Trichodesma zeylanicum (Burm.f.) R.Br.
  • Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holland. : 496 (1810)


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2022): Trichodesma zeylanicum (Burm.f.) R.Br. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000411041. Accessed on: 09 Dec 2022'

Diagnostic Description

Stems, inflorescence axes and petioles patently hairy; leaves discolorous because upper and lower leaf blade surfaces differ in indumentum; calyx lobes 15-18 x 7-9 mm in fruit; apices of corolla lobes acuminate; nutlets smooth, shiny and grey-marbled.

  • Provided by: [C].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
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    Morphology

    Perennial, less often annual, erect and usually branched herb or subshrubby herb 0.3–1.5(–2.1) m. tall from a taproot; stem ± woody at the base, densely pubescent and scabrid with tubercle-based hairs 1–2.5 mm. long.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Figs. 26; 27/1, p. 96; 28/1, p. 98.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Nutlets 4, grey marbled brown (? sometimes black), compressed ovoid, 4 mm. long, 3.2 mm. wide, the external face slightly convex, shining; internal face 3-angled, rugose and tuberculate.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Ovary 1.5–2 mm. diameter, glabrous, 4-lobed; style 6–8 mm. long, with obscurely subglobose stigma.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Stamens sessile; anthers lanceolate, thecae 2.5 mm. long, with a tuft of hairs at the base and connective-appendages as long as the thecae or up to 4 mm., twisted together.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 14
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    Corolla pale to deep blue with white or pink to purple centre, with a dark reddish purple spot at the base of each lobe, or lobes white along mid-area and with blue outer areas and with reddish purple area below where the two blue areas join; tube funnel-shaped, 4–5 mm. long, glabrous outside, inside at the base on both sides of anther-insertions with cushions of scales; lobes 5–6, broadly ovate, 4–4.5 mm. long, 3.8–6 mm. wide, with an abrupt narrowly triangular acute twisted acumen 2.5–3 mm. long.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Calyx-lobes ovate-lanceolate, 7–10 mm. long, 3.2–3.5 mm. wide, enlarging in fruit to 1.6–2 cm. long, acute to acuminate at the apex, pubescent inside, grey-tomentose and with intermingled long tubercle-based hairs particularly on the midnerve and margins outside.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 14
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    Flowers drooping, in lax terminal many-flowered cymes; bracts similar to the leaves, 1.2–3.5 cm. long, 0.3–1 cm. wide, often cordate at the base; pedicels reddish, slender, 0.5–3.5 cm. long, with both short and long hairs.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 14
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    Upper leaves sessile, alternate, oblong to oblong-lanceolate, 2–12.5(–18) cm. long, 0.6–3.2(–5.5) cm. wide, narrowed to the apex, rounded to subcordate at the base, discolorous, scabrid with tubercle-based hairs above, the tubercles ringed with cystolith-cells, rough beneath, densely pubescent to grey-tomentose with tubercle-based hairs on the nerves; lower leaves opposite or subopposite, similar but larger, up to 16 cm. long, 5 cm. wide with a petiole 0.2–1 cm. long.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 14
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    Inflorescence 1–5 cm. long at flowering, elongating to up to 14 cm. in fruit, many-flowered, terminal on main and lateral branches, bracteate for most or all their length, the bracts ovate to lanceolate and rounded or subcordate at the base; pedicels 1–3 cm., densely clothed with conspicuous flexuous spreading hairs up to 2 mm. long and often also with minute spreading hairs.

  • Provided by: [E].Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    • Source: [
    • 15
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    Sepals 7–10 x 2–3.5 mm. at flowering, enlarging to up to 20 x 6 mm. in fruit, ovate to lanceolate, rounded at the base, acute at the apex, densely clothed with long appressed or ascending hairs with those on the midrib and margins usually tending to be setose and more strongly tuberculate than the others.

  • Provided by: [E].Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    • Source: [
    • 15
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    Corolla 7–9 mm. long, slightly shorter than to slightly longer than the sepals, the lobes broadly ovate-acuminate; lobes pale blue to lilac or pinkish, the tube often whitish between the lobes and with red to purple markings at its base.

  • Provided by: [E].Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    • Source: [
    • 15
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    Fruit comprising four nutlets, falling separately to leave a pyramidal gynobase with four strongly concave sides, each with a more or less winged margin, and a persistent terminal style; nutlets 4–4.5 x 2.5–3.3 x 1–1.5 mm., compressed-ovoid, smooth and shiny and usually mottled with grey and brown on the outer surface, rugose on the inner surface.

  • Provided by: [E].Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    • Source: [
    • 15
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    Annual with a tap root, or perhaps occasionally a short-lived perennial with a somewhat woody stock, with erect stems 0.3–1.5(2.0) cm. high, with ascending branches in the upper part; stems clothed with short spreading hairs interspersed with coarse tuberculate setae, or occasionally only with the tuberculate setae.

  • Provided by: [E].Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    • Source: [
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    Leaves (3)5–12(15) x 1–3(4) cm., narrowly elliptic, cuneate or occasionally rounded at the base, usually acute at the apex, sessile or subsessile, opposite or the uppermost alternate, the upper surface covered with tuberculate setae and sometimes with smaller hairs between them, the lower surface with tuberculate setae on the major veins and usually with a dense covering of smaller spreading or appressed hairs between them.

  • Provided by: [E].Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    • Source: [
    • 15
    • ]. 

    Plante herbacée ou suffrutescente, vivace, rarement annuelle; souche pivotante; tiges subligneuses à la base, érigées, de 0,30-1,50(2) m de haut, généralement ramifiées, scabres, densément pubescentes et hérissées de poils épars de 1-2,5 mm de long, à base tuberculée.' Feuilles' supérieures alternes, sessiles, oblongues ou oblongues lancéolées, de 4-12,5(14,5) cm de long et 1,3-3,2(4,5) cm de large, arrondies à subcordées à la base, atténuées au sommet, les inférieures opposées ou subopposées, à pétiole de 2-8(10) mm de long, plus grandes et cunéées à la base; limbe discolore; face supérieure scabre à poils tuberculés à la base, le tubercule entouré de cellules cystolithiques; face inférieure rêche, densément pubescente à tomenteuse-grisâtre, à poils tuberculés uniquement sur les nervures; nervures latérales 3-5 paires, légèrement en relief à la face inférieure, en creux à la face supérieure. Cymes terminales, lâches, multiflores; bractées semblables aux feuilles mais plus petites, de 1,2-3,5 cm de long et 0,3-1 cm de large, parfois cordées à la base.' Fleurs' bleues, à centre blanc ou rose pâle, avec une macule plus vive à la base de chaque lobe; pédicelle grêle, fragile, de 0,5-3,5 cm de long, toujours plus long que la fleur épanouie, à la fois tomentelleux à poils courts et grisâtres et hirsute à longs poils tuberculés et brillants; sépales ovales-lancéolés, de 7-10 mm de long et 3,2-3,5 mm de large, accrescents et atteignant 16-20 mm de long sous le fruit, acuminés-aigus au sommet, pubescents à la face interne, tomenteux grisâtres et entremêlés de longs poils tuberculés surtout abondants sur la nervure médiane et les bords à la face externe; corolle infundibuliforme, de 9-10 mm de long et 7-10 mm de diam., plus courte que le calice ou le dépassant à peine, fragile, finement nervurée, glabre extérieurement; tube garni à la base de chaque anthère et de part et d'autre du point d'insertion de pelotes d'écailles; lobes 5(6), largement ovales, de 4,5 mm de long et 3,8 mm de large, assez brusquement terminés au sommet par un acumen étroitement triangulaire-aigu, de 2,5-3 mm de long, torsadé; étamines sessiles; anthères lancéolées, de 7 mm de long, fixées à environ 3-3,5 mm de la base du tube, garnies d'une touffe de poils à la base, à connectif velu sur le dos et à appendice aussi long que les loges, glabre dans la partie supérieure, exsert, dépassant la corolle de 2 mm; ovaire de 1,5-2 mm de diam., glabre, 4-lobé; style de 6-8 mm de long; stigmate subglobuleux, peu distinct.' Fruits formés de 4 nucules ovoïdes-comprimées, de 4 mm de long et 3,2 mm de large; face externe légèrement convexe, grise et marbrée de macules plus foncées, luisante; face interne triquètre, rugueuse et tuberculée.

  • Provided by: [B].Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    • Source: [
    • 16
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    Annual or short lived perennial herb, 0,20-1,75 m high. Pedicels and inflorescence axes densely clothed with flexuous spreading hairs 1-2 mm long. Corolla 7-9 mm long. Nutlets 4, smooth. Flowers with lobes pale blue to lilac or pinkish, tube often whitish between lobes and with red to purple markings at its base.

  • Provided by: [C].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 17
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    Erect, perennial herb with annual stems from a woody rootstock, up to 1.5 m high. Stems, inflorescences and petioles patently hairy. Leaves sessile or petiolate; blade elliptic, 30-110(-120) x 10-30(-35) mm, base rounded to subcordate, apex acute, discolorous, upper surface with long, up to 0.75 mm, larged-based, 2-layered setae and much smaller setae in between, orientated ± in same direction, lower surface with long setae on midrib and major veins only, intercostal area densely covered with small, bulbous-based setae orientated in different directions; petiole up to 10 mm long. Flowers with pedicels up to 30 mm long in fruit. Calyx lobes ovate, ±9 x 3 mm in flower, 15-18 x 7-9 mm in fruit. Corolla very pale blue, darker at edges of lobes, with reddish purple marks at junction of lobes or lobes with white along mid-area, blue in outer areas; tube funnel-shaped, 5-7 mm long; lobes 5 or 6, broadly ovate, ±5 x 1.5 mm, with abrupt, acuminate apices, usually twisted. Fruit of four nutlets; nutlets greyish marble brown, compressed ovoid, ±4.0-4.5 mm long, external face ± convex, shiny, internal face 3-angled, rugose.

  • Provided by: [C].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 18
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    Habitat

    Cultures, jachères, savanes, bord des chemins, parfois marais et galeries forestières.

  • Provided by: [B].Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    • Source: [
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    Riverbanks, shrubland, disturbed places.

  • Provided by: [C].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 17
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    Grassland, woodland, in dry river beds, common weed in old and new cultivated land, pioneer in disturbed areas, along roadsides; well-drained sandy, gravelly turf, poorly drained loam or in rocky well-drained soil; full sun.

  • Provided by: [C].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 18
    • ]. 

    Distribution

    Afrique tropicale orientale, Comores, Madagascar, Mascareignes; Indes, Ceylan, Java et Philippines.

  • Provided by: [B].Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    • Source: [
    • 16
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    Namibia (Caprivi), eastern parts of the Northern Province, Mpumalanga, Swaziland and northern KwaZulu-Natal ; also known from various regions in eastern Africa, the Comoros, Madagascar, the Mascarenes, India, Sri Lanka, Malaya, Java, the Philippines and Australia, having reached at least some of these areas presumably as a weed of cultivation.

  • Provided by: [C].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 18
    • ]. 

     Information From

    Boraginaceae
    http://worldfloraonline.org/organisation/Boraginaceae
    Boraginaceae. The borage or forget-me-not Family. World Flora Online Data. 2022.
    • A CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    https://www.floredafriquecentrale.be
    • B http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)
    e-Flora of South Africa
    e-Flora of South Africa. v1.21. 2018. South African National Biodiversity Institute. http://ipt.sanbi.org.za/iptsanbi/resource?r=flora_descriptions&v=1.21
    • C All Rights Reserved
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • D
    Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • E
    Caryophyllaceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2021.
    • F CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online Consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • G CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).