Phyllanthus urinaria L.
  • Sp. Pl.
  • Chamber bitter

Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Phyllanthus urinaria L. Published on the Internet; Accessed on: 26 May 2020'

General Information

Annual herbs, erect or procumbent, up to 80 cm tall; stem much branched at base; branches prostrate to ascending, winged, hispidulous along one side. Leaves distichous; stipules ovate-lanceolate, ca. 1.5 mm, base conspicuously auriculate; petiole very short; leaf blade papery, oblong or oblong-obovate or nearly linear, sometimes slightly falcate, 4-10 × 2-5 mm, abaxially gray-green or pale, or sometimes reddish tinged, adaxially bright or dark green, base mostly obtuse, sometimes conspicuously oblique, margin ciliate, apex rounded, obtuse, or acutely mucronulate; lateral veins 4 or 5 pairs, conspicuous. Plants monoecious. Flower fascicles male along distal part of branchlets, 2-4-flowered, female along middle and lower part of branchlets, 1-flowered; pedicel ca. 0.5 mm, with 1-2 bracteoles at base. Male flowers: sepals 6, elliptic to oblong-obovate, 0.3-0.6 × 0.2-0.4 mm, yellowish white, apex obtuse; disk glands 6, green; stamens 3; filaments completely united into a slender column. Female flowers: pedicels ca. 0.5 mm; sepals 6, ovate to ovate-lanceolate, subequal, ca. 1 mm, margin membranous, yellowish white, persistent in fruit; disk orbicular, entire; ovary ovoid or spherical, with conspicuous raised scales; styles 3, free, bifid at apex, lobes revolute. Capsules globose, 2-2.5 mm in diam., with reddish blotches, scurfy-tuberculate. Seed 3-sided, 1-1.2 × 0.9-1 mm, light grayish brown, with 12-15 sharp transverse ridges on back and sides, often with 1-3 deep circular pits on side. Fl. Apr-Jun, fr. Jul-Nov.

  • Provided by: [F].Flora Of CHina @
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Phyllanthus urinaria L., Sp. Pl. 982. 1753.

    Hierbas anuales, 0.1–0.5 m de alto, hojas en ramitas simples, deciduas, 5–10 cm de largo. Hojas lineares a oblongo-obovadas, 0.8–2.5 cm de largo y 0.2–0.8 cm de ancho, obtusas o mucronuladas en el ápice, asimétricamente obtusas en la base, nervios algo prominentes en el envés; estípulas 1–1.5 mm de largo. Címulas axilares en las ramitas, unisexuales, las proximales pistiladas y de flores solitarias, las distales estaminadas; flores estaminadas con pedicelos escasamente evidentes, sépalos 6, obovados, 0.3–0.5 mm de largo, disco de 6 segmentos, crenulados, estambres 3, filamentos connados, anteras con dehiscencia vertical; flores pistiladas con pedicelos hasta 0.5 mm de largo, sépalos 6, linear-lanceolados, obtusos, 0.6–0.9 mm de largo, disco 6-angulado, ovario abollado-papilado, estilos aplanados y fusionados, menos de 0.5 mm de largo. Cápsula ca 2 mm de diámetro; semillas 1.1–1.2 mm de largo, lateralmente foveoladas y con 12–15 costillas transversales.

    Ruderal en áreas abiertas de bosques perennifolios en la zona atlántica; 0–200 m; fl nov, fr jul, ago, nov; Araquistain 3072, Stevens 20709; nativa del Viejo Mundo, ampliamente distribuida en los trópicos.

  • Provided by: [E].Flora de Nicaragua
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Herb, usually annual, erect or procumbent, up to 5 dm high; monoecious; main stems 1-3 mm thick, subterete with narrow sharp ridges decurrent from nodes; scale-leaves on main axes scarious, 2-3 mm long. Deciduous branchlets mostly 5-10 cm long, 0.5-0.75 mm thick, with 20-35 leaves. Leaves with very short petioles; stipules unequal, the longer 0.8-1.5 mm long, lanceolate; blades mostly 8-25 mm long, 2-6(-9) mm broad, linear to oblong-obovate, obtuse or mucronulate at the tip, marginally hispidulous beneath. Cymules unisexual, the proximal nodes with solitary female flowers, the distal nodes with cymules of 5-7 male flowers. Staminate flowers with calyx-lobes 6, less than 0.5 mm long; disc-segments 6, crenulate; stamens 3, the filaments completely fused into a column, the anthers dehiscing vertically; pollen grains 4-colporate. Pistillate flowers with pedicels 0.5 mm long or less; calyx-lobes 6, linear to lanceolate, dorsally hispidulous, 0.6-0.9 mm long; disc entire or crenulate; ovary conspicu- ously papillate, the styles connate, bifid at the tips. Capsules 2-2.2 mm in diam, scurfy or nearly smooth, often reddish-blotched; seeds 1.1-1.2 mm long, light brown, with 12-15 sharp tranverse ridges on back and sides and often with 1-3 deep pits on the sides.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Hierba o subarbusto, 0.15–1.2 m, a veces epilítica, el tallo principal con hojas escamiformes; ramitas glabras o diminutamente cilioladas a lo largo de los ángulos. Hojas con la lámina 0.5–1.8(–2.5) X 0.2–0.5(–0.9) cm, angostamente oblonga, oblicuamente obtusa en la base, obtusa o mucronulata en el ápice, glabra en ambas caras (pero con tricomas diminutos en el margen). Infls. usualmente unisexuales, las masculinas de 5–7 fls.; infls. femeninas de 1 fl. Fls. estaminadas con 3 estambres connatos en una columna. Fls. pistiladas con pedicelo hasta ca. 0.5 mm, los sépalos 6, 0.5–1 mm, el disco ± plano, 6-angulado. Frs. 0.1–0.17 X 0.2–0.25 cm; semillas 1.1–1.2 mm, foveoladas en las caras laterales y transversalmente 8–12-acostilladas en la cara adaxial.

  • Provided by: [G].Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 


    A herb with slender subwoody stems.

  • Provided by: [J].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 



  • Provided by: [D].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 


    Of Old World origin, now widely distributed in tropical regions; a weed in moist habitats.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Distribution Map

    • Native distribution
    Found in
    • Southern America Brazil Acre
    • Amapí
    • Amazonas
    • Parí
    • Bahia
    • Pernambuco
    • Santa Catarina
    • Rio de Janeiro
    • São Paulo
    • Goiás
    • Mato Grosso

    Other Local Names

    Chamber bitter
    quebra pedraPortuguese

     Information From

    MBG Floras Images
    Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
    • A Missouri Botanical Garden
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020
    Brazil Flora G (2014): Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020. v393.147. Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botanico do Rio de Janeiro. Dataset/Checklist. doi:10.15468/1mtkaw
    • C Group Brazil Flora, REFLORA Program
    Flora de Panama
    Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
    • D Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora de Nicaragua
    WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
    • E Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora Of CHina @
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • F Missouri Botanical Garden
    Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica
    Hammel, B. E.; Grayum, M. H.; Herrera, C.; Zamora, N. Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2003-2014
    • G Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora of North America @
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • H Flora of North America Association
    • I CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • J The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    World Flora Online consortium
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • K CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).