Ricinus communis L.
  • Sp. Pl.
  • carrapateira


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Ricinus communis L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000297077. Accessed on: 05 Aug 2020'

General Information

Herbs erect, often single-stemmed but sometimes bushlike or treelike, 2-5(-10) m tall; younger parts glaucous, whole plant often reddish or purplish. Stipules connate, 2-3 cm; petiole 20-40 cm; leaf blade palmately 7-11-lobed, 30-50(-100) × 30-50(-100) cm, margin serrate. Inflorescence to 30 cm. Male flowers: pedicels 5-17 mm; calyx lobes 5-8 × 3-5 mm; stamens 7-8 mm. Female flowers: pedicels 5-10 mm; sepals ca. 5 mm; styles 2-5 mm. Fruiting pedicel to 45 mm; capsule ellipsoid or ovoid, 1.5-2.5 cm, echinate, spines to ca. 5 mm, sometimes smooth. Seed 7-12 mm, grayish, silvery, or beige with darker markings; caruncle depressed-conical, 2-3 mm wide. Fl. Jun-Sep, or Jan-Dec.

  • Provided by: [N].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 19
    • ]. 

    Plants 1–4[–5+] m. Stems erect. Leaves: stipules 2–3 cm, connate, leaving conspicuous scar around stem; petiole 10–55 cm, with (0–)1–3 cuplike glands on proximal adaxial surface, 2 glands at apex adaxially; blade circular in outline, 15–50 cm diam., base peltate, marginal teeth gland-tipped, laminar glands scattered on adaxial surface, lobes 7–12, lanceolate or oblanceolate, increasing in size apically, apex narrowly acute to acuminate. Inflorescences 6–30 cm, to 45 cm in fruit; bracts caducous except for 2 persistent glands. Pedicels: staminate 5–15 mm; pistillate 0.5–5 mm, elongating to 40 mm in fruit. Staminate flowers: calyx lobes ovate, 7–8 mm; stamen cluster ± spheric, 10–12 mm diam. Pistillate flowers: sepals ovate, 4–5 mm; ovary densely covered in slender-conic, bristle-tipped outgrowths; styles red or orange-red, 4–5 mm; stigmas distinctly spreading, papillose. Capsules dark red, echinate, subglobose, 1.5–2 cm diam. Seeds mottled brown, 8–11 mm, shiny. 2n = 20.

  • Provided by: [J].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 20
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    Por Grady L. Webster

    Ricinus communis L., Sp. Pl. 1007. 1753.

    Arbustos o árboles, 2–5 m de alto, de apariencia herbácea cuando jóvenes, glabros, sin látex; plantas monoicas. Hojas alternas, palmadamente 7–11-lobadas, 10–100 cm de ancho, lobos acuminados, serrados, peltadas; pecíolos 10–20 cm de largo, glandulosos en el ápice, estípulas 10–15 mm de largo, fusionadas en una vaina caduca. Panículas terminales y bisexuales, las estaminadas inferiores, flores apétalas, sin disco; flores estaminadas con cáliz fusionado cuando en yema, separándose en la antesis, estambres hasta 1000, filamentos connados en fascículos irregularmente ramificados, pistilodio ausente; flores pistiladas con cáliz como en las flores estaminadas, ovario 3-locular, muricado, 1 óvulo por lóculo, estilos bífidos, connados en la base, ramas papilosas. Fruto capsular, 1.2–2.1 mm de diámetro, generalmente equinado; semillas 9–22 mm de largo, carunculadas, variegadas.

    Cultivada y ruderal, muy común en todo el país; 0–1000 m; fl y fr todo el año; Stevens 10129, 11649; de origen paleotropical, quizás nativa del este de Africa, pero naturalizada en todas las regiones tropicales y subtropicales. Se usa como laxativo. Un género monotípico. "Higuero".

  • Provided by: [K].Flora de Nicaragua
    • Source: [
    • 21
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    Shrub or tree, usually 2-5 m high; twigs (in most varieties) glaucous. Leaves thin, glabrous; petioles 1-2 dm long or more, the gland at apex of petiole on dorsal side of blade, single or sometimes paired, patelliform, dark, subsessile, ca 2-3 mm across; stipules ca 1-1.5 cm long, caducous, leaving a prominent annular scar; blades mostly 7-9-lobed, ca 1 dm across or more (up to 1 m), peltate, the lobes lanceolate, acuminate, pinnately veined, the margins serrate with ? glandular teeth. Panicles terminal, bisexual, the 3-10 lowermost nodes with clusters of several male flowers, the distal nodes female (a few intermediate nodes often hymaphroditic bracts papery, associated with dark patelliform glands. Staminate flowers with articulate pedicels ca 5-15 mm long; calyx-lobes lanceolate, acute, ca 4-9 mm long; androe- cium ca 5-7 mm wide, the anthers 0.3-0.4 mm long. Pistillate flowers with pedi- cels becoming mostly 1.5-3 cm long in fruit; calyx-lobes mostly 5, lanceolate, acute, ca 3-4 mm long, persistent or deciduous; ovary coarsely muricate, the styles bifid or bipartite, reddish, densely papillose, ca 3-4 mm long. Capsules ordinarily echinate, 12-21 mm in diam, the columella wing-dilated distally, ca 1 cm long or more; seeds ellipsoidal, somewhat flattened, diversely mottled, 9-22 mm long, 4.5-9 mm broad.

  • Provided by: [M].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 22
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    Arbusto o arbolito, 1–3 m, monoico, glabro, la savia incolora; estípulas 0.9–2.2 cm, ovado- lanceoladas, deciduas. Hojas alternas, el pecíolo con glándulas; lámina simple, peltada, 12–50+ X 10–48 cm, palmadamente lobulada (los lóbulos ovado- elípticos), de otra forma glandular-aserrada. Infls. terminales o axilares, bisexuales, racemosas, 6–40 cm, las fls. dispuestas alternadamente en el eje central, usualmente con las estaminadas proximales y las pistiladas distales. Fls. estaminadas sin disco; sépalos 3–5, valvados; pétalos ausentes; estambres >50, los filamentos connatos en una estructura distalmente ramificada; pistiloide ausente. Fls. pistiladas sin disco; sépalos 3–5, valvados; pétalos ausentes; ovario muricado, trilocular; óvulos 1 por lóculo; estilos connatos abajo, bífidos. Frs. capsulares, 1.4–2.5 cm, equinados; semillas con manchas blancas y café, lisas y lustrosas, carunculadas.

  • Provided by: [I].Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica
    • Source: [
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    "Tall, stout, glabrous annual (perennial and arborescent in warmer climates) with large (1–4 dm wide), peltate, subrotund, palmately 6–11-lobed lvs and large racemes of fls; seeds 1 cm, violently poisonous; 2n=20. Rarely adventive in waste places with us."

  • Provided by: [L].New York Botanical Garden
    • Source: [
    • 24
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    Morphology

    Young shoots often pruinose and purplish tinged.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 17
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    Stems up to 12 cm. in diameter at the base, hollow, herbaceous but often becoming woody, pale bluish-green or reddish tinged.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 17
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    An erect, single-stemmed but often much-branched bushy or tree-like glabrous, ± glaucous annual or perennial herb commonly up to 5 m., but occasionally attaining 10 m.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 17
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    Petioles (4–)10–30 cm. long, usually smooth, rarely sparingly beset with small cylindrical papillae; petiolar glands discoid to turbinate, dark green; blades up to 1 m. across, (5–)7–9(–12)-lobed, usually more than halfway but occasionally less, the median lobe usually 7–30 cm. long and 2–8 cm wide, but occasionally up to 75 cm. long and 20 cm. wide, the lateral lobes being proportionately progressively smaller; lobes ovate-lanceolate, lanceolate, oblong or linear-oblong, acutely acuminate, coarsely and sometimes somewhat irregularly glandular-serrate, firmly membranaceous to thinly chartaceous, lateral nerves (15–)20–25 on the median lobe, progressively fewer on the lateral lobes, not prominent above, slightly so beneath, craspedodromous, dark olive-green above, paler beneath, midribs and nerves often reddish beneath.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 17
    • ]. 

    Female flowers: pedicels 0.5–1 cm. long, extending to 2–4.5 cm. in fruit; sepals narrowly lanceolate, ± 5 mm. long, acutely acuminate, often reddish or purplish tinged; ovary trilobate-subglobose, 2 mm. long and wide; styles 2–5 mm. long, ± one-third bifid to almost completely bipartite, usually red, rarely yellowish.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 17
    • ]. 

    Male flowers: pedicels 0.5–1.7 cm. long; calyx-lobes ovate, 5–8 mm. long, (2–)3–5 mm. wide, acute, pale green, often tinged reddish or purplish; stamens 7–8 mm. long, anthers 0.5 mm. long, pale yellow.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 17
    • ]. 

    Seeds 7–12 mm. long, 5–8 mm. wide, 4–6 mm. deep, smooth, shiny, greyish, silvery or beige, usually variously streaked, mottled and flecked with olive-brown, chestnut or dark greyish brown; caruncle depressed-conic, 1–2 mm. long, 2–3 mm. across.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 17
    • ]. 

    Fruit strongly trilobate, 1–1.8 cm. long, 1–1.5 cm. diameter, sparingly, evenly or densely beset with narrowly cylindric fleshy processes 3–5 mm. long, each tipped with a sharp curved bristle, bluish green, often tinged reddish or purplish.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 17
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    Inflorescence 10–30 cm. long; bracts lanceolate, ± 1 cm. long, green, reddish tinged; bracteoles smaller than the bracts, but otherwise similar.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 17
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    Stipular sheath ovate, 1.3–2.7 cm. long, often reddish or purplish, soon cadu-cous, leaving a ± circular scar.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 17
    • ]. 

    Petioles 4–30 cm long, or longer; glands discoid or turbinate.

  • Provided by: [H].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 18
    • ]. 

    Leaf blades (5)7–11-lobed, 7–35(100) cm long and wide, with the median lobe 2–8(20) cm wide, and the lateral lobes progressively smaller; lobes ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate, acuminate, coarsely glandular-serrate, dark green on upper surface, paler beneath, the nerves yellowish; lateral nerves in 15–25 pairs on the median lobe.

  • Provided by: [H].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 18
    • ]. 

    Stipular sheath up to 2.7 cm long, ovate, reddish or purplish.

  • Provided by: [H].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 18
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    Inflorescences 10–30 cm long; bracts c. 1 cm long, lanceolate; bracteoles similar, but smaller.

  • Provided by: [H].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 18
    • ]. 

    An erect glabrous pruinose single-stemmed or bushy, tree-like herb up to 7 m high.

  • Provided by: [H].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 18
    • ]. 

    Stems up to 10 cm thick at base, hollow, becoming ± woody, grey.

  • Provided by: [H].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 18
    • ]. 

    Young shoots often reddish-tinged.

  • Provided by: [H].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 18
    • ]. 

    Seeds 7–21 × 5–15 × 4–8 mm, smooth, usually shiny, grey, silvery-white or beige, usually variously streaked, mottled, flecked or blotched with olive-brown, reddish-brown or brownish-black; caruncle 1–2 × 2–3 mm, depressed-conic.

  • Provided by: [H].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 18
    • ]. 

    Female flowers: pedicels 0.5–1 cm long, extending to 4.5 cm in fruit; sepals c. 5 mm long, lanceolate, acuminate, often purplish-tinged; ovary 2 mm long and wide, 3-lobed to subglobose; styles up to 7 mm long.

  • Provided by: [H].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 18
    • ]. 

    Fruit 1–2.3 cm long and wide, strongly 3-lobed, smooth, or sparingly to densely beset with narrowly-cylindric bristle-tipped processes 3–6 mm long, bluish-green.

  • Provided by: [H].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 18
    • ]. 

    Male flowers: pedicels up to 1.7 cm long; calyx lobes 5–8 × 2–5 mm, ovate, acute, pale green, often purplish-tinged; stamens 7–8 mm long, anthers 0.5 mm long, pale yellow.

  • Provided by: [H].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 18
    • ]. 

    Monoecious, spineless, glabrous shrub to tree, up to 5 m tall. Leaves peltate, palmately lobed, up to 300 mm or more in diam. Flowers in a lax, subterminal raceme, without petals; males with many stamens, filaments united at base in repeatedly branching clusters; females with a spathe-like, soon deciduous calyx. Capsule 12-18 mm diam., covered with soft spines.

  • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 25
    • ]. 

    Herbaceous, much-branched shrub or small tree, up to 4 m high. Leaves palmately 7-13-lobed, lobes serrate. Fruit subglobose, ellipsoid or oblong, 10-15 mm long, usually echinate. Flowers yellow.

  • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 26
    • ]. 

    Habitat

    Riverbeds and disturbed land.

  • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 25
    • ]. 

    Woodland, bushveld, disturbed areas, streambanks.

  • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 26
    • ]. 

    Distribution

    Native probably of Africa; cultivated in Panama (as elsewhere in the tropics) and tending to escape in highly disturbed areas.

  • Provided by: [M].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 22
    • ]. 

    Widespread in southern Africa and the tropics.

  • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 25
    • ]. 

    Native to Africa and India.

  • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 26
    • ]. 

    Distribution Map

     
    • Introduced distribution
    Introduced into
    • Southern America Brazil Acre
    • Amapí
    • Amazonas
    • Parí
    • Rondônia
    • Roraima
    • Tocantins
    • Alagoas
    • Bahia
    • Ceará
    • Maranh
    • Paraába
    • Pernambuco
    • Piauá
    • Rio Grande do Norte
    • Sergipe
    • Paraní
    • Rio Grande do Sul
    • Santa Catarina
    • Espirito Santo
    • Minas Gerais
    • Rio de Janeiro
    • São Paulo
    • Brazilia Distrito Federal
    • Goiás
    • Mato Grosso
    • Mato Grosso do Sul

    Synonyms

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    carrapateiraPortuguese
    mamonaPortuguese

      Bibliography

     Information From

    e-Flora of South Africa
    e-Flora of South Africa. v1.21. 2018. South African National Biodiversity Institute. http://ipt.sanbi.org.za/iptsanbi/resource?r=flora_descriptions&v=1.21
    • A All Rights Reserved
    Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020
    http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br
    Brazil Flora G (2014): Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020. v393.147. Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botanico do Rio de Janeiro. Dataset/Checklist. doi:10.15468/1mtkaw
    • B Group Brazil Flora, REFLORA Program
    Euphorbiaceae
    • C CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    MBG Floras Images
    http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
    Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
    • D Missouri Botanical Garden
    • E Missouri Botanical Garden
    • F Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • G
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • H
    Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Costa%20Rica
    Hammel, B. E.; Grayum, M. H.; Herrera, C.; Zamora, N. Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2003-2014
    • I Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • J Flora of North America Association
    Flora de Nicaragua
    http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
    WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
    • K Missouri Botanical Garden
    New York Botanical Garden
    Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
    • L Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
    Flora de Panama
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
    Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
    • M Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • N Missouri Botanical Garden
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • O CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    Global Tree Search
    https://tools.bgci.org/global_tree_search.php
    BGCI. 2018. GlobalTreeSearch online database. Botanic Gardens Conservation International. Richmond, U.K. Available at www.bgci.org. Accessed on 30/11/2018.
    • P Botanic Gardens Conservation International