Urtica urens L.
  • Sp. Pl.
  • Dog nettle, burning nettle


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Urtica urens L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000416948. Accessed on: 10 Jul 2020'

General Information

Herbs annual. Stems branched, 10-60 cm tall, sparsely puberulent and somewhat densely armed with stinging hairs; lower internodes 4-7 cm, upper internodes 1-3 cm. Stipules free, narrowly triangular, 1-2.5 mm, ciliate; petiole 1-2.5 cm, puberulent, sparsely armed with stinging hairs; leaf blade broadly elliptic, sometimes ovate or obovate, 1.2-6 × 0.6-3 cm, 5-veined, often subglabrous except for sparse stinging hairs on both surfaces, base broadly cuneate or rounded, margin 6-11-dentate, apex obtuse-rounded; cystoliths punctiform, distinct adaxially. Inflorescences containing proximal female flowers and distal male flowers, spicate, 0.5-2.5 cm. Male flowers short pedicellate, in bud ca. 1.2 mm; perianth lobes connate 1/2 of length, puberulent. Female flowers: perianth lobes connate at base, dorsal-ventral lobes ovate, equaling achene, often with 1 stinging hair on dorsal rib, sparsely setulose along margin, lateral lobes ovate, ca. 5 times as small as others. Achene brownish gray, ovoid, compressed, 0.8 mm, verrucose, invested by persistent perianth lobes. Fl. May-Jul, fr. Aug-Sep.

  • Provided by: [F].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Herbs , annual, with taproot, 1-8 dm. Stems simple or branched, erect. Leaf blades elliptic to broadly elliptic, widest near middle, 1.8-9 × 1.2-4.5 cm, base cuneate, margins coarsely serrate, serrations often with lateral lobes, apex acute; cystoliths rounded. Inflorescences spikelike or paniculate. Flowers unisexual, staminate and pistillate in same inflorescence, subsessile to short-pedunculate. Pistillate flowers: outer tepals ovate, 0.5-0.7 mm, inner tepals broadly ovate, 0.6-0.9 × 1.2-1.4 mm. Achenes ovoid, 1.5-1.8 × 1.1-1.3 mm. 2 n = 24, 26.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    7. Urtica urens L.,Sp. Pl. 984 (1753). Lectotipo (designado por Ghafoor, 1977): Herb. Linn. 1111.5 (imagen en Internet ex LINN!). Ilustr.: Zohary, Fl. Palaestina, 1: t. 36 (1966).

    Por M. Weigend y A.K. Monro.

    Hierbas anuales, monoicas; tallos 5-100 cm, algunas veces ramificados desde la base, la base frecuentemente decumbente; dos clases de tricomas presentes, los tricomas mayores c. 0.8-1.1 mm, erectos, urticantes, con la base multicelular, los tricomas menores 0.1-0.8 mm. Hojas 10-40 × 5-25 mm, ampliamente ovadas, membranáceas, generalmente verde oscuro cuando vivas o secas, la superficie esparcidamente pelosa y con algunos tricomas urticantes, el haz con grupos densos de cistolitos puntiformes, la base redondeada, los márgenes gruesamente dentados con 8-12 dientes en cada lado, los dientes 2-4 × 4-6 mm, el borde inferior convexo, el borde superior cóncavo, el ápice agudo o acuminado, el acumen agudo a atenuado; estípulas 4 por nudo, 1-6 mm, libres hasta la base, oblongas; pecíolos 3-15 mm, mucho más cortos que la lámina. Inflorescencias 5-25 mm, aglomeradas, las flores estaminadas y pistiladas dispuestas sobre las mismas ramas de la inflorescencia, aunque las flores estaminadas caducas dejando visibles solo los pedicelos. Flores estaminadas con tépalos c. 0.8 mm. Flores pistiladas con tépalos desiguales, esparcidamente pelosos, los 2 tépalos mayores 0.3 mm, los 2 tépalos menores 0.2 mm. Infrutescencias 5-8 mm, sin pedúnculo conspicuo. Frutos maduros incluyendo los tépalos hasta 1.8 mm; aquenios 1.5-2.2 × 1-1.5 mm, ovoides, bilateralmente comprimidos. Vegetación alterada, campos, jardines, potreros, terrenos baldíos. G (Véliz MV14154, MO). 2000-3500 m. (Mediterráneo; introducida en todo el mundo.)

    Urtica urens es una especie arvense ampliamente distribuida probablemente originada en el mediterráneo pero actualmente introducida en todo el mundo. Está pobremente documentada en los herbarios pero está probablemente presente en todas la elevaciones altas a través de Mesoamérica.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora Mesoamericana
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • 1
    • ]. 

    "Taprooted annual, simple or branched, 2–5 dm, with numerous stinging hairs; lvs long-petioled, elliptic to broadly ovate and blunt or rounded in outline, deeply incised- serrate, the teeth triangular, acute, upper lvs usually larger than the lower; stipules oblong, 1–3 mm, fl-clusters oblong, often shorter than the petioles; achenes triangular, 1.5–2.5 × 1–1.5 mm; 2n=24, 26, 52. Native of Europe, widely distributed elsewhere as a weed, and occasionally found in our range. May–Sept."

  • Provided by: [G].New York Botanical Garden
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Morphology

    Erect, ascending or procumbent annual herb up to 0.5 m. high, sometimes profusely branched from base, monoecious.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Achene laterally compressed, smooth or minutely punctate, pale ochre.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Female flowers on pedicels 0.5–1 mm. long; perianth 1.5–2 mm. long, the 2 large tepals each with a stinging hair; ovary enclosed in the perianth, with only the penicillate stigma protruding.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Leaves: stipules narrowly lanceolate, ±1.5 mm. long, 0.5 mm. wide, acute, pubescent; petiole (0.7–)3–5 cm. long, with stinging and stiff hairs; lamina elliptic, 2.5–4.5 cm. long, 1.5–2.8 cm. wide, base cuneate, margin with 9–13 long narrow teeth on each side, the teeth often 3-lobed, especially in the lower half; basal pair of lateral nerves reaching the upper 1/3 of lamina; upper surface with scattered stinging hairs, lower surface with stinging hairs on the nerves, stiff hairs absent or sometimes a few present on young leaves.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Stems with stiff hairs when young, later glabrescent; stinging hairs dense to sparse.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Male flowers on pedicels ± 0.5 mm. long; perianth ± 1 mm. in diameter.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Inflorescences dense at first, becoming lax, cylindrical, spike-like, 0.5–2.5 cm. long, 0.3–0.75 cm. wide, bisexual, with male and female flowers mixed, frequently with both stinging and stiff hairs; peduncle short.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Erect, ascending or procumbent annual herb up to 0.5 m high, sometimes profusely branched from base, monoecious. Stems with stiff hairs when young, later glabrescent; stinging hairs dense to sparse. Leaves elliptic, 22-45 x 18-28 mm, apical tooth as long as or longer than broad, margin with 9-13 pairs of long narrow teeth which are often trilobed, with stinging hairs scattered on upper surface and on veins of lower surface, with stiff hairs absent or sometimes a few present on young leaves; petiole (7-)30-50 mm long, with stinging and usually with stiff hairs; stipules narrowly lanceolate, ±1.5 x 0.5 mm, acute, pubescent. Inflorescence at first dense, later becoming lax, cylindrical, 5-20 x 3-5 mm, bisexual, with male and female flowers mixed, frequently with stinging and stiff hairs; peduncle short. Female flowers with hairs as in key, 1.75-2.0 mm long; pedicel with stinging and stiff hairs. Male flowers 0.8-1.0 mm in diameter; pedicel ±0.5 mm long. Achenes smooth or minutely punctate, pale ochre.

  • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Erect, ascending or procumbent annual herb, up to 0.5 m high, monoecious. Leaves 22-45 mm long, bases cuneate. Achenes 1.5-2.0 mm long. Flowers green.

  • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Monoecious annual to 50 cm, with stiff, stinging hairs. Leaves ovate-elliptic, coarsely toothed, with scattered, stinging hairs, petiole to 50 mm long. Flowers in dense, axillary panicles, small, whitish.

  • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    Erect, ascending or procumbent, annual herb, up to 0.5 m high, monoecious. Stems with stiff hairs when young, stinging hairs dense to sparse. Leaves with blade elliptic, 22-45 x 18-28 mm, base cuneate, margins with long, narrow teeth, often 3-lobed. Flowers: perianth green; Nov. Fruit smooth or minutely punctate, pale ochre.

  • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 12
    • ]. 

    Habitat

    A weed of open disturbed places, in shade or sun. Invader.

  • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Dry Grassland; Dwarf Karroid Shrubland; Zastron Moist Grassland. An invasive weed of disturbed places, in shade or sun.

  • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 12
    • ]. 

    A weed of open disturbed places, in shade or sun.

  • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Disturbed places.

  • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    Distribution

    An introduced weed in southern Africa, with scattered records from Gauteng, Mpumalanga, the Free State, Lesotho, KwaZulu-Natal, Eastern, Western and Northern Cape and southern Namibia; originally from Europe.

  • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    European weed, widespread throughout southern Africa.

  • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    Native to Eurasia.

  • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 12
    • ]. 

    Distribution Map

     
    • Introduced distribution
    Introduced into
    • Southern America Brazil Paraní
    • Rio Grande do Sul
    • Santa Catarina
    • Espirito Santo
    • Minas Gerais
    • Rio de Janeiro
    • São Paulo

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Dog nettle, burning nettle

      Bibliography

     Information From

    e-Flora of South Africa
    e-Flora of South Africa. v1.21. 2018. South African National Biodiversity Institute. http://ipt.sanbi.org.za/iptsanbi/resource?r=flora_descriptions&v=1.21
    • A All Rights Reserved
    Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020
    http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br
    Brazil Flora G (2014): Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020. v393.147. Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botanico do Rio de Janeiro. Dataset/Checklist. doi:10.15468/1mtkaw
    • B Group Brazil Flora, REFLORA Program
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • C Flora of North America Association
    Flora Mesoamericana
    http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/fm/
    Gerrit Davidse, Mario Sousa Sánchez, A. O. Chater, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Instituto de Biología, Missouri Botanical Garden, Natural History Museum (London, England) UNAM, 1994
    • D Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • E
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • F Missouri Botanical Garden
    New York Botanical Garden
    Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
    • G Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
    Urticaceae
    • H CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • I CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).