-lobes 5, oblong-lanceolate, acute, ca 7.5-10 mm long; disc massive, ca 3-3.5 mm wide; ovary with 6 sharp ribs or wings, the styles ca 1.8-2 mm long, dilated and divided into several capitate tips. Capsules ca 1.5 cm long, 1.3 cm in diam, rugose' and 6-winged; seeds compressed, bluntly beaked, grayish or pale brownish, dark-flecked, 7.1-9.3 mm long, 4.1-5.1 mm broad, the caruncle broadly deltoid, entire, 1.3-1.7 mm long, 2.8-3.2 mm broad.

  • Provided by: [G].Flora de Panama
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    Arbusto, 1.7–4 m. Hojas con la lámina 5–17 X 6–20 cm, (3)5–7(–11)-lobulada. Infls. 4–10 cm. Fls. 5–13 mm. Frs. 1–1.7 cm, ± rugosos, conspicuamente acostillados o sulcados.

  • Provided by: [L].Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica
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    A large glabrous or sparingly pubescent woody herb or subshrub up to 5 m, rarely more. Root tubers to 50 cm long, farinaceous. Bark smooth, often reddish. Young shoots greenish-grey. Petioles 5-13 (-17) cm long. Leaves deeply palmati-partite, 3-5 (-8)-partite, rarely simple, shallowly cordate, sometimes slightly peltate, the lobes oblanceolate, 6-17 x 1-6 cm, acuminate, attenuate to the base, entire, lateral nerves up to 18 pairs, dark green above, glaucous beneath. Stipules triangular-lanceolate, 5 mm long, soon falling. Inflorescences up to 11 cm long; bracts resembling the stipules. Male flowers: peidcels decurved, 5 mm long; bud cylindric-conic; calyx-lobes triangular, 6 x 4 mm, subacute, greenish, tinged orange and crimson and sometimes veined with purple; long filaments 7 mm long, short ones 2.5 mm long, slender, white, anthers 1.5 mm long, pale yellow; disc concave, 10-lobed, the lobes acute. Female flowers: pedicels decurved, 7 mm long, extending to 2.5 cm and thickening in fruit; sepals triangular-ovate, 10 x 5 mm, otherwise as in the ♂; disc shallowly 5-lobed; ovary 2 x 2 mm, 6-winged or -angled, pink; styles botryoidal, 2 mm long. Fruits ellipsoid-subglobose, 1.5-1.7 x 1.5 cm, rugulose, 6-winged. Seeds ellipsoid, l l x 5.5 x 3.5 mm, pale grey, sometimes mottled; caruncle 3 mm wide.

  • Provided by: [I].Flora of Pakistan
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    Morphology

    A shrub 6–10 ft. high, glabrous

  • Provided by: [K].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
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    Very variable in colour of bark, tint of foliage, etc. Cassava, a cultivated food-plant; native of Brazil. (See Appendix, p. 150.)

  • Provided by: [K].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
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    Digitate leaves glaucous beneath

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    Tuberous roots

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    Young shoots glaucous greenish grey.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Bark smooth, often reddish.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Root tubers up to 50 cm. long, very farinaceous.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    A large glabrous woody herb or subshrub up to 5 m. tall, rarely a tree 7–8 m. tall.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Male flowers: pedicels patent-decurved, 5 mm. long, slender; calyx cylindric-conic in bud, campanulate, the lobes imbricate, triangular, 6 mm. long, 4 mm. wide at the base, subacute, glabrous without, sparingly pubescent within towards the apex, greenish, tinged orange and crimson and sometimes veined with purple, the tube 6 mm. long; long filaments 7 mm. long, short filaments 2.5 mm. long, slender, glabrous, white, anthers 1.5 mm. long, with a tuft of hairs at the apex, pale yellow; disc 10-lobed, concave at the centre, the lobes acute.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Inflorescence paniculate, 8–11 cm. long; bracts resembling the stipules.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Stipules triangular-lanceolate, 5 mm. long, setaceous-acuminate, ± entire, readily deciduous.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Leaves deeply palmatipartite, with 3–5(–7) lobes, rarely simple, shallowly cordate, sometimes slightly peltate, membranous-chartaceous, the lobes oblanceolate, occasionally lanceolate or obovate, 6–14(–17) cm. long, 1–6 cm. wide, acute, gradually acuminate, ± attenuate towards the base, entire, with up to 18 pairs of lateral nerves, midrib scarcely prominent above or beneath, dark green above, glaucous beneath; petiole (0–)5–13(–17) cm. long.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Female flowers: pedicels somewhat decurved, 7 mm. long, extending to 2.5 cm. in fruit and thickening to 3 mm.; sepals imbricate, triangular-ovate, 1 cm. long, 5 mm. wide, subacute, glabrous without, pubescent within near the margin; disc shallowly 5-lobed; ovary 2 mm. long, 2 mm. diameter, 6-winged or -angled, pink; styles botryoidal, 2 mm. long.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Fig. 68.

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    Seeds ellipsoid, subpentagonal in section, 1.1 cm. long, 5.5 mm. wide, 3.5 mm. deep, pale grey, sometimes mottled, somewhat shiny, with a caruncle 3 mm. wide.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Fruit ellipsoid-subglobose, 1.5–1.7 cm. long, 1.5 cm. wide, rugulose, 6-winged, the wings undulate-subcrenate, endocarp woody.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Seeds 1.1 cm × 5.5 mm × 3.5 mm, ellipsoid, depressed-pentagonal, somewhat shiny, pale grey, sometimes mottled, caruncle 3 mm wide.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Stipules 4–5 × 2 mm, triangular-lanceolate, soon falling.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Male flowers: pedicels 5 mm long, slender; buds 2 × 1 mm, cylindric-conic; calyx lobes 6 × 4 mm, triangular, subacute, glabrous without, pubescent within near the apex, greenish, tinged orange or crimson and sometimes purple-veined; stamen filaments slender, the longer 7 mm long, the shorter 2.5 mm long, glabrous, white, anthers 1.5 mm long, with an apical hair tuft, pale yellow; disk 10-lobed, concave, the lobes acute.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Inflorescence 2–11 cm long, paniculate; bracts resembling the stipules.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Fruit 1.3–1.7 × 1.3–1.5 cm, ellipsoid-subglobose, rugulose, 6-winged, the wings undulate-subcrenate, greenish.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Female flowers; pedicels 7 mm long, extending to 2.5 cm and thickening to 3 mm in fruit, decurved; sepals 1× 0.5 cm, triangular-ovate, subacute; disk shallowly 5-lobed; ovary 2 × 2 mm, hexagonal, pink; styles 2 mm long, botryoidal.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Leaf blades 6–25 cm across, deeply palmatipartite, 3–7-lobed, rarely simple, shallowly cordate, sometimes very slightly peltate with 1–2 mm width of lamina below the petiole-insertion; the lobes usually oblanceolate, the median 6.5–15 × 2–6 cm, gradually acutely acuminate at the apex, narrowed at the base, entire, sparingly pubescent near the midrib or subglabrous, dark green above, glaucous beneath; lateral nerves up to 20 pairs.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
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    Petiole 4–25 cm long, often reddish.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    • 13
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    Young shoots glaucous.

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    Latex whitish, watery.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Bark smooth.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    • 13
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    Root tubers up to 50 cm long, farinaceous.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 13
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    A brittle-stemmed dichotomously branched shrub or small tree up to 5 m tall.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 13
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    Plante'arbustive, de 1-5 m de haut; racines tubéreuses, très farineuses, atteignant généralement 30-50 cm de long ou parfois davantage, pouvant peser plusieurs kilos; tiges à moelle abondante.'Feuilles'à stipules allongées, entières ou 1-2-lacinulées, caduques; pétiole allongé; limbe membraneux, ± glauque-pruineux à la face inférieure, polymorphe, les uns parfois entiers, la plupart généralement 3-7(9-11)-palmatipartis, à lobes entiers ou parfois dentés.'Panicules'à pédoncule allongé; bractées petites, entières, caduques.'Fleurs'♂ à calice campanulé, 5-fide, glabre à la face externe, pubérulent à la partie supérieure de la face interne; disque et filets glabres; anthères courtes, pubescentes au sommet.'Fleurs'♀ à calice campanulé, 5-parti; disque glabre; ovaire glabre, parcouru par 6 ailes longitudinales.'Capsules'globuleuses-ellipsoïdes, parcourues par 6 ailes longitudinales, ondulées, subcrénelées.'Graines jaspées.

  • Provided by: [H].Flore d'Afrique Centrale
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    Habit

    Herb or shrub

  • Provided by: [G].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 17
    • ]. 

    Habitat

    Cultivé, anciens villages, jachères.

  • Provided by: [H].Flore d'Afrique Centrale
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    Distribution

    Apparently native to South America; widely cultivated in the tropics, includ- ing Panama, where the plant at least occasionally escapes.

  • Provided by: [G].Flora de Panama
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    Uses

    Le manioc, préparé sous forme de « chikwangues », constitue le féculent de base de l'alimentation des habitants en régions guinéo-congolaises. Des racines on retire une fécule nommée tapioca. Feuilles cuites comestibles.

  • Provided by: [H].Flore d'Afrique Centrale
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    Literature

    SELECTED REFERENCES Allem, A. C. 1994. The origin of Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae). Genet. Resources Crop Evol. 41: 133–150. Olsen, K. and B. A. Schaal. 1999. Evidence on the origin of cassava: Phylogeography of Manihot esculenta. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96: 5586–5591. Olsen, K. and B. A. Schaal. 2001. Microsatellite variation in cassava (Manihot esculenta, Euphorbiaceae) and its wild relatives: Further evidence for a southern Amazonian origin of domestication. Amer. J. Bot. 88: 131–142. Rogers, D. J. 1965. Some botanical and ethnological considerations of Manihot esculenta. Econ. Bot. 19: 369–377.

  • Provided by: [E].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
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    Distribution Map

     
    • Native distribution
    Found in
    • Southern America Brazil Acre
    • Amapí
    • Amazonas
    • Parí
    • Rondônia
    • Alagoas
    • Bahia
    • Ceará
    • Maranh
    • Pernambuco
    • Piauá
    • Minas Gerais
    • São Paulo
    • Brazilia Distrito Federal
    • Goiás
    • Mato Grosso

    Synonyms

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    aipimPortuguese
    macaxeiraPortuguese
    mandiocaPortuguese

      Bibliography

     Information From

    Euphorbiaceae
    • A CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
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    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
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    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
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    • D Missouri Botanical Garden
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    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • E Flora of North America Association
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    • H http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)
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    • I Missouri Botanical Garden
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    • K The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
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    • L Missouri Botanical Garden
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    • M Group Brazil Flora, REFLORA Program
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    BGCI. 2018. GlobalTreeSearch online database. Botanic Gardens Conservation International. Richmond, U.K. Available at www.bgci.org. Accessed on 30/11/2018.
    • O Botanic Gardens Conservation International