Lepidium virginicum L.
  • Sp. Pl.
  • Wild Pepper Grass


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2021): Lepidium virginicum L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000360833. Accessed on: 18 Jun 2021'

General Information

6. Lepidium virginicum L., Sp. Pl. 645 (1753). Lectotipo (designado por Marais, 1970): “Habitat in Virginia, Jamaicae glareosis”, Herb. Linn. 824.18 (LINN!). Ilustr.: Rich, Bot. Soc. Brit. Isles Handb. 6: 102 (1991).

Por I.A. Al-Shehbaz y S. Fuentes-Soriano.

Hierbas anuales o bianuales. Tallos (6-)15-55(-70) cm, puberulentos con tricomas curvados, subadpresos. Hojas basales (1-)2.5-10(-15) × 0.5-3(-5) cm, obovadas, espatuladas u oblanceoladas, los márgenes pinnatífidos o lirados, los lobos oblongos, serrados o dentados, el ápice agudo; pecíolos 0.5-3.5 cm; hojas caulinares 1-6 cm × (2-)5-10 mm, oblanceoladas o lineares, brevemente pecioladas, la base no auriculada, los márgenes serrados o enteros, el ápice agudo. Racimos en fruto laxos o rara vez densamente congestos; raquis de la inflorescencia puberulento con tricomas curvados, subadpresos. Pedicelos en fruto 2.5-4(-6) mm, teretes o ligeramente aplanados, algunas veces igual de anchos que gruesos o más anchos que gruesos, glabros abaxialmente. Sépalos (0.5-)0.7-1(-1.1) mm, oblongos, caducos; pétalos 1-1.5(-2) × 0.2-0.6 mm, espatulados, blancos, la base atenuada, el ápice redondeado, rara vez rudimentario. Frutos 2.5-3.5(-4) mm de diámetro, orbiculares, angostamente alados apicalmente, el ápice emarginado; valvas lisas, glabras o muy rara vez ligeramente pubescentes; escotadura apical 0.2-0.5 mm de profundidad; estilo 0.1-0.2 mm, incluido en la escotadura; semillas 1.3-1.7(-1.9) × 0.7-1 mm, ovadas, pardas; cotiledones acumbentes. n = 16. Floración feb., mar., sep.-nov. Campos cultivados, orillas de caminos, sitios alterados, áreas con pastos. Ch (Ton y Martínez de López 9906, GH); Y (Cabrera y Cabrera 8917, MO); C (Bacab 138, MO); G (Castillo 1570, MO); H (Nelson y Vargas 2594, MO); ES (Sandoval y Sandoval 1333, LAGU); CR (Hammel 19537, INB); N (Stevens y Grijalva 15536, MO); P (Oliver 361, US). 1100-4200 m. (Nativa de Norteamérica; naturalizada en todo el mundo.)

Los registros en Thellung (1906), Standley y Calderón (1925), Hitchcock (1945), Standley y Steyermark (1946), y Rollins (1993) de Lepidium virginicum en Mesoamérica se basaron en plantas incorrecta

  • Provided by: [I].Flora Mesoamericana
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Herbs annual or biennial, (6-)15-55(-70) cm tall, pubescent with curved, usually subappressed trichomes. Stems erect, branched above. Basal leaves with petioles 0.5-3.5 cm; leaf blade obovate, spatulate, or oblanceolate, (1-)2.5-10(-15) × 0.5-3(-5) cm, margin pinnatifid or lyrate; lobes oblong, serrate or dentate, apex acute. Cauline leaves shortly petiolate; leaf blade oblanceolate or linear, 1-6 cm × (2-)5-10 mm, base attenuate to subcuneate, margin serrate or entire, apex acute. Infructescence lax or rarely dense; puberulent with curved, subappressed trichomes. Fruiting pedicels slender, straight, spreading, 2.5-4(-6) mm, usually glabrous abaxially. Sepals oblong, (0.5-)0.7-1(-1.1) × 0.5-0.7 mm, margin and apex white, pilose outside. Petals white, spatulate, 1-1.5(-2) × 0.2-0.6 mm, base attenuate, apex rounded, rarely rudimentary. Stamens 2; filaments 0.6-0.8 mm; anthers 0.1-0.2 mm. Fruit orbicular, 2.5-3.5(-4) mm in diam., narrowly winged apically, apex emarginate; apical notch 0.2-0.5 mm; style 0.1-0.2 mm, included in apical notch. Seeds reddish brown, ovate-oblong, usually narrowly winged at least distally, 1.3-1.7(-1.9) × 0.7-1 mm; cotyledons accumbent. Fl. Apr-Jun, fr. May-Sep. 2n = 32*.

  • Provided by: [L].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Annuals; puberulent, (trichomes cylindrical). Stems simple from base, erect, branched distally, (0.6-)1.5-5.5(-7) dm. Basal leaves (withered by anthesis); not rosulate; petiole 0.5-3.5 cm; blade obovate, spatulate, or oblanceolate, (1-)2.5-10(-15) cm × 5-30(-50) mm, margins pinnatifid to lyrate or dentate. Cauline leaves shortly petiolate; blade oblanceolate or linear, 1-6 cm × (1-)3-10 mm, base attenuate to subcuneate, not auriculate, margins serrate or entire. Racemes considerably elongated in fruit; rachis usually puberulent, rarely glabrous, trichomes curved, cylindrical. Fruiting pedicels divaricate-ascending to nearly horizontal, straight or slightly recurved, (slender, terete or flattened), 2.5-4(-6) × 0.15-0.4 mm, puberulent adaxially or, rarely, throughout or glabrous. Flowers: sepals oblong to ovate, (0.5-)0.7-1(-1.1) × 0.4-0.7 mm; petals (rarely rudimentary), white, spatulate to oblanceolate, 1-2 (-2.5) × 0.3-0.8(-1) mm, claw undifferentiated or to 0.8 mm; stamens 2, median; filaments 0.6-1.2 mm; anthers 0.1-0.2 mm. Fruits orbicular or nearly so, 2.5-3.5(-4) mm diam. (widest at middle), apically winged, apical notch 0.2-0.5 mm deep; valves thin, smooth, not veined, glabrous; style 0.1-0.2 mm, included in apical notch. Seeds ovate, 1.3-1.9(-2.1) × 0.7-1(-1.2) mm; (cotyledons accumbent or incumbent).

  • Provided by: [H].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Annual; stems freely branched, 1.5-6 dm. high, sparsely pubescent above with minute trichomes; lower leaves irregularly toothed to pinnately divided; upper leaves oblanceolate, acute, irregularly toothed or serrate to almost entire, cuneate at base, becoming smaller upward; racemes numerous and many-flowered; sepals glabrous to sparsely pubescent, ca. 1 mm. long; petals white, slightly exceeding the sepals; stamens usually 2; fruiting pedicels terete, divaricately ascending to spreading at right angles, glabrous or nearly so, somewhat longer than the fruits; siliques glabrous, orbicular to slightly longer than broad, 2.5-3.5 mm. long, shallowly notched at apex; style included in the shallow notch; seeds wingless; cotyledons accumbent.

  • Provided by: [G].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    "Erect annual or biennial 1–5 dm; basal lvs oblanceolate, sharply toothed to pinnatifid or even bipinnatifid; upper lvs smaller, oblanceolate to linear, dentate to entire, acute, narrowed to the base; racemes numerous, to 1 dm; pet equaling to twice as long as the sep; stamens 2; fr broadly elliptic to orbicular, widest at or below the middle, 2.5–4 × 2–3.5 mm, narrowly winged across the tip; style included in the notch; 2n=32. Dry or moist soil, fields, gardens, roadsides, and waste places; Nf. to Fla., w. to the Pacific states. Our plants, with accumbent cotyledons, are var. virginicum."

  • Provided by: [M].New York Botanical Garden
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Annual, 30-50 cm tall, often unbranched above, erect, minutely hairy on the stem or + downy with long downwardly curved, appressed simple hairs on raised bases. Basal leaves lyrate or pinnately lobed with large rounded terminal lobe and numerous much smaller lateral lobes, up to 8 cm long, rough with short bristles; middle and cauline leaves simple, sharply toothed and ciliate; uppermost linear, c. 15 mm long, 2 mm broad. Flowers similar to the previous species but petals always present and longer than sepals. Siliculae 3-(-4) mm long, 2.5-3(-3.5) mm broad, almost orbicular with a broad but shallow notch towards the aepx including almost sessile stigma within it.

  • Provided by: [J].Flora of Pakistan
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Morphology

    15–60 cm hoch, oben meist verzweigt. Stängel und Äste mit kurzen, in alle Richtungen gekrümmten Haaren. Untere Blätter verkehrt-eiförmig bis lanzettlich, gestielt, gezähnt oder fiederteilig, obere lineal-lanzettlich, gezähnt. Kronblätter weiss,

  • Provided by: [K].Flora Helvetica – Illustrierte Flora der Schweiz
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Annual or biennial herb up to 0.75 m high. Basal leaves lyrate-pinnatifid, usually dying off before flowering; upper leaves oblanceolate or narrowly obovate, serrate. Siliculae emarginate, with small apical wings. Flowers whit.

  • Provided by: [F].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Annual or biennial herbs up to 75 cm high. Stems minutely puberulous. Basal leaves rosulate, lyrate-pinnatipartite, frequently dying off before flowering. Lower stem leaves petiolate, oblanceolate or narrowly obovate, the blade sharply serrate and with some small lobes in the lower half. Upper stem leaves oblanceolate, entire or with a few small lobes; all leaves puberulous. Racemes terminal, later apparently leaf-opposed. Pedicels slender, straight, wide-spreading, 4-5.5 mm long in fruit. Sepals 1 mm long, oblong, green, margin membranous. Petals 1.2-1.5 mm long, spathulate to narrowly obovate, clawed, white. Stamens 2; filaments subulate. Nectaries small, triangular-rounded. Siliculae 3-3.5 x 2.8-3.5 mm, subcircular or broadly obovate, emarginate with small apical wings; style very short, included in the sinus. Seeds c.1-25 x 0-75 mm, ovoid, narrowly winged along the outer margin.

  • Provided by: [F].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 12
    • ]. 

    Habit

    Lepidium virginicum grows as an annual perennial herb to 40 cm in height when in flower/fruit. The leaves are in a basal rosette to 12 centimeters in length and 3 centimeters wide. Leaves along stem much shorter than the basal rosette leaves and becoming linear and entire. Basal rosette leaves are pinnatifid, oblong to lanceolate with a toothed margin and an acute leaf apex.The complete, perfect, actinomorphic flowers are in terminal and axillary racemes up to 30 centimeters in length. The calyx has 4 unfused, green with white margins sepals. The corolla has 4 unfused, white petals. There are 2 stamens (sometimes 4 or 6). The superior ovary with 2 locules separated by a narrow replum. The fruit is a flat, oval, 2 seeded silicle.

  • Provided by: [D].Leon Levy Native Plant Preserve
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    Ecology

    5–9. Wegränder, Bahnareale, Schuttplätze, kollin-montan. CH.

  • Provided by: [K].Flora Helvetica – Illustrierte Flora der Schweiz
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Habitat

    Disturbed places.

  • Provided by: [F].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Lepidium virginicum grows in Human Altered environments (fields, yards, disturbed areas).

  • Provided by: [D].Leon Levy Native Plant Preserve
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    Distribution

    Native to the United States of America.

  • Provided by: [F].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Lepidium virginicum occurs throughout the Lucayan Archipelago and the western hemisphere. It is naturalized in Europe.

  • Provided by: [D].Leon Levy Native Plant Preserve
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    A native of the United States of America.

  • Provided by: [F].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 12
    • ]. 

    Uses

    Lepidium virginicum has been used medicinally for gastrointestinal issues and the fruits and leaves are edible.

  • Provided by: [D].Leon Levy Native Plant Preserve
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    Distribution Map

     
    • Introduced distribution
    Introduced into
    • Southern America Brazil Bahia
    • Pernambuco
    • Paraní
    • Rio Grande do Sul
    • Santa Catarina
    • Espirito Santo
    • Minas Gerais
    • Rio de Janeiro
    • São Paulo
    • Brazilia Distrito Federal
    • Mato Grosso
    • Mato Grosso do Sul

    Nationally Preferred Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Wild Pepper GrassEnglishBS

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Virginische KresseGermanCH
    Passerage de VirginieFrenchCH
    Lepidio della VirginiaItalianCH

      Bibliography

     Information From

    Brassicaceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • A CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    MBG Floras Images
    http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
    Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    Leon Levy Native Plant Preserve
    http://www.levypreserve.org
    Leon Levy Native Plant Preserve. 2020. Flora by Common Name and by Scientific Name. Bahamas National Trust. Available at www.levypreserve.org Accessed on (2020/07/09).
    • C Ethan Freid All rights Preserved
    • D Leon Levy Native Plant Preserve. All rights Preserved
    Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020
    http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br
    Brazil Flora G (2014): Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020. v393.147. Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botanico do Rio de Janeiro. Dataset/Checklist. doi:10.15468/1mtkaw
    • E Group Brazil Flora, REFLORA Program
    e-Flora of South Africa
    e-Flora of South Africa. v1.21. 2018. South African National Biodiversity Institute. http://ipt.sanbi.org.za/iptsanbi/resource?r=flora_descriptions&v=1.21
    • F All Rights Reserved
    Flora de Panama
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
    Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
    • G Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • H Flora of North America Association
    Flora Mesoamericana
    http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/fm/
    Gerrit Davidse, Mario Sousa Sánchez, A. O. Chater, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Instituto de Biología, Missouri Botanical Garden, Natural History Museum (London, England) UNAM, 1994
    • I Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora of Pakistan
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Pakistan
    Flora of Pakistan. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2020.
    • J Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora Helvetica – Illustrierte Flora der Schweiz
    http://www.flora-helvetica.ch
    Flora Helvetica – Illustrierte Flora der Schweiz, Konrad Lauber, Gerhart Wagner, Andreas Gygax. Haupt Verlag 2018.
    • K All Rights Reserved
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • L Missouri Botanical Garden
    New York Botanical Garden
    Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
    • M Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • N CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).