Viola arvensis Murray
  • Prod. Stirp. Gott.
  • Heartsease


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2021): Viola arvensis Murray. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000426676. Accessed on: 17 Jan 2021'

General Information

Herbs annual or biennial, 5-50 cm tall. Stems erect to ascending, simple or with ascending branches from base, very sparsely puberulous. Stipules 2-40 mm, pinnatipartite, terminal segments largest, often leaflike, lateral ones linear to narrowly lanceolate; leaf blade 0.5-6.5 × 0.2-2.2 cm, sparsely puberulous, especially so along margin and along veins abaxially, margin crenate or serrate; lower leaves ovate or orbicular-ovate, base rounded, petioles equaling or exceeding blades; middle leaves oblong-ovate or oblong-elliptic, base cuneate, decurrent into a short petiole; upper leaves oblong-lanceolate, with indistinct petioles. Flowers few to numerous; pedicels 2.5-11 cm, glabrous, 2-bracteolate; bracteoles lanceolate. Sepals oblong-lanceolate, 4-15 mm, apex acute; basal auricles 1-4 mm, irregularly toothed. Corolla funnelform; petals yellow or ivory, obviously shorter than or nearly equaling sepals, 6-14 mm, upper ones pale, anterior one including spur 5.5-14 mm; spur 1-4 mm, not exceeding appendages, straight. Capsule 6-10 mm. Seeds oblong-ovoid, 1.5-1.8 mm. Fl. Apr-Sep, fr. Jun-Sep. 2n = 34.

  • Provided by: [B].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Plants annual, caulescent, not stoloniferous, 5–35 cm. Stems 1–5, usually erect, sometimes prostrate or decumbent, branched, subglabrous or puberulent, clustered on taproot. Leaves cauline; stipules palmately lobed, middle lobe oblanceolate, obovate, elliptic, or lanceolate, ± equaling leaf blade, proximal lobes dissected, shorter, margins ciliate, apex acute to obtuse; petiole 0.5–2.3 cm, glabrous or puberulent; blade: proximal ovate to ± oblong, distal narrowly or broadly lanceolate, 0.8–3.4 × 0.3–1.9 cm, base attenuate to ± truncate, margins coarsely crenate-serrate, ciliate or eciliate, apex acute to obtuse, surfaces pubescent abaxially, at least on major veins, glabrous adaxially. Peduncles 2–8 cm, glabrous or pubescent. Flowers: sepals lanceolate, margins ciliate or eciliate, auricles 2–4 mm; petals white to pale yellow on both surfaces, upper 2 ± violet, lower 3 with yellow basal area, often violet-veined, lateral 2 bearded, ± equaling or shorter than sepals, lowest with dark yellow area basally, 7–15 mm, spur blue-violet to purple, elongated, 3–5 mm; style head bearded; cleistogamous flowers absent. Capsules ± spherical, 5–9 mm, glabrous. Seeds brown, 1.5–1.9 mm. 2n = 34.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    "Pubescent to glabrate annual to 30 cm, often branched from the base, the stem relatively robust, with short, reflexed hairs on the angles; lvs variable, the lowest orbicular to ovate, the upper oblong to elliptic or narrowly elliptic, all crenate; stipules foliaceous, laciniate into 5–9 slender segments and usually 1 lf-like segment often nearly as large as the main blade; fls 1–1.5 cm long, scarcely 1 cm wide; pet shorter than or barely equaling the broadly lanceolate sep, all pale yellow (“ivory”) or occasionally with purplish tips; spur short; style as in no. 27 [Viola rafinesquii Greene]; cleistogamous fls wanting; frs globose to ellipsoid, 5–10 mm; seeds brown; 2n=34. Native of Europe, now established as a weed in or near fields or along roadsides throughout our range and s. and w. Apr.–Sept."

  • Provided by: [A].New York Botanical Garden
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Morphology

    10–20 cm hoch, unten meist verzweigt. Mittlere Stängelblätter (ohne Stiel) meist länger als 1 cm, beiderseits mit je 4–5 Kerben. Nebenblätter aufrecht, ihr Endabschnitt stark vergrössert und gekerbt, den Laubblättern ähnlich. Unterstes Kronblatt mit de

  • Provided by: [C].Flora Helvetica – Illustrierte Flora der Schweiz
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Ecology

    3–9. Äcker, Getreidefelder, Schuttplätze, kollin-subalpin. CH.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora Helvetica – Illustrierte Flora der Schweiz
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Nationally Preferred Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    HeartseaseEnglishIE
    Field pansyEnglishIE
    Lus croíIrishIE

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Acker-StiefmütterchenGermanCH
    Field or wild pansy, European field pansy, violette des champs
    Pensée des champsFrenchCH
    SalchuachIrishIE
    Cogal gormIrishIE

      Bibliography

     Information From

    New York Botanical Garden
    Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
    • A Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora Helvetica – Illustrierte Flora der Schweiz
    http://www.flora-helvetica.ch
    Flora Helvetica – Illustrierte Flora der Schweiz, Konrad Lauber, Gerhart Wagner, Andreas Gygax. Haupt Verlag 2018.
    • C All Rights Reserved
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • D Flora of North America Association
    Irish Vernacular Names
    https://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/plant-science/plant-science/research-staff/article/380/wyse-jackson-peter-s.aspx
    • E All Rights Reserved
    Violaceae
    • F CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • G CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).