Oenothera biennis L.
  • Sp. Pl.
  • Common evening-primrose


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2021): Oenothera biennis L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000389564. Accessed on: 02 Dec 2021'

General Information

Herbs erect, biennial, with basal rosette. Stems 30-200 cm tall, simple or sparsely branched, densely to very sparsely strigillose and with longer spreading and usually pustulate-based hairs, inflorescence often also glandular puberulous. Leaves green or pale green, with inconspicuous veins, sessile or shortly petiolate; rosette blade 10-30 × 2-5 cm; cauline blade narrowly oblanceolate to elliptic, 5-22 × (1-)1.5-5(-6) cm, base acute to attenuate, margin dentate to subentire, often lobed near base, apex acute. Inflorescence a dense mostly unbranched spike. Flowers open near sunset; floral tube (2-)2.5-4 cm. Sepals 1.2-2.2(-2.8) cm, with free tips 1.5-3 mm, erect. Petals yellow, fading to orange, 1.2-2.5(-3) cm. Anthers 3-6(-9) mm; pollen ca. 50% fertile. Ovary densely glandular puberulous and sparsely villous or with very sparse pustulate-based hairs, sometimes only densely strigillose; stigma surrounded by anthers. Capsules green, narrowly lanceoloid to lanceoloid, 2-4 cm, sessile. Seeds in two rows per locule, brown to nearly black, 1.1-2 mm, irregularly pitted. Fl. Jul-Oct, fr. Jul-Nov. 2n = 14, permanent translocation heterozygote; self-compatible, autogamous.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    "Biennial or short-lived perennial, 0.5–2 m; lvs lanceolate to oblong, mostly 1–2 dm, acute or acuminate, entire to repand-dentate, often crisped on the margin, sessile or short-petioled, glabrous to canescent, fls in stiff, terminal, simple or branched, ± leafy-bracteate spikes; hypanthium 2–5 cm; sep 1–3 cm, their appendages terminal, 1–5 mm, connivent for most of their length before anthesis; pet yellow, 1–2.5 cm; anthers 4–7 mm; fr 1.5–4 cm, stout, tapering upwards; seeds 1.2–1.8 mm, angular-prismatic; 2n=14, a complex heterozygote. Fields, roadsides, prairies, and waste places, throughout most of the U.S. and s. Can. July–Sept. More or less divisible into 3 vars.:"

  • Provided by: [B].New York Botanical Garden
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Morphology

    Weedy, sparsely pubescent biennial to 2 m tall; leaves lanceolate; rosette leaves sinuate-pinnatifidto denticulate, 8-30 cm long and 1-6 cm wide, their petioles long; cauline leaves denticulate, 5-16 cm long, 15-35 mm wide, subsessile; flowers opening near sunset; mature budserect; hypanthium 2-5 cm long; sepals 1-2 cm long; the free tips 1-4 mm long; petals yellow, 1-2 cm long; capsule thick, cylindric, 14-25 mm long; seeds in 2 rows in each locule, 1.2-1.8 mm long.

  • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Stängel, Kelch und Früchte meist ohne rote Flecke und Streifen. Kronblätter (1,5–)2–3 cm lang. Narben die Staubblätter nicht überragend.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora Helvetica – Illustrierte Flora der Schweiz
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Weedy biennial herb, 0.3-2.0 m high. Leaves strongly dentate, venation conspicuous. Capsule cylindrical. Calyx tube 25 mm long. Flowers not more than 40 mm in diameter; yellow, not fading red.

  • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Biennial herb, 0.3-2.0 m high. Stems erect; pubescent with short appressed hairs and longer curved or spreading hairs, some arising from red papillae. Leaves sessile or petioles very short; blade narrowly ovate, 80-170 x 20-50 mm, margins strongly dentate, venation prominent. Flowers: floral tube 25-40 mm long; calyx with tube 25 mm long, sepals 8-25 mm long; petals 7-25 mm long, yellow, not fading red; Jan.-Mar. Fruit cylindrical, 14-40 mm long.

  • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Ecology

    Ursprünglich nordamerikanisch.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora Helvetica – Illustrierte Flora der Schweiz
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Habitat

    Weedy places and woods, scattered.

  • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Disturbed and waste places.

  • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Mesic Grassland. Disturbed and waste places.

  • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Distribution

    North America: Alta. to Wisc, and Mich., s. to Tex. and La. and e. to Atl. Coast; the species as a whole ranges to Nfld., Que. and Ont.

  • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Native to North America.

  • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Native to North America.

  • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Distribution Map

     
    • Introduced distribution
    Introduced into
    • Europe Northern Europe Ireland

    Nationally Preferred Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Common evening-primroseEnglishIE
    Coinneal oícheIrishIE

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Gewöhnliche Zweijährige NachtkerzeGermanCH
    Onagre bisannuelleFrenchCH

      Bibliography

    • 1 "Oenothera biennis L. in Flora of China @ efloras.org" eFlora. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA., 2007. Web. Accessed February 2018.
    • 2 "Gleason, Henry A. & Cronquist, Arthur J. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. lxxv + 910 pp."
    • 3 Correll, DS; Johnston, MC. 1970. Manual of the vascular plants of Texas. Contr. Texas Res. Found., Bot. Stud. In: C.L. Lundell (ed.). 6: 1 - 1881. Texas Research Foundation, Renner.
    • 4 Flora Helvetica, Illustrierte Flora der Schweiz. K. Lauber, G. Wagner, A. Gygax, Haupt Verlag, 2018. ISBN-978-3-258-08047-5
    • 5 Herman, PPJ; Retief, E. 1997. Plants of thenorthern provinces of South Africa: keys and diagnostic characters. Strelitzia 6: 1 - 681. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • 6 Retief, E; Meyer, NL. 2017. Onagraceae. In: E Retief & NL Meyer (eds), Plants of the Free State: Inventory and identification guide. Strelitzia 38: 669 - 674. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.
    • 7 Sp. Pl.

     Information From

    e-Flora of South Africa
    e-Flora of South Africa. v1.21. 2018. South African National Biodiversity Institute. http://ipt.sanbi.org.za/iptsanbi/resource?r=flora_descriptions&v=1.21
    • A All Rights Reserved
    New York Botanical Garden
    Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
    • B Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
    Flora Helvetica – Illustrierte Flora der Schweiz
    http://www.flora-helvetica.ch
    Flora Helvetica – Illustrierte Flora der Schweiz, Konrad Lauber, Gerhart Wagner, Andreas Gygax. Haupt Verlag 2018.
    • C All Rights Reserved
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • D Missouri Botanical Garden
    Irish Vernacular Names
    https://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/plant-science/plant-science/research-staff/article/380/wyse-jackson-peter-s.aspx
    • E All Rights Reserved
    Onagraceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • F CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • G CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).