Terminalia catappa L.
  • Mant. Pl. : 128 (1767)
  • amendoeira-da-India, guarda-sol


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2023): Terminalia catappa L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000406800. Accessed on: 30 Jan 2023'

General Information

Trees to 20 m tall; trunk to 2 m d.b.h. Bark brownish black, longitudinally peeling. Branches spreading, forming tiers. Branchlets densely brownish yellow tomentose near apex, densely covered with conspicuous leaf scars. Leaves alternate, crowded into pseudowhorls at apices of branchlets; petiole 0.5-2 cm, stout, tomentose; leaf blade obovate to oblanceolate, narrowed in proximal half, 12-30 × 8-15 cm, both surfaces glabrous or abaxially sparsely softly hairy when young, base narrow, cordate or truncate, apex obtuse or mucronate; lateral veins in 10-12 pairs. Inflorescences axillary, simple, long, slender spikes, 15-20 cm, numerous flowered; axis shortly white tomentose. Flowers fragrant. Calyx tube distally cupular, 7-8 mm, abaxially white tomentose, densely so on ovary, sparsely so on cupular part, adaxially glabrous; lobes 5. Stamens 10, exserted, 2-3 mm. Fruit not stipitate, red or blackish green when ripe, ellipsoid, slightly to strongly compressed, strongly 2-ridged to narrowly 2-winged (wings to 3 mm wide), 3-5.5 × 2-3.5 cm, glabrous; pericarp woody, rigid. Fl. Mar-Jun, Oct, fr. May, Jul-Sep.

  • Provided by: [K].Flora of China @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    1. Terminalia catappa L., Syst. Nat. ed. 12, 2: 674 (1767). Lectotipo (designado por Byrnes, 1977): India?, Anon. (LINN-1221.1!). Ilustr.: Correll y Correll, Fl. Bahama Archipel. 1035, t. 439 (1982). N.v.: Almendra, indian almond.

    Por C.A. Stace.

    Árboles hasta 15(30) m. Hojas 8-30 × 5-15 cm, obovadas, atenuadas hasta una base cordata a subcordata, el ápice redondeado a cortamente acuminado, glabro o ligeramente peloso en el envés; pecíolo 5-25(40) mm, generalmente con 2 glándulas. Pedúnculo (2.5)3-5.5 cm, ligeramente peloso a subglabro; raquis (6)10-27 cm, peloso. Flores 3-5 mm (estaminadas) o 6-10 mm (bisexuales); parte inferior del hipanto serícea; parte superior del hipanto cupuliforme, esparcidamente pelosa; estilo glabro. Frutos (3)3.5-8 × (1.5)3-5 cm, suculentos, con 2 crestas longitudinales, laterales, marcadas, cortamente rostrados. Plantas cultivadas, frecuentemente naturalizadas en hábitats marginales, especialmente cerca de la costa. T (Novelo et al. 66, MEXU); Ch (Matuda 16534, F); Y (Emrick 155, F); C (Reko 3239, US); QR (Cabrera 601, MEXU); B (Balick 2214, LTR); G (Marshall et al. 442, NY); H (Yuncker et al. 8424, BM); ES (Johnson 157-68, MO); N (Moreno 25, HNMN); CR (Kernan 4, CR); P (Antonio 2298, MO). 0-1000 m. (Nativa de Asia tropical, desde Malasia al N. de Australia y Polinesia; plantada y naturalizada en todos los trópicos, incluyendo los Estados Unidos, México, Mesoamérica, Colombia, Venezuela, Guayanas, Ecuador, Perú, Bolivia, Brasil, Paraguay, Argentina, Trinidad, Antillas.)

    Terminalia latifolia Sw. es una planta enigmática más o menos restringida a Jamaica, en donde fue colectada por primera vez en 1784-86 por Swartz. Posiblemente diferente de T. catappa sólo en cuanto a la forma de la base foliar, pero la mayoría de las medidas de la inflorescencia, flores y frutos son menores que en T. catappa y el pecíolo es más largo y sin glándulas. Tomas 317 de Guatemala es muy similar a T. latifolia, aunque hay plantas muy similares esparcidas en las regiones tropicales de América. Aquí mantenemos el punto de vista tradicional en el que todas estas últimas se consideran T. catappa a la que Eichler, con ciertas dudas, in sched., también refiere a Tomas 317 ).

  • Provided by: [E].Flora Mesoamericana
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Terminalia catappa L., Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 2: 674. 1767.

    Arboles hasta 15 m de alto o a veces más grandes; plantas andromonoicas. Hojas obovadas, 8–30 cm de largo y 5–15 cm de ancho, ápice redondeado a cortamente acuminado, base ahusada a subcordada, glabras o ligeramente pubescentes en el envés; pecíolo 5–25 mm de largo, biglandular. Pedúnculo 3–5.5 cm de largo, ligeramente pubescente a subglabro, raquis 10–27 cm de largo, pubescente; flores masculinas 4–5 mm de largo, flores bisexuales 7–10 mm de largo incluyendo el ovario y el cáliz, con hipanto inferior seríceo e hipanto superior cupuliforme y escasamente pubescente; estilo glabro. Fruto suculento, 35–80 mm de largo y 30–50 mm de ancho, con 2 crestas gruesas, laterales, longitudinales, rostrado.

    Ampliamente cultivada y con frecuencia naturalizada, en casi todo el país pero especialmente en las costas; 0–800 m; fl y fr durante todo el año; Seymour 5023, Stevens 4315; Asia tropical, cultivada en los trópicos. "Almendra", "Indian almond".

  • Provided by: [L].Flora de Nicaragua
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Árbol, 3–20 m, andromonoico, las ramas verticiladas. Hojas con el pecíolo 0.8–2 cm; lámina 16–36 X 9–19+ cm, ampliamente obovada, obtusa a subcordada en la base, obtusa a redondeada en el ápice, cartácea, glabra o esparcidamente pubescente a lo largo de los nervios principales en el envés. Infls. terminales o axilares,espigadas, hasta ca. 15 cm, pilosas. Fls. bisexuales y estaminadas (las bisexuales generalmente basales en el raquis de cada infl.), blancas o crema a verde amarillento, malodoras. Frs. drupáceos, amarillentos cuando maduros, 4–7 X 3–4 cm, elipsoides, sin alas.

  • Provided by: [I].Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Tree to 20 m tall, with spreading, nearly horizontal, sympodial branches; bark grayish to light brown. Leaf blades 12-30 x 6- 18 cm, coriaceous, obovate, lower surface with appressed, rustybrown hairs, especially along the main vein, the blade foveate at vein axils, the apex obtuse or rounded, usually ending in an apiculum, the base tapering, cuneate, or subcordate, the margins entire; petioles stout, 0.5-2 cm long. Hypanthium densely covered with rusty-brown hairs; calyx yellowish, 2-2.5 mm long; filaments 3-4 mm long; disk densely rufous-tomentose. Drupe slightly fleshy, obliquely ellipsoid and somewhat flattened toward the margins, 4.5-6 cm long, turning from green to red then brown.

  • Provided by: [J].Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Evergreen to briefly deciduous tree 2-35 m. Leaves (8-)12-30(-38) × (5-)9-15(-22) cm, chartaceous, obovate to broadly so or rarely elliptic-obovate, rounded to shortly acuminate at apex, tapering to narrow, usually cordate to subcordate (rarely rounded, subtruncate or cuneate) base, glabrous adaxially, glabrous to appressed-pubescent abaxially; bowl-shaped domatia always present, in secondary and lower-order vein-axils. Venation eucamptodromous-brochidodromous; midvein stout to moderate, prominent; secondary veins 6-12 pairs, moderately spaced to distant, originating at moderately to widely acute angles, curved distally, prominent; intersecondary veins present; tertiary veins usually irregularly percurrent, often alternate and oblique; quaternary veins sometimes conspicuous; areolation randomly reticulate, imperfect or incomplete. Petiole 0.5-2.5 cm, pubescent, usually biglandular. Inflorescences (8-)13-30 cm, simple, andromonoecious, with the bisexual flowers few and near base; peduncle 3-5.5 cm, glabrous to sparsely pubescent; rhachis (5-) 10-27 cm, pubescent. Flowers pentamerous, 3-5 × 4-7 mm (male) or 6-10x4-7 mm (bisexual); lower hypanthium 3-7 mm in bisexual flowers, appressed-pubescent, usually densely so near base and sparsely so near apex; upper hypanthium 1-2 mm, cupuliform or campanulate, sparsely pubescent; calyx lobes 1-1.5 mm, erect to patent or slightly recurved when at full anthesis, nearly glabrous; disk villous; stamens 2-4 mm; style 3-3.5 mm, glabrous. Fruits few near base of rhachis, (3.5-)4-8 × 3-5.5 cm, drupaceous but rather fibrous, ovoid to ellipsoid, slightly compressed, rounded to broadly cuneate at base, acute to acuminate or stoutly beaked at apex, glabrous, with obscure to conspicuous ridge or wing to 6 mm wide along full length on each lateral edge. Reproductive biology. The inflorescences bear bisexual flowers and, therefore, fruits only near the base, with a long distal part of the rhachis with male flowers or, at siting, bare. Rowers and fruits are found throughout most the year, even in one locality. The flowers are Cream-colored and sweetly scented, but are sometimes described as yellow, white or green, or with an unpleasant smell. There is no evidence of dichogamy. The spongy fruits are well suited to water dispersal (Guppy 1917). Chromosome numbers. This species has been counted with 2n = 24 (four counts on cultivated material from Africa and India).

  • Provided by: [G].Flora Neotropica
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    A large deciduous tree, up to 35 m tall with brownish dotted bark. Young branches rusty pubescent becoming glabrous with age. Leaves crowded at the end of branches in spiral form, glabrous and shining above, velvety hairy below, obovate, shortly acuminate or mucronate with a cordate base, 5.5-35 x 5-18 cm, petiole densly hairy, 5-15 mm long with 2 glands on either side at the apex. Spikes axillary, 6-16 cm long with hairy rachis. Upper flowers of the spike male, lower bisexual, whitish yellow; bract c. 1 mm long, caducous. hypanthium 3-7 mm long scarious or glabrous, calyx lobes triangular, 1-2 mm long, glabrous. Stamens 2-2.5 mm ong, situated on the calyx. Style elongated, up to 2 mm long. Discbarbate. Drupe ovoid, glabrous more or less laterally compressed, wings almost obscure, 3.5 x 2-5.5 cm.

  • Provided by: [H].Flora of Pakistan
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Morphology

    Caule: ramo(s) superior(es) glabro(s). Folha: forma obovada(s); ápice(s) arredondado(s); base subcordada(s); consistência cartácea(s); nervação camptódromo(s) broquidódroma(s); indumento piloso(s)/glabrescente(s); domácia em forma de bolsa(s); glândula(s) 2 na(s) base da lâmina(s). Inflorescência: tipo espiga(s); forma alongada(s); posição axilar(es); padrão das flor(es) na(s) inflorescência(s) androhermafrodita. Flor: hipanto inferior(es) glabro(s); hipanto superior(es) cupuliforme(s)/lobo(s) do cálice(s) 5; lobo(s) do cálice(s) conspícuo(s); androceu estame(s) 10 inserido(s) em 2 verticilo(s)/filete(s) filiforme(s) alongado(s); indumento do estilete(s) glabro(s). Fruto: forma das ala(s) do fruto(s) arredondado(s); número de ala(s) ausente(s).

  • Provided by: [A].Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Stem: shoot upper glabrous. Leaf: form obovate; apex rounded; base subcordate; consistency chartaceous; venation camptodromous brochidodromous; indumentum pilose/glabrescent; domatia in form of the bag; gland(s) 2 on the base of the blade. Inflorescence: type spike(s); form lengthened; position axillary; pattern of the flower on the inflorescence androhermaphroditic. Flower: hypanthium lower glabrous; hypanthium upper cupuliform/lobe(s) of the calyx 5; lobe(s) of the calyx conspicuous; androecium stamen 10 inserted in 2 whorl/filament filiform lengthened; indumentum of the style glabrous. Fruit: form of the wing of the fruit rounded; number of the wing absent.

  • Provided by: [A].Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Tallo: ramo(s) superior(es) glabro(s). Hoja: forma obovada(s); ápice(s) arredondado(s); base subcordada(s); consistencia cartacea(s); nervación camptódromo(s) broquidódroma(s); indumento piloso(s)/glabrescente(s); domacia en forma de bolsa(s); glándula(s) 2 en la(s) base de la lámina(s). Inflorescencia: tipo espiga(s); forma alargada(s); posición axilar(es); patrón de las flor(es) en la(s) inflorescencia(s) androhermafrodita. Flor: hipanto inferior(es) glabro(s); hipanto superior(es) cupuliforme(s)/lobo(s) del cáliz 5; lobo(s) del cáliz conspicuo(s); androceu estambre(s) 10 inserido(s) en 2 verticilo(s)/filamento(s) filiforme(s) alargado(s); indumento del estilo(s) glabro(s). Fruto: forma de las ala(s) del fruto(s) arredondado(s); número de ala(s) ausente(s).

  • Provided by: [A].Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Arbre' caducifolié de 10-35 m de haut, à fût court; cime étagée, hémisphérique.' Feuilles' spiralées, à pétiole de 7-15 mm de long, tomenteux-pubescent, à poils roussâtres; limbe obovale, de 15-32 cm de long et 10-18 de large, cunéé à tronqué ou subcordé à la base, arrondi et apiculé ou mucronulé au sommet, glabre à la face supérieure sauf à la base, éparsement pubescent à glabrescent à la face inférieure sauf sur les nervures et à la base, muni à la base de 2 plages glandulaires ± apparentes; nervures latérales 10-12 paires. Épis axillaires, de 11-16 cm de long dont 2-3 pour le pédoncule; bractées de 0,5-1 mm de long, pubescentes.' Fleurs sessiles; réceptacle inférieur de 4-6 mm de long, pubescent à glabrescent, le supérieur généralement glabrescent; étamines à filets de 2-3 mm de long; anthères de 0,5 mm de long; style de 2-5 mm de long, glabre ou éparsement pubescent. Drupes fusiformes, ± aplaties, sessiles, de (3,5) 5-6(7) cm de long, 2-3 (5,5) cm de large et 1,5-2,5 d'épaisseur, à 2 côtes aliformes ne dépassant pas 2 mm de large. Graine atteignant 15 mm de long et 7 mm de large.

  • Provided by: [F].Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Distribution

    Commonly planted along roads. Cruz Bay Quarter in front of Park Service Headquarters (A2917). Also on St. Croix, St. Thomas, and Tortola; native to Malaysia, now naturalized mainly in coastal areas throughout the neotropics.

  • Provided by: [J].Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Originaire de l'Asie tropicale; connu également de l'Australie septentrionale et de la Polynésie; introduit un peu partout dans les régions tropicales.

  • Provided by: [F].Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Uses

    Arbre ornemental souvent planté le long des avenues; les indigènes l'utilisent à la fabrication des gongs et consomment les graines.

  • Provided by: [F].Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Distribution Map

     
    • Introduced distribution
    Introduced into
    • Southern America Brazil Acre
    • Amazonas
    • Parí
    • Roraima
    • Tocantins
    • Bahia
    • Ceará
    • Paraába
    • Pernambuco
    • Piauá
    • Rio Grande do Norte
    • Sergipe
    • Paraní
    • Santa Catarina
    • Espirito Santo
    • Minas Gerais
    • Rio de Janeiro
    • São Paulo
    • Brazilia Distrito Federal
    • Mato Grosso
    • Mato Grosso do Sul

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    amendoeira-da-India, guarda-solPortuguese
    castanholaPortuguese
    castanha da praia, castanholaPortuguese
    amendoeira-da-praia, sombreiro, chapéu-de-sol,Portuguese

     Information From

    Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020
    https://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br
    The Brazilian Flora Group (2018): Brazilian Flora 2020. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/2175-7860201869402 Dataset/Checklist: https://ckan.jbrj.gov.br/dataset/thebrazilfloragroup_feb2018
    • A Group Brazil Flora, REFLORA Program
    Combretaceae
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/Combretaceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2021.
    • B CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    MBG Floras Images
    http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
    Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
    • C Missouri Botanical Garden
    • D Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora Mesoamericana
    http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/fm/
    Gerrit Davidse, Mario Sousa Sánchez, A. O. Chater, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Instituto de Biología, Missouri Botanical Garden, Natural History Museum (London, England) UNAM, 1994
    • E Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    https://www.floredafriquecentrale.be
    • F http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)
    Flora Neotropica
    Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
    • G Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
    Flora of Pakistan
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Pakistan
    Flora of Pakistan. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2020.
    • H Missouri Botanical Garden
    Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Costa%20Rica
    Hammel, B. E.; Grayum, M. H.; Herrera, C.; Zamora, N. Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2003-2014
    • I Missouri Botanical Garden
    Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden
    https://www.nybg.org/
    Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
    • J Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
    Flora of China @ efloras.org
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • K Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora de Nicaragua
    http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
    W. D. Stevens, C. Ulloa Ulloa, A. Pool & O. M. Montiel. 2001–. Flora de Nicaragua, Tropicos Project. Loaded from Tropicos Project: October 2017
    • L Missouri Botanical Garden
    Juglandaceae
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/Juglandaceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2021.
    • M CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online Consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • N CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources
    https://www.iucnredlist.org/
    IUCN 2022. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2021-3. ISSN 2307-8235
    • O See IUCN Terms and conditions of use http://www.iucnredlist.org/info/terms-of-use
    Global Tree Search
    https://tools.bgci.org/global_tree_search.php
    BGCI. 2022. GlobalTreeSearch online database (version 1.6). Botanic Gardens Conservation International. Richmond, UK. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.34206.61761 Available at https://tools.bgci.org/global_tree_search.php. Accessed on (15/06/2022).
    • P Botanic Gardens Conservation International