Raphanus raphanistrum L.
  • Sp. Pl.
  • Wild-radish, jointed charlock or radish or wild-radish


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Raphanus raphanistrum L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000402425. Accessed on: 29 May 2020'

General Information

Herbs annual, (20-)25-60(-75) cm tall, often hispid. Roots not fleshy. Stems erect or prostrate, usually retrorsely hispid. Basal leaves with petioles 1-6 cm; leaf blade oblong, obovate, or oblanceolate in outline, 3-15(-22) × 1-5 cm, lyrate or pinnatifid, sometimes undivided, margin dentate, apex obtuse or acute; lateral lobes 1-4 on each side of midvein, oblong or ovate, to 4 × 2 cm, smaller than terminal lobe. Uppermost cauline leaves subsessile, often undivided, dentate. Fruiting pedicels divaricate or ascending, straight, 0.7-2.5 cm. Sepals narrowly oblong, 7-11 × 1-2 mm, sparsely pubescent. Petals yellow or creamy white, with dark brown or purple veins, broadly obovate, 1.5-2.5 cm × 4-7 mm, apex obtuse or emarginate; claw to 1.5 cm. Filaments slender, 7-12 mm; anthers 2-2.5 mm, sagittate at base. Fruit cylindric or narrowly lanceolate; valvular segment seedless, 1-1.5 mm; seed-bearing distal segment (1.5-)2-11(-14) cm × (2.5-)3-8(-11) mm, woody or corky, rounded at base, conical at apex, strongly constricted between seeds, strongly ribbed; style 1-5 cm; stigma entire. Seeds oblong or ovoid, 2.5-3.5 × 1.8-2.5 mm. Fl. May-Sep, fr. Jun-Oct. 2n = 18.

  • Provided by: [F].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Annuals, roots not fleshy; sparsely to densely pubescent. Stems usually simple from base, (2-)3-8 dm, (retrorsely hispid). Basal leaves: petiole 1-6 cm; blade oblong, obovate, or oblanceolate in outline, lyrate or pinnatifid, sometimes undivided, 3-15(-22) cm × 10-50 mm, margins dentate, apex obtuse or acute; lobes 1-4 each side, oblong or ovate, to 4 cm × 20 mm (smaller than terminal). Cauline leaves (distal) subsessile; blade often undivided. Fruiting pedicels divaricate or ascending, 7-25 mm, (straight). Flowers: sepals 7-11 × 1-2 mm, sparsely pubescent; petals yellow or creamy white (veins dark brown or purple), 15-25 × 4-7 mm, claw to 15 mm; filaments (slender), 7-12 mm; anthers 2-2.5 mm. Fruits cylindrical or narrowly lanceolate; valvular segment 1-1.5 mm; terminal segment (1.5-) 2-11(-14) cm × (2.5-)3-8(-11) mm, (base rounded), strongly constricted between seeds (usually breaking), strongly ribbed, beak narrowly conical; style 10-50 mm. Seeds (reddish brown or dark brown to black), oblong or ovoid, 2.5-3.5 × 1.8-2.5 mm. 2n = 18.

  • Provided by: [I].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    1. Raphanus raphanistrum L., Sp. Pl. 669 (1753). Lectotipo (designado por Jonsell y Jarvis, 2002): “Habitat inter segetes Europae”, Herb. Clifford 340, Raphanus 2 (BM!). Ilustr.: Jafri, Fl. W. Pakistan 55: 43, t. 10 (1973).

    Por I.A. Al-Shehbaz y S. Fuentes-Soriano.

    Hierbas anuales frecuentemente híspidas. Raíces no carnosas. Tallos (20-)25-60(-75) cm, erectos o postrados, por lo general retrorsamente híspidos. Hojas basales 3-15(-22) × 1-5 cm, oblongas, obovadas u oblanceoladas, liradas o pinnatífidas, algunas veces no divididas, los márgenes dentados, el ápice obtuso o agudo, los lobos laterales 1-4 en cada lado de la lámina, c. 4 × 2 cm, oblongos u ovados; pecíolos 1-6 cm; hojas caulinares más distales subsésiles, frecuentemente no divididas, dentadas. Pedicelos en fruto 7-25 mm. Sépalos 7-11 mm; pétalos 15-25 × 4-7 mm, anchamente obovados, amarillos o color crema, el ápice obtuso o emarginado, unguiculados, la uña hasta 15 mm. Frutos cilíndricos o angostamente lanceolados, el segmento basal sin semillas 1-1.5 mm, el segmento apical con semillas (15-)20-110(-140) × (2.5-)3-8(-11) mm, leñoso o suberoso, redondeado en la base, cónico en el ápice, marcadamente constreñido entre las semillas, marcadamente acostillado; estilo 10-50 mm; estigma entero; semillas 2.5-3.5 × 1.8-2.5 mm. n = 9. Cultivos, orillas de caminos, áreas alteradas. Y (Gaumer 1064, F); G (Molina R. y Molina 26285, F); H (Molina R. 22357, F); CR (Hammel y Brzyski 22332, MO). Por arriba de 0 m. (Nativa de Europa; maleza naturalizada en todo el mundo.)

  • Provided by: [H].Flora Mesoamericana
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Raphanus raphanistrum L., Sp. Pl. 669. 1753.

    Hierbas anuales o bianuales gruesas, con raíces axonomorfas, erectas y ramificadas, 3–8 dm de alto, en general escasamente híspidas. Hojas inferiores obovado-oblongas, pinnatífidas con 5–15 segmentos oblongos, progresivamente más grandes hacia el segmento terminal, hojas superiores reducidas y frecuentemente enteras o casi así. Pétalos 1–1.5 cm de largo, amarillentos tornándose blancos; estambres tetradínamos. Silicuas indehiscentes, cilíndricas o casi así cuando frescas, tornándose acostilladas al secarse, estrechadas entre las semillas en la porción fértil, la cual es 2–4 cm de largo y 4–8 mm de ancho, un rostro estéril de 1–3 cm de largo se encuentra sobre la parte fértil; semillas esféricas, cotiledones conduplicados.

    Maleza muy variable y ampliamente naturalizada. Otra especie, R. sativus L. ("Rábano"), frecuentemente escapa de cultivo y es una maleza temporal. Se distingue fácilmente de R. raphanistrum porque tiene flores rojizo-violetas y silicuas lisas y algo más gruesas. El género consta de una tercera especie de Líbano, Israel y Siria.

  • Provided by: [G].Flora de Nicaragua
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    "Coarse annual from a stout taproot, 3–8 dm, usually sparsely hispid; lower lvs obovate-oblong, 1–2 dm, pinnatifid into 5–15 oblong segments, the lower segments very small, the upper progressively larger; upper lvs reduced and often entire; pet yellow, turning white, 10–15 mm; mature pedicels ascending, 8–15 mm; fr nearly cylindric when fresh, when dry becoming prominently several-ribbed and constricted between the 4–10 seeds, the body 2–4 cm, the beak 1–3 cm, the lower member 1–2 mm, its upper margin indicated by a line or projecting rim extending half way to all around the fr; 2n=18. Native of Eurasia, established as a weed in fields and waste places and along roadsides throughout most of the U.S. and s. Can. June–Aug."

  • Provided by: [J].New York Botanical Garden
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Morphology

    Annual or biennial herb up to 0.8 m high. Petals 15-20 mm long, long clawed, blade obovate. Fruit 3-5 mm in diameter, breaking into 1-seeded portions, hard. Flowers yellow.

  • Provided by: [D].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Annual or biennial herbs 15-80 cm tall. Stems erect, usually branched, hispid in the lower part, usually less densely hairy above. Basal and lower stem leaves 10-15 cm long, petiolate, lyrate-pinnatipartite, 2-5-jugate, the lobes ovate, dentate; terminal lobe large, lobulate; petiole grooved, the groove and the upper surface of the midrib of the lobes hairy, the blades appressed-hairy and ciliate. Upper stem leaves ± oblong to lanceolate, cuneate, petiolate, sharply dentate, not lobed or ± incised at the base, subglabrous. Racemes terminal, congregated into a panicle, dense in flower, lax in fruit. Sepals 5-10 mm long, elliptic-lanceolate, glabrous or with a few coarse hairs at the apex. Petals 1.5-2 cm long, long clawed, the blade obovate, rounded or emarginate. Siliquae on ascending pedicels of variable length, 2-6 cm long, 3-5 mm in diameter; valvar portion reduced to a sterile stalk c. 1-1.5 mm long or obsolete; stylar portion seed-bearing, terete, ribbed, glabrous or finely hispid, deeply constricted between the seeds, hard, indehiscent, eventually breaking transversely into 1-seeded portions, with a prominent sterile, subulate beak. Seeds variable in size, 1.5-4 mm in diameter, avoid to subglobose, reticulate.

  • Provided by: [D].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Annual or biennial herb, up to 0.1 m high. Stems erect, hispid in lower part, less densely hairy above. Leaves petiolate; basal and lower stem leaves lyrate-pinnatipartite, 2-5-jugate, 100-150 mm long, lobes ovate, margins dentate, appressed-hairy and ciliate, petiole grooved; upper stem leaves ± oblong to narrowly ovate, base cuneate; petiole with margins sharply dentate. Flowers: in terminal racemes, congregated into a panicle; petals obovate, 15-20 mm long, apices rounded or emarginate; white, yellow, shades of purple; Oct.-May. Fruit with siliquae on ascending pedicels of variable length, 20-60 x 3-5 mm, breaking into 1-seeded portions, hard.

  • Provided by: [D].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Annual or biennial herb, 150-800 mm tall, with a stout taproot. Leaves lyrate, pinnatisect with large terminal lobe, 100-150 mm long, becoming smaller upwards. Flowers in a long raceme, white or yellow, mostly violet-veined. Fruit 30-90 x 3-6 mm, hard, longitudinally grooved, constricted between seeds, breaking crosswise into 1-seeded portions.

  • Provided by: [D].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Habitat

    Grassland, woodland, disturbed places.

  • Provided by: [D].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Dry Grassland; Mesic Grassland. Grassland, woodland, disturbed places.

  • Provided by: [D].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Distribution

    A very variable species, widespread over most of Europe where it is divided into 5 subspecies.

  • Provided by: [D].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Native to Europe.

  • Provided by: [D].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Throughout southern Africa.

  • Provided by: [D].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Distribution Map

     
    • Introduced distribution
    Introduced into
    • Southern America Brazil Paraní
    • Rio Grande do Sul
    • Santa Catarina
    • São Paulo
    • Mato Grosso do Sul

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Wild-radish, jointed charlock or radish or wild-radish

      Bibliography

     Information From

    Brassicaceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • A CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    MBG Floras Images
    http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
    Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    • C Missouri Botanical Garden
    e-Flora of South Africa
    e-Flora of South Africa. v1.21. 2018. South African National Biodiversity Institute. http://ipt.sanbi.org.za/iptsanbi/resource?r=flora_descriptions&v=1.21
    • D All Rights Reserved
    Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020
    http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br
    Brazil Flora G (2014): Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020. v393.147. Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botanico do Rio de Janeiro. Dataset/Checklist. doi:10.15468/1mtkaw
    • E Group Brazil Flora, REFLORA Program
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • F Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora de Nicaragua
    http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
    WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
    • G Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora Mesoamericana
    http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/fm/
    Gerrit Davidse, Mario Sousa Sánchez, A. O. Chater, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Instituto de Biología, Missouri Botanical Garden, Natural History Museum (London, England) UNAM, 1994
    • H Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • I Flora of North America Association
    New York Botanical Garden
    Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
    • J Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • K CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).