Viola tricolor L.
  • Sp. Pl.
  • Johnny-jump-up, pansy, wild pansy, heart's ease, ladies delight, violette tricolore


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2021): Viola tricolor L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000424643. Accessed on: 01 Dec 2021'

General Information

Herbs annual, biennial, or perennial, 10-40 cm tall. Stems erect or slightly oblique, slightly robust, angled, simple or numerously branched. Basal leaf blade narrowly ovate or lanceolate, long petiolate; stipules large, leaflike, deeply pinnatifid, 1-4 cm; petioles of upper leaves longer, those of lower leaves shorter; cauline leaf blade ovate, oblong-orbicular, or oblong-lanceolate, base rounded, margin remotely crenate, apex rounded or obtuse. Flowers solitary in leaf axils, usually 3-colored (purple, white, and yellow), large, 3.5-6 cm in diam., with 3-10 flowers per stem; pedicels slightly robust, 2-bracteolate at upper part; bracteoles opposite, ovate-triangular, very small. Sepals green, oblong-lanceolate, 1.2-2.2 cm × 3-5 mm, margin narrowly membranous, apex acute, basal auricles developed, 3-6 mm, margin irregular. Corolla flat; upper petals deep purple-violet, lateral petals and anterior one 3-colored, purple-striate, lateral ones inside densely barbate at base; spur of anterior petal smaller, 5-8 mm. Ovary glabrous; styles short, base conspicuously geniculate; stigmas enlarged, globose, with a large stigma hole in front. Capsule ellipsoid, 8-12 mm, glabrous. Fl. Apr-Jul, fr. May-Aug. 2n = 26.

  • Provided by: [A].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    "Glabrous or hairy annual or short-lived perennial to 3 dm, often branched from the base; lvs all crenate, the lowest ones orbicular or cordate, the upper oblong to elliptic and basally cuneate; stipules foliaceous, laciniate to lyrate-pinnatifid, the middle lobe oblanceolate, distinctly toothed; internodes usually shorter than the lvs; fls 1.5–2.5 cm wide, the sep two-thirds as long as the pet; pet variously colored, the upper usually darker than the lower; style as in no. 27 [Viola rafinesquii Greene]; cleistogamous fls wanting; frs ellipsoid or oblong-ellipsoid, 6–10 mm; seeds dark brown; 2n=26. Native of Europe, extensively cult. and casually escaped in our range."

  • Provided by: [D].New York Botanical Garden
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Annual, biennial or perennial, glabrous-short retrorse hairy, upto 80 cm high herb. Stem erect, branched from base. Leaves ovate-spathulate, cordate, obtuse, crenate; stipules pinnatipartite, lanceolate, crenate, foliaceous. Flowers multi-coloured or a mixture of yellow, blue, purple and violet. Sepals lanceolate. Petals distinctly exceeding the sepals; spur 5-8 mm long, considerably straight, obtuse.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora of Pakistan
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Morphology

    Erect annual, biennial or perennial herb, up to 300 mm tall. Lower leaves cordate to ovate, obtuse, crenate, upper leaves ovate to lanceolate, cuneate at base, crenate. Stipules deeply and pinnately lobed, terminal segment larger than the others, lanceolate, entire or crenate, leaf-like. Corolla exceeding calyx. Spur 3.0-6.5 mm, up to twice as long as calycine appendages. Flowers violet, yellow or parti-coloured.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Habitat

    Grassland.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Distribution

    Native to Europe and Asia.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Johnny-jump-up, pansy, wild pansy, heart's ease, ladies delight, violette tricolore

      Bibliography

     Information From

    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • A Missouri Botanical Garden
    e-Flora of South Africa
    e-Flora of South Africa. v1.21. 2018. South African National Biodiversity Institute. http://ipt.sanbi.org.za/iptsanbi/resource?r=flora_descriptions&v=1.21
    • B All Rights Reserved
    Flora of Pakistan
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Pakistan
    Flora of Pakistan. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2020.
    • C Missouri Botanical Garden
    New York Botanical Garden
    Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
    • D Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • E Flora of North America Association
    Violaceae
    • F CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • G CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).