Trees to 30 m, rarely shrubs, monoecious, rarely dioecious; branchlets densely or loosely arranged, mostly straight, terete or slightly 4-angled, 1-2 mm in diam. Leaves both scalelike and needlelike; needlelike leaves usually present on seedlings and young plants, in whorls of 3, 4-8 mm; scalelike leaves decussate, sometimes in whorls of 3, ovate-rhombic, obtuse, 1-3 mm, abaxial gland central, conspicuous, slightly depressed, linear-elliptic or linear. Pollen cones subglobose, ca. 2 mm in diam.; microsporophylls 6-8, each with 2 or 3 pollen sacs. Seed cones erect, brown, black, or purplish black when ripe, ovoid or subglobose, 0.9-1.6 × 0.7-1.3 cm, 1-seeded. Seeds ovoid, rarely obovoid or globose, 7-11 × 6-8 mm, with deep resin pits.