Herbs perennial, dioecious, rarely monoecious. Rhizomes woody, stoloniferous. Stems simple or few branched, 40-100 cm tall; stems and petioles often densely or sometimes sparsely covered with stinging and setulose hairs. Stipules free, linear, (2-)5-8 mm; petiole 2.5-4 cm; leaf blade ovate, sometimes lanceolate, 5-13 × 2.5-6 cm, often herbaceous, (3-)5-veined, lateral basal veins reaching distal margin and anastomosing, secondary veins 3-5 each side, adaxial surface sparsely covered with stinging and setulose hairs, abaxial surface often densely covered with long, stinging and setulose hairs along veins, base cordate, margin coarsely 15-21-serrate or -dentate, teeth often incurved-tipped, apex acuminate or long acuminate; cystoliths punctiform. Inflorescences paniculate, 3-7 cm; female inflorescences with slender axes, often drooping in fruit. Male flowers in bud ca. 1.4 mm; perianth lobes connate 1/2 of length, puberulent. Female flowers: perianth lobes connate at 1/4 of lower part, dorsal-ventral lobes elliptic-ovate, 1.2-1.5 mm, sparingly setulose, lateral lobes narrowly elliptic, 2-3 × as long as the dorsal ones, Achene brownish gray, ovoid or narrowly ovoid, slightly compressed, 1-1.2(-1.4) mm, smooth, invested by persistent perianth lobes. Fl. Jun-Aug, fr. Aug-Sep.
Herbs , perennial, rhizomatous, 5-30 dm. Stems simple or branched, erect or sprawling. Leaf blades elliptic, lanceolate, or narrowly to broadly ovate, 6-20 × 2-13 cm, base rounded to cordate, margins coarsely serrate, sometimes doubly serrate, apex acute or acuminate; cystoliths rounded. Inflorescences paniculate, pedunculate, elongate. Flowers unisexual, staminate and pistillate on same or different plants, staminate ascending, the pistillate lax or recurved. Pistillate flowers: outer tepals linear to narrowly spatulate or lanceolate, 0.8-1.2 mm, inner tepals ovate to broadly ovate, 1.4-1.8 × 1.1-1.3 mm. Achenes ovoid to broadly ovoid, 1-1.3(-1.4) × 0.7-0.9 mm.
"Erect, rhizomatous perennial, usually simple, to 2 m; lvs serrate, acute or acuminate, 5–15 cm; stipules lance-linear, 5–15 mm; infls branched, many-fld, commonly exceeding the subtending petioles; fruiting cal 2 mm, pubescent; achene ovate, 1.5 mm. Nearly cosmopolitan, either as a native or an intr. sp., and highly variable. June–Sept. Var. dioica, native to Europe but well established in our range, is dioecious, weak-stemmed, and rather densely hairy, with mostly broadly ovate, cordate-based lvs with stinging hairs on both sides, and with the teeth commonly 5–6 mm deep; 2n=52. Var. procera (Muhl.) Wedd., the native phase, is usually monoecious, stouter and more sparsely hairy, with ovate to lance-oblong lvs that are seldom cordate at the base, with the stinging hairs commonly confined to the lower surface, and with the teeth averaging 2–3.5 mm deep; 2n=26 in ours. (U. gracilis; U. viridis)"
Dioecious, perennial, 50-150 cm herb with a dense indumentum of stinging hairs. Stem angled. Leaves with 1.5-4 cm long petiole; lamina narrowly lanceolate to ovate, 5-12 cm long, 2.5-8 cm broad, cordate at the base, margin serrate, apex acute-acuminate; stipules free lateral, oblong-lanceolate, 8-12 mm long, ciliate. Racemes of cymes axillary, often longer than the subtending petiole, densely appressed pubescent, with scattered stinging hairs. Flowers pale-greenish, or whitish, bracteate; bracts of male flowers smaller than those of female flowers. Sepals pubescent. Achenes up to c. 1.5 mm long, ovoid-ellipsoid, pale green or greenish-brown.
Bis über 1 m hoch, mehrjährig, dunkelgrün. Stängel und Blätter mit Brennhaaren, daneben noch kürzere Haare. Blätter länglich-herzförmig, meist über 5 cm lang, grob gezähnt. Zweihäusig. Blütenstände hängend, länger als die Blattstiele.
Erect perennial herb up to 1 m high, growing from horizontal, ± woody rhizome, dioecious. Stems almost always with dense stinging hairs; stiff hairs present or absent. Leaves lanceolate, (20-)50-150 x (12-)25-90 mm, apical tooth shorter to longer than broad, margin with 11-25 pairs of teeth, with stinging hairs scattered on upper surface or absent, and on veins below, with stiff hairs densely scattered below; petiole (5-)10-40 mm long, with dense stinging hairs, with or without stiff hairs; stipules oblong to broadly lanceolate, 2-6 x 1-3 mm, acute to nearly obtuse, membranous, with up to 5 parallel veins. Inflorescence lax, drooping, with cymose clusters of subsessile flowers, up to 90 mm long; peduncle up to 15 mm long. Female flowers with hairs as in key, 1.0-1.5 mm long; pedicel with stinging and stiff hairs. Male flowers with stiff hairs, 1.25-1.5 mm in diameter. Achenes ovoid, laterally compressed to lenticular, with a raised central area on each face, smooth or minutely punctate, pale ochre.
Dioecious perennial herb, up to 1 m tall, with a ± woody rhizome, usually with dense stinging hairs on stems and leaves. Leaves petiolate, lanceolate, truncate to ± cordate at base, margin toothed. Flowers in lax, slender, drooping, cymose clusters, small, whitish, tepals of females hairy on backs. Achenes ovoid, pale ochre.
An introduced weed in southern Africa, recorded mainly from the Great Karoo of the Western and Eastern Cape, with a single record from the Northern Cape; originally from Europe.
|Stinging nettle, ortie|