Trees small, rarely shrubs, deciduous, to 10 m tall, spinose or unarmed. Bark brown or gray-brown, with long reduced branches, without buds; branchlets (new branches) purple-red or gray-brown, flexuose, smooth, with 2 stipular spines or not; long spines erect, to 3 cm, stout; short spines recurved, developed from old branches; annual branchlets pendulous, green, solitary or 2-7-fascicled on short shoots. Stipular spines slender, caducous; petiole 1-6 mm, or to 1 cm on long shoots, glabrous or sparsely puberulent; leaf blade abaxially pale green, adaxially dark green, ovate, ovate-elliptic, or elliptic-oblong, 3-7 × 1.5-4 cm, papery, abaxially ± puberulent on major veins or glabrous, adaxially glabrous, 3-veined from base, base slightly asymmetric, subrounded, margin crenate-serrate, apex obtuse or rounded, rarely acute, mucronulate. Flowers yellow-green, bisexual, 5-merous, glabrous, solitary or 2-8 crowded in axillary cymes, shortly pedunculate. Pedicel 2-3 mm. Sepals ovate-triangular, adaxially distinctly keeled. Petals obovate, ca. as long as stamens, clawed at base. Disk orbicular, thick, fleshy, 5-lobed. Ovary basally slightly immersed in disk; style 2-cleft to half. Drupe red at maturity, turning red-purple, oblong or narrowly ovoid, 2-3.5 cm, (0.5-)1.5-2 cm in diam.; mesocarp fleshy, thick, sweet- or sour-tasting; stone acute or obtuse at both ends, 2-loculed, 1- or 2-seeded; fruiting pedicel 2-5 mm or longer. Seeds compressed-orbicular, ca. 1 × 0.8 cm, Fl. May-Jul, fr. Aug-Oct. 2n = 24*, 36*, 48*.
Shrubs or small trees, 2–12 m; secondary branches reddish, glabrescent, not thorn-tipped, axillary thorns absent; stipular spines usually present, straight or curving, 15–40 mm, solitary or paired, sometimes absent. Leaves deciduous, alternate; blade green abaxially, darker green and glossy adaxially, ovate to ovate-lanceolate or elliptic-oblong, 3–6 cm, coriaceous, base oblique, margins crenate-serrate, apex usually obtuse to rounded, rarely acute, surfaces glabrous; 3-veined from base. Inflorescences cymes, 2–8-flowered, or rarely flowers solitary. Flowers: hypanthium and sepals yellow-green, petals pale yellow. Drupes ripening through yellow-green to dark red or reddish purple, ellipsoid to narrowly ovoid, 15–20(–30) mm. 2n = 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 96.
A small tree or shrub, with spreading branches, glabrous, prickles stout, straight up to 3 cm long, older tree unarmed, leaves coriaceous, glabrous, obliquely oblong-ovate, lanceolate, crenate to serrate, obtuse-subacute, base slightly cordate, 2-5 cm x 1-2.5 cm; petiole very short c. 1-2 mm long, Inflorescence of axillary clusters. Flower 3-4 mm in diameter, peduncles very short; pedicels 1-2 mm long. Calyx ovate, acuminate somewhat keeled. Petals spathulate cucullate, c. 2 mm long. Disc thin, 5-lobed, styles 2 united to the middle, fruit globose or oblong 1-2 x .5-1 cm, succulent, shining.