Trees, evergreen, ca. 10 m tall. Branches grayish brown, terete, rugose, ferruginous pilosulose when young. Leaves with petiole 15-45 cm, axis slightly strong, rugose when dry; leaflets (1 or)2 or 3(or 4) pairs; petiolules ca. 5 mm; blades elliptic or obovate, 6-18 × 4-7.5 cm, thinly leathery, glabrous, lateral veins 7-9 pairs, brownish red when dry, only prominent abaxially, net veins slightly honeycombed, visible on both surfaces when dry, base cuneate, margin entire, apex obtuse or slightly rounded, sometimes nearly acute. Inflorescences many branched, nearly as long as or longer than leaves, ferruginous tomentose. Pedicels short. Calyx ca. 2 mm, leathery; sepals ovate, tomentose. Petals absent. Stamens ca. 3 mm. Fruit reddish yellow, broadly ellipsoid, including spines ca. 5 × 4.5 cm, spines ca. 1 cm. Fl. early summer, fr. early autumn.
(Shrubs to) trees up to 44 m high; bark dark to red-brown to greyish, also whitish, greenish or blackish, smooth or with small lenticels (to a bit scaly); young branches subglabrous. Leaves 1–5(–8)-jugate; young rachises subglabrous at most. Leaflets ± elliptic, 5–22 by 2–10.5 cm, papyraceous; base acute to attenuate to rounded; apex slightly emarginate to rounded (to acuminate); domatia usually present; (sub)glabrous above, variably short-pilose underneath. Inflorescences axillary, together pseudo terminal (to terminal). Flowers white to yellowish or greenish, small, odourless or fragrant. Sepals slightly to up to halfway connate, lobes deltoid, 1–2.1 mm high. Petals 0(–4), up to 1.6 mm long, including the 1.1 mm long claw, (sub)glabrous outside, woolly inside. Stamens (4) 5–8 (9); filaments white, anthers yellow to red. Ovary 2(–4) locular. Fruits red or yellowish green with red, acute spines, up to 2 cm long; lobes ellipsoid to subglobular, up to 6 by 3.5 cm; wall coriaceous, up to 2.5 mm thick.
In different types of evergreen primary and secondary forest, on flat land as well as on slopes, along ridges, rivers, roads, ravines; on a variety of soils, but preferably on fertile clay. Altitude: sea level up to 600(–1300) m. Flowering: August to July; fruiting: May to December (often 2 seasons). The fruits are eaten by flying foxes and fruitbats.
Yunnan, Hainan, Indo-China, Thailand, Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Java (type), Borneo, Philippines, and Sulawesi.
Commonly cultivated as a fruit tree, also outside its distribution range, often with 2 seasons per year, but rich crops are usually followed by one or more bad crops. The most favoured races have loose sarcotestas which are sweet and juicy. Unfortunately, the fruit is difficult to transport and when canned loses much of its flavour. See van Welzen & Verheij in Verheij & Coronel (eds.), Pl. Res. S.E. Asia (PROSEA Handb.) 2, Edible fruits and nuts: 233-235. 1991.
|mai ngo pa (ไม้เงาะป่า)(Peninsular)||Thai||THA|
|phom ngo (ผมเงาะ)(Peninsular)||Thai||THA|
|ngo pa (เงาะป่า)(Southeastern, Peninsular)||Thai||THA|
|ngo (เงาะ)(Southeastern, Peninsular)||Thai||THA|