Viola odorata L.
  • Sp. Pl.
  • Sailchuach chumhra


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2021): Viola odorata L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000423364. Accessed on: 26 Sep 2021'

General Information

Plants perennial, acaulescent, stoloniferous, 4–12 cm; stolons green, often rooting at nodes and forming leafy rosettes; rooted rosettes often develop into erect, rhizomatous caudex from which new stolons are produced; rhizome thick, fleshy. Leaves basal (and from stolons), 5–10, ascending to erect; stipules lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, margins fimbriate, projections gland-tipped, apex acute; petiole 2–17 cm, puberulent; blade unlobed, ovate to orbiculate, 1.5–7 × 1.5–5 cm, base cordate, margins crenate, ciliate, apex obtuse to rounded, surfaces puberulent. Peduncles 4–15 cm, puberulent. Flowers: sepals narrow to broadly lanceolate, margins ciliate, auricles 3–4 mm; petals deep to pale blue-violet, pale blue, or white on both surfaces, usually white basally, lateral 2 sparsely to densely bearded, lowest usually purple-veined, 12–22 mm, spur usually same color as petals, elongated, 5–7 mm; style head beardless; cleistogamous flowers on prostrate or ascending peduncles. Capsules sometimes purple-flecked, ovoid, 5–8 mm, puberulent. Seeds brown, 3–4 mm. 2n = 20.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Herb, acaulescent, stoloniferous. Leaves with the petioles up to 9 cm long, the stipules narrowly ovate, acuminate, up to 1.5 cm long, glandular-fimbrillate; blade subcircular, deeply cordate at the base, obtuse at the apex, crenulate at the margins, up to 5.2 cm long and wide, membranous, with scattered, appressed, hyaline, short hairs on both surfaces and along the margins. Flowers with the pedicels up to 9 cm long, the bracteoles narrowly triangular, acute, ca 6 mm long and 1.5 mm wide at the base, minutely glandular-fimbrillate; sepals ovate, acute, ca 10 mm long (basal auricles included) and 3-4 mm wide, the basal auricles ca 3 mm long and fimbrillate at the base; corolla purple; anterior petal oblong- obovate, rounded at the apex, 15 mm long (spur included) and 6 mm wide, the spur ca 4 mm long; lateral and upper petals oblong-obovate to obovate, rounded at the apex, 12 mm long and 5-7 mm wide; anthers ca 2 mm long, the connective appendages deltoid, ca 1.5 mm long and wide at the base; ovary ovoid, as long as the anthers; style ? geniculate at the base, enlarged towards the apex, ca 2.5 mm long, the apex unciform. Capsule ellipsoid, ca 7-8 mm long, puberulous.

  • Provided by: [B].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    "Finely hairy, with a long-creeping rhizome and spreading by numerous leafy stolons rooting at the nodes; lvs broadly ovate to orbicular, 2–6 cm, rounded or obtuse at the tip, evenly crenate, cordate at base, peduncles equaling or shorter than the lvs; fls very fragrant, typically deep violet, varying to white, the lateral pet usually bearded; style recurved-hooked at the tip; sep ciliate; ovary and fr hairy; cleistogamous fls on recurving peduncles, with broadly ovoid, hairy, purplish fr; seeds large, ochroleucous; 2n=20. Native of Europe, cult. in many forms and often escaped, especially about dwellings. Apr., May."

  • Provided by: [F].New York Botanical Garden
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Prostrate, acauline annual to perennial herb with erect scapes. Rhizome long, pointed, branched, slender, giving rise to a stoloniferous stern. Leaves 2.0-3.5 x 1.5-3.0 cm, broadly ovate, obtuse, hairy, cordate, serrate, 5-7-veined, sinus deep, petiole covered with deflexed hairs, often twice or thrice the length of lamina, upto 15 cm long; stipules free, broad lanceolate to ovate, acuminte, fringed or fimbriate. Flowers odorous, violet, upto 2.0 cm long on upto 20 cm long peduncle. Sepals 4.0-7.0 x 1.0-3.0 mm, ovate, obtuse, entire, cuneate. Petals obovate-oblong, obtuse, entire, up to 12 mm long, c. 5.0 mm broad; lateral petal 11-16 x 7.0 mm, large, oblong, obtuse, entire, spur straight or subcurvate, obtuse, c. 4 mm long. Ovary globose, 2.5-3.0 x 1.0-2.0 mm, glabrous, style 3.0-4.0 x 0.5-1 mm, laterally compressed, stigma beaked, beak directed forward. Capsule globose, 3-6-angled.

  • Provided by: [A].Flora of Pakistan
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Herbs perennial, acaulescent, stoloniferous, 3-15 cm tall. Rhizome erect or oblique, brownish, robust, densely noded, with numerous roots and slender, long stolons produced from nodes. Leaves basal; leaf blade orbicular or reniform to broadly ovate-cordate, smaller at anthesis, 1.5-2.5 × 1.5-2.5 cm, gradually accrescent, to 4.5 × 4.5 cm, both surfaces sparsely puberulous or subglabrous, base deeply cordate, margin crenate, apex rounded or ± acute. Flowers deep purple, large, fragrant; pedicels long, slender, puberulous or subglabrous, 2-bracteolate at or above middle. Sepals oblong or oblong-ovate, base obtuse or shallowly dentate, apex obtuse, basal auricles 2-3 mm. Petals crenate, upper ones obovate, lateral ones inside shortly bearded, anterior one broadly obovate, 1.5-2 cm (spur included); spur 2-4 mm, straight or slightly curved; spurs of 2 anterior stamens robust, ca. 4 mm. Ovary puberulous; styles slender and straight at base, thickened upward and slightly compressed, apically curved and with a hooked beak about as long as diameter of styles, with a smaller stigma hole at tip of beak. Capsule globose, densely puberulous. Fl. Apr-May, fr. Jun-Sep. 2n = 20, 60.

  • Provided by: [E].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • "Finely hairy, with a long-creeping rhizome and spreading by numerous leafy stolons rooting at the nodes; lvs broadly ovate to orbicular, 2–6 cm, rounded or obtuse at the tip, evenly crenate, cordate at base, peduncles equaling or shorter than the lvs; fls very fragrant, typically deep violet, varying to white, the lateral pet usually bearded; style recurved-hooked at the tip; sep ciliate; ovary and fr hairy; cleistogamous fls on recurving peduncles, with broadly ovoid, hairy, purplish fr; seeds large, ochroleucous; 2n=20. Native of Europe, cult. in many forms and often escaped, especially about dwellings. Apr., May."

    • Provided by: [F].New York Botanical Garden
      • Source: [
      • 3
      • ]. 

      Morphology

      5–15 cm hoch, ohne Stängel, aber mit langen, oberirdischen Ausläufern, die meist nicht blühen. Blätter rundlich-nierenförmig bis breit-eiförmig, ca. gleich lang wie breit, Blattstiel mit rückwärts anliegenden Haaren. Nebenblätter breit-lanzettlich

    • Provided by: [C].Flora Helvetica – Illustrierte Flora der Schweiz
      • Source: [
      • 4
      • ]. 

      Habit

      Herb

    • Provided by: [B].Flora de Panama
      • Source: [
      • 2
      • ]. 

      Ecology

      3–4. Gebüsche, Waldränder, schattige Orte, kollin-montan. CH.

    • Provided by: [C].Flora Helvetica – Illustrierte Flora der Schweiz
      • Source: [
      • 4
      • ]. 

      Distribution

      Native to Europe, North Africa, and Asia; introduced.

    • Provided by: [B].Flora de Panama
      • Source: [
      • 2
      • ]. 

      Distribution Map

       
      • Native distribution
      Found in
      • Europe Northern Europe Ireland

      Nationally Preferred Names

      NameLanguageCountry
      Sailchuach chumhraIrishIE

      Other Local Names

      NameLanguageCountry
      Viola odurusaRaeto-RomanceCH
      English or sweet violet, violette odorante
      Viola mammolaItalianCH
      Wohlriechendes VeilchenGermanCH
      Cogal gormIrishIE
      SalchuachIrishIE
      Violette odoranteFrenchCH

        Bibliography

       Information From

      Flora of Pakistan
      http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Pakistan
      Flora of Pakistan. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2020.
      • A Missouri Botanical Garden
      Flora de Panama
      http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
      Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
      • B Missouri Botanical Garden
      Flora Helvetica – Illustrierte Flora der Schweiz
      http://www.flora-helvetica.ch
      Flora Helvetica – Illustrierte Flora der Schweiz, Konrad Lauber, Gerhart Wagner, Andreas Gygax. Haupt Verlag 2018.
      • C All Rights Reserved
      Flora of North America @ efloras.org
      http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
      'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
      • D Flora of North America Association
      Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
      http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
      'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
      • E Missouri Botanical Garden
      New York Botanical Garden
      Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
      • F Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
      Irish Vernacular Names
      https://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/plant-science/plant-science/research-staff/article/380/wyse-jackson-peter-s.aspx
      • G All Rights Reserved
      Violaceae
      • H CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
      World Flora Online consortium
      http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
      World Flora Online Data. 2018.
      • I CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).