Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms
  • Monogr. Phan.
  • CHOREJA, LIRIODE AGUA.


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2021): Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000401771. Accessed on: 28 Sep 2021'

General Information

2. Eichhornia crassipes (C. Martius) Solms-Laub. in A. DC. et C. DC., Monogr. Phan. 4: 527 (1882).

Por A. Novelo R. y A. Lot H.

Pontederia crassipes C. Martius, Nov. Gen. Sp. Pl. 1: 9 (1824). Sintipo: Brasil, Martius s.n. (foto MEXU! ex M). N.v.: Jacinto, jacinto de agua, lirio acuático, T; lirio de agua, Y; water lily, B; balsa, ninfa, lechuguilla, G; balsa, lechuga, lechuga de concha, ES; lirio de agua, CR.

Eichhornia speciosa Kunth.

Plantas generalmente flotantes. Tallos rizomatosos, estoloníferos. Hojas emergentes, arrosetadas; vainas 3-8 cm, el ápice redondeado; pecíolos 3-60 cm, muy variables en tamaño dependiendo del hábitat, inflados y cortos o no inflados y alargados; láminas 2.5-16 x 3-12 cm, oblatas a elípticas, la base truncada a ligeramente cordata, el ápice truncado, redondeado a ligeramente obtuso. Inflorescencia espiciforme, con 4-12 flores; flores solitarias, alternas a lo largo del pedúnculo, sésiles; pedúnculo 6-26(-33) cm, grueso, glabro a ligeramente peloso; entrenudo entre las espatas casi nulo; espata inferior 2.5-6(-10) cm, envolvente, abierta el 1/2 superior, la lámina 1.2-4.5 x 0.9-3.5 cm, orbicular a oblata, la base cordata, el ápice obtuso, mucho más pequeña que la lámina de las estériles; espata superior 3-8(-13) cm, abierta el 1/3-1/2 superior, el ápice mucronato, el mucrón 0.2-1 cm. Flores c. 5 cm. Perianto lila, externamente piloso-glandular; lóbulos externos c. 3 cm, el margen entero; lóbulos internos c. 3 cm, el margen entero. Filamentos de los estambres largos 2.5-3.6 cm, de los cortos 1.7-2 cm, piloso-glandulares a todo lo largo o los cortos algunas veces glabros; anteras de los filamentos largos 1.6-2.2 mm, de los cortos 1.8-2.3 mm. Pistilo 2.4-3.6 cm; estilo piloso-glandular, heterostílico; estigma 3-lobado, los lobulos fimbriados. Cápsulas c. 1.5 cm; semillas c. 1.5 mm. Ríos, arroyos, canales, charcas temporales, lagos, lagunas, pantanos, presas. T (Gómez Pompa 1276, MEXU); Ch (Breedlove 28397, MO); Y (Lot y Novelo 785, MEXU); B (Gentle 1945, MO); G (Lundell 2665, BM); H (Yuncker et al. 8233, US); ES (Tucker 919, G); N (Dudley 56, BM); CR (Lot y Novelo 1250, CR); P (Kennedy et al. 2513, MEXU). 0-2200 m. (América tropical; ahora naturalizada en las regiones tropicales y subtropicales de todo el mundo.)

Es considerada mundialmente como una de las malezas acuáticas más agresivas, peligrosas y de difícil control.

  • Provided by: [F].Flora Mesoamericana
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Herbs floating, 0.3--2 m. Roots many, long, fibrous. Stems very short; stolons greenish or purplish, long, apically producing new plants. Leaves radical, rosulate; petiole yellowish green to greenish, 10--40 cm, spongy, usually very much swollen at or below middle; leaf blade orbicular, broadly ovate, or rhomboidal, 4.5--14.5 × 5--14 cm, leathery, glabrous, densely veined, base shallowly cordate, rounded, or broadly cuneate. Inflorescences bracteate, spirally 7--15-flowered; peduncle 35--45 cm. Perianth 6-parted, segments purplish blue, petaloid, ovate to elliptic, upper one larger with yellow blotch at center adaxially, others subequal but lower one narrower. Stamens 6, 3 long and 3 short; filaments curved, glandular hairy. Pistil heterostylic; stigma glandular hairy. Capsule ovoid. Fl. Jul--Oct, fr. Aug--Nov.

  • Provided by: [A].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
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    • 2
    • ]. 

    Plants perennial, typically free-floating. Vegetative stems condensed, except when branching. Flowering stems erect, bending over after flowering, to 25 cm, distal internode less than 4 cm. Sessile leaves in basal rosette. Petiolate leaves floating or emersed; stipule 2.5–14 cm, apex truncate; petiole at least slightly swollen, 3.5–33 cm; blade ovate to round, 2.5–11 × 3.5–9.5 cm. Spikes 4–15-flowered; spathes obovate, 4–11 cm; peduncle 5–12.5 cm, glabrous. Flowers opening individually within 2 hours after sunrise, wilting by night; perianth blue or mauve-blue, limb lobes obovate, 16–37 mm, margins entire, central distal lobe with dark blotch in center and yellow spot within blotch; proximal stamens 20–35 mm, distal 14–19 mm; anthers 1.7–2.1 mm; style 3-lobed. Seeds 11–14-winged, 1.1–2.1 × 0.6–0.9 mm. 2n = 32.

  • Provided by: [I].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms in A. DC. & C. DC., Monogr. Phan. 4: 527. 1883; Pontederia crassipes Mart.; Piaropus crassipes (Mart.) Raf.; E. speciosa Kunth.

    Perennes, flotando libremente; tallo vegetativo compacto excepto al ramificarse, tallo fértil hasta 25 cm de largo. Hojas sésiles en rosetas basales; hojas pecioladas con láminas redondeadas, 2.5–11 cm de largo y con el ápice obtuso, el pecíolo al menos ligeramente engrosado, 3.5–38 cm de largo; hojas de la inflorescencia reducidas, 1–3.5 cm de largo. Inflorescencia una espiga con 4–15 flores desarrollándose en 1–2 días; pedúnculo ligeramente pubescente; espata obovada, 4–11 cm de largo; perianto morado, el tubo 10–12 mm de largo, los lóbulos 16–37 mm de largo, el medio-superior morado obscuro y con una mácula amarilla en el centro; trístilas. Semillas ca 1.2 mm de largo.

    Abundante, flotando en aguas estancadas o en áreas inundadas, en todas las zonas del país; 0–1000 m; fl y fr durante todo el año; Haynes 8648, Seymour 2342; en las zonas tropicales y subtropicales del mundo. En la familia, ésta es la única especie verdaderamente flotante. "Reina de agua".

  • Provided by: [H].Flora de Nicaragua
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    • 5
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    Floating plants with short, condensed stems and many long, pendant, plumose roots inserted at the stem base; new plants arising through branching and often remaining attached to the parent plant for considerable lengths of time. Leaves with expanded orbicular blades up to 8 cm. broad, and stipulate petioles 2-30 cm. long, petioles excessively inflated in short-petioled leaves, scarcely inflated in very long-petioled leaves. Inflorescence 4-15 cm. long, lightly pubescent with gland- tipped hairs, 4- to 14-flowered. Spathe sub-ensheathing the showy spicate inflores- cence. Flowers lavender, 4-6 cm. long, upper petal with a darker purple-blue blotch bearing a yellow spot in the center; tube narrow, about 1.6 cm. long; sepals slightly narrower than the petals; stamens unequal, the 3 longer well ex- serted, the 3 shorter scarcely extending beyond the tube; filaments glandular- pubescent, adnate to the tube, those of the longer stamens about 2 cm. long, those of the shorter about 0.5 cm. long; anthers linear-oblong, 2-lobed, versatile, about 2.5 mm. long; style elongate with a mop-like capitate stigma. Ovary 3-carpellary, many-ovulate. Seeds 1.2 mm. long, 0.5-0.6 mm. wide.

  • Provided by: [E].Flora de Panama
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    Plantas no enraizadas, libre-flotantes, a veces varadas en latierra; tallo vegetativo muy corto. Hojas sumergidas ausentes, lashojas pecioladas en un rosetón, algo ascendentes a ampliamenteextendidas, el pecíolo normalmente corto, ampliamente hin-chado, casi bulboso, lleno de tejido aerenquimatoso (o cuandolas plantas crecen densamente agrupadas, entonces las hojas sonfuertemente ascendentes con el pecíolo más alargado y menoshinchado); lámina 2.5 – 16 cm, truncada a ligeramente cordada enla base. Infl. una espiga. Fls. vistosas, azules a azul claro, con unamancha amarilla en el lóbulo superior del perianto; lóbulos delperianto 16–37 mm, los márgenes enteros. Frs. ca. 1.5 cm.

  • Provided by: [M].Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica
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    • 7
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    "Plants normally floating, with long pendent roots and a cluster of radiating lvs; petioles usually greatly inflated; lf-blades orbicular to reniform, 4–12 cm wide; infl a contracted panicle 4–15 cm; perianth 5–7 cm wide, lilac or rarely white, the upper lobe bearing a violet blotch with a yellow center; 2n=32. Trop. Amer., n. (as an introduction) to Va. and Mo."

  • Provided by: [K].New York Botanical Garden
    • Source: [
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    30-50 cm high herb, with short stem and many long fibrous roots, floating or sometimes rooting. Leaves glabrous, 45-110 x 50-100 mm; broadly ovate to rhomboid, entire, obtuse, base cuneate or rounded. Petiole glabrous and spongy, 6-30 cm long, with a fusiform bulbous portion about the middle. Peduncle spongy. Inflorescence (3-)6-15 (-35) flowered. Flowers lilac, tinged blue, withering soon. Perianth c. 57 mm long, tube green, glandular; segments 34-40 mm long, obovate to ovate-oblong, posterior segment with a yellow spot. The longer 3 stamens c. 21 mm, filaments curved, glandular hairy;shorter filaments c. 6 mm long, glabrous; anthers purple-blue. Ovary ovoid, glabrous; style glandular; stigma 3-lobed, glandular.

  • Provided by: [L].Flora of Pakistan
    • Source: [
    • 10
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    Morphology

    Herbe flottant librement, parfois ± enracinée, atteignant 20-80 cm de haut ou davantage, se multipliant par des stolons axillaires qui forment de nouvelles plantes se séparant aisément de leur mère. Feuilles émergées, en rosette; pétiole atteignant 30(-60) cm de long, spongieux à l'intérieur, dilaté au milieu ou au-dessous de leur mi-longueur surtout dans les jeunes plantes; stipules de 2-17 cm de long; limbe losangique à ovale, largement cunéé à légèrement cordé à la base, obtus au sommet, de 5-25 cm de long et de large, glabre. Epis à 3-35 fleurs, longs de 4-15 cm; pédoncule sortant de la gaine d'une feuille supérieure réduite; rachis pubérulent. Fleurs à périgone lilacé à blanc, composé d'un tube de 15-18 mm de long, poilu, et de lobes elliptiques, les internes d'environ 3 cm de long, le supérieur portant une tache jaune cernée de violet; étamines à filet poilu.

  • Provided by: [G].Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    • Source: [
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    Perennial, aquatic herb, free-floating or rooted in mud, up to 0.8 m high. Leaves uniform, clustered, emergent, with a spade-shaped lamina and swollen petiole. Stamens 6, 3 short and 3 long. Ovary 3-locular. Capsule many-seeded. Flowers blue.

  • Provided by: [D].e-Flora of South Africa
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    • 11
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    Free-floating aquatic, mostly 10-30 cm, with feathery roots, forming dense mats. Leaves leathery, suborbicular with inflated petioles. Flowers in a cylindrical spike, pale blue to mauve with yellow and purple blotch on upper tepal.

  • Provided by: [D].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 12
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    Herb, free-floating or rooted in mud, 40-400(-800) mm tall. Roots many, long, densely feathery. Leaves 4-8, clustered on short rhizomes, erect, petiole and lamina very variable in size and shape: in young, free-floating plants petiole 50-100 mm long, swollen and fusiform in lower half, narrowly cylindrical above; blade spade-shaped or obtusely rounded, 40-90 mm wide, smooth, firm; in older large plants rooted in mud or under crowded conditions, petiole cylindrical, up to 500 mm long and lamina ovate, up to 100 mm long. Inflorescence a c. 8-flowered showy spike, raised above leaves. Perianth with short, curved tube, c. 20 mm long; limb sub-bilabiate, c. 50 mm in diam., delicate, fugaceous, pale mauve, central upper lobe broadest with large blue area and yellow spot in centre. Stamens dimorphous, lower 3 exserted, with glandular-hairy filaments curved upwards at apex; upper 3 short, reaching mouth of tube. Ovary ovoid, ovules numerous; style in southern African plants c. 25 mm long, shorter than long stamens, glandular-hairy; stigma globose, glandular-lamellate. Capsule 3-locular, splitting longitudinally, becoming mucilaginous and disintegrating in water when ripe; seed apomictic, rarely produced, terete, truncate, c. 12-ribbed, rarely germinating.

  • Provided by: [D].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 14
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    Perennial, aquatic herb, rooting in mud or free-floating; 100-200 mm high but up to 1 m when growing in dense mats. Roots many, long and feathery in floating plants. Leaves dimorphous; emergent ones with swollen, long petioles; blade obovate, orbicular, spathulate or narrowly ovate; submerged leaves alternate, blade linear with petiole sheathing stem, shortly stipulate. Flowers: in well-developed spikes, 8-10-flowered or these reduced to 1 or 2 flowers; stamens 3 + 3, upper included, lower exserted; perianth ± 50 mm in diameter, funnel-shaped with a somewhat curved tube, lobes 6, subequal, spreading, blue or mauve, upper segment with a prominent dark blue, yellow-centred patch; Nov.-Apr. Fruit a spindle-shaped capsule, covered with perianth withering, but not falling off. Seeds many, small, ovoid, finely ribbed.

  • Provided by: [D].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 15
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    Habitat

    Eaux douces stagnantes ou à courant lent; jusqu'à 1230 m d'altitude dans la dition (Lubumbashi), 1700 m en Afrique orientale. Forme souvent de vastes prairies flottantes.

  • Provided by: [G].Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Rivers and dams.

  • Provided by: [D].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    weed of freshwater bodies.

  • Provided by: [D].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 12
    • ]. 

    Now widespread in all tropical and subtropical countries.

  • Provided by: [D].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 14
    • ]. 

    Vredefort Dome Savanna; Kalahari Deciduous Acacia-wooded Grassland; Dry Grassland. Invades dams, slow flowing rivers. Declared weed, prohibited as ornamental plant.

  • Provided by: [D].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 15
    • ]. 

    Distribution

    United States to Paraguay and the Antilles. Naturalized throughout the tropics of the world.

  • Provided by: [E].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Originaire du Brésil. Naturalisé dans toute la zone tropicale, vers le Nord jusque dans le sud des U. S. A., vers le Sud jusqu'en Nouvelle-Zélande.

  • Provided by: [G].Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Native to South America.

  • Provided by: [D].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    South American weed of freshwater bodies throughout eastern S and tropical Africa.

  • Provided by: [D].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 12
    • ]. 

    The water hyacinth, a native of South America.

  • Provided by: [D].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 14
    • ]. 

    Native to tropical South America.

  • Provided by: [D].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 15
    • ]. 

    Distribution Map

     
    • Native distribution
    Found in
    • Southern America Brazil Acre
    • Amazonas
    • Parí
    • Rondônia
    • Roraima
    • Tocantins
    • Alagoas
    • Bahia
    • Ceará
    • Maranh
    • Paraába
    • Pernambuco
    • Piauá
    • Rio Grande do Norte
    • Sergipe
    • Paraní
    • Rio Grande do Sul
    • Santa Catarina
    • Espirito Santo
    • Minas Gerais
    • Rio de Janeiro
    • São Paulo
    • Brazilia Distrito Federal
    • Goiás
    • Mato Grosso
    • Mato Grosso do Sul

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    CHOREJA, LIRIODE AGUA.
    ÁguapéPortuguese
    BaronesaPortuguese

      Bibliography

     Information From

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    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • A Missouri Botanical Garden
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    e-Flora of South Africa. v1.21. 2018. South African National Biodiversity Institute. http://ipt.sanbi.org.za/iptsanbi/resource?r=flora_descriptions&v=1.21
    • D All Rights Reserved
    Flora de Panama
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
    Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
    • E Missouri Botanical Garden
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    Gerrit Davidse, Mario Sousa Sánchez, A. O. Chater, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Instituto de Biología, Missouri Botanical Garden, Natural History Museum (London, England) UNAM, 1994
    • F Missouri Botanical Garden
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    • G http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)
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    • H Missouri Botanical Garden
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    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • I Flora of North America Association
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    • J Group Brazil Flora, REFLORA Program
    New York Botanical Garden
    Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
    • K Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
    Flora of Pakistan
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Pakistan
    Flora of Pakistan. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2020.
    • L Missouri Botanical Garden
    Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Costa%20Rica
    Hammel, B. E.; Grayum, M. H.; Herrera, C.; Zamora, N. Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2003-2014
    • M Missouri Botanical Garden
    Pontederiaceae
    • N CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • O CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).