Silene gallica L.
  • Sp. Pl.
  • alfinete-da-terra


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Silene gallica L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000440573. Accessed on: 12 Jul 2020'

General Information

Plants annual; taproot slender. Stems erect, branched, rarely simple, 15-45 cm, with long, often crinkled hairs mixed with short pubescence, viscid-glandular distally. Leaves 2 per node, blade with coarse, ascending, scabrous pubescence on both surfaces; basal few, withering, blade oblanceolate to spatulate-petiolate, 0.5-5 cm × 3-15 mm; cauline blades oblanceolate to lanceolate, 1-7 cm × 1-15 mm, apex obtuse or shortly acuminate to acute. Inflorescences open, with racemose branches, internodes and bracts usually ca. equaling fruiting calyx, 1-5 mm, longer proximally. Flowers 5-8 mm diam.; calyx prominently 10-veined, narrowly tubular-ovoid in flower, ovoid in fruit, constricted at mouth, 7-10 × 3-5 mm, membranous between veins, margins dentate, hispid, hairs ca. 2 mm, veins parallel, lobes lanceolate, 2-2.5 mm, apex greenish purple, acute; petals white or pink, often with dark spot or dark pink throughout, clawed, claw equaling calyx, limb elliptic to obovate, lobed or unlobed, to 6 mm, appendages 2, oblong to narrowly lanceolate, 1-1.5 mm; stamens equaling or shorter than calyx; stigmas 3, included in calyx. Capsules equaling calyx, opening with 6 recurved, narrowly triangular teeth; carpophore shorter than 1 mm, pubescent. Seeds dark reddish brown, reniform, angular with concave, radially ridged faces, broad outer edge transversely ridged and verrucose, ca. 0.5 mm broad. 2n = 24.

  • Provided by: [G].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
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    "Annual 1–4 dm, conspicuously hirsute (or the lvs merely puberulent), and glandular above; basal lvs few, oblanceolate to spatulate, the cauline narrower, 1.5–4 cm × 2–8(–15) mm; fls ± erect, in a leafy-bracteate, raceme-like, secund monochasial cyme; cal 6–9 mm and tubular at anthesis, later inflated but scarcely accrescent, 10-nerved, glandular and hairy; pet white to pink, slightly longer than the cal, entire or sometimes slightly toothed, the appendages linear and entire; carpophore to 1 mm; fr 3-locular except at the tip; seeds 1 mm wide, finely corrugate-rugose; 2n=24. Native of Eurasia, occasionally intr. in our range. Apr–July. (S. quinquevulnera, with a crimson spot on the pet; S. anglica, misapplied)"

  • Provided by: [F].New York Botanical Garden
    • Source: [
    • 7
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    Diagnostic Description

    An erect or somewhat spreading, rarely ±prostrate annual with obovate-spathulate lower leaves, densely glandular-puberulous on the upper parts of the stem and on the inflorescence, and highly characteristic flowers with ± entire petals. The calyx is ± tubular at anthesis with distinctive glassy bristles 2-3 mm long on the veins and the urn-shaped capsule, 6-8 mm long, is carried on a very short carpophore, ± 1 mm long. The styles are very short, ± 1.5 mm long.The seed testal cells are radially elongated on the flanks, which are deeply excavated, and each cell is ornamented with a single series of 2-4 granules. A double series of cells along the midline demarcates the flat or weakly convex seed back.

  • Provided by: [C].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
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    Morphology

    Seeds numerous, dark brown or blackish, c. 0·8 mm. in diam., reniform with depressed faces, minutely tubercled to flat-plated (“armadillo”).

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
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    Stamens with hairy filaments ± the length of the petal-claw.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
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    Petals white or pinkish, 0·9–1·1 cm. long, narrowly oblanceolate with a long claw and entire limb, with 2 acute coronal scales c. 1·5 mm. long.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
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    Capsule ovoid, about as long as the persistent calyx; stalk c. 1 mm. long.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
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    Ovary narrowly ovoid on a very short puberulous stalk; styles 3, c. 2·5 mm. long, hairy.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
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    Leaves up to 8 × 2·5 cm., sessile or the basal ones narrowing into a short petiole, oblanceolate to spathulate-oblanceolate, rounded or obtuse and mucronate at the apex, cuneate at the base, sparsely hairy on both sides.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
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    Annual herb with simple or branching stems up to 40 cm. tall; internodes often purplish, with some very short hairs and others up to 2 mm. long.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
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    Inflorescences of terminal cymes, often with the flowers on one side of the rhachis, elongating in fruit, 2–9-flowered; bracts foliaceous, narrowly lanceolate, sessile, hairy with the hairs often glandular, smaller than the leaves and decreasing in size up the rhachis; pedicels 0–c. 8 mm. long, hairy.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
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    Calyx c. 8 × 2 mm., oblong-cylindric, enlarging and becoming broadly campanulate in fruit, with both long simple hairs and glandular hairs, 10-veined, with 5 acuminate teeth c. 2 mm. long.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
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    Capsules on stalks 2–10 mm. long, erect to more or less reflexed.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 5
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    Seeds small, grey to black, minutely tubercled to flat-plated (“armadillo”).

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 5
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    An annual herb with simple or branched stems, 1.4–4.0 dm. tall, with spreading hairs, some very short others up to 2 mm. in length.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 5
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    Petals entire, 9–11 mm. long and with the expanded portion 1.5–3.5 mm. broad, white or pinkish.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 5
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    Calyx 8–10 mm. long, enlarging (and especially broadening) in fruit.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Inflorescence with the appearance of a one-sided raceme terminating the stem or its branches, elongating with age, 2–9-flowered.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 5
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    Leaves oblanceolate or spathulate-oblanceolate, generally rounded and mucronulate at the apex, narrowed to the base, up to 7.7 cm. long and 2.2 cm. broad.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 5
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    Annual to 40 cm tall; stems ascending or erect, simple or well-branched from base and above, 0.75-3 mm diam., lower parts closely puberulous with very short, ± deflexed or spreading hairs mixed with longer, shaggy, spreading or upcurved hairs 1-2 mm long but later glabrescent; upper parts of stems and inflorescences closely puberulous with very short, ± deflexed or spreading hairs mixed with short, spreading, gland-tipped hairs, inflorescence axis especially densely gladular-pubescent. Leaves oblanceolate to spathulate-oblanceolate becoming oblong-lanceolate distally, 15-50 x 4-15 mm, apiculate, base narrowed in lower leaves, sparsely or densely pubescent with erect or ± appressed hairs, mixed on upper leaves with gland-tipped hairs, margins towards base ciliate with long, straggling hairs to 3 mm long, without evident side veins. Inflorescence a secund, spike-like monochasium terminating main stems and branches, (4-)8-15(-20)-flowered, lower flowers often remote; bracts smaller than leaves, unequal, fertile bract linear, sterile bract larger and more leaf-like, densely puberulous with gland-tipped hairs mixed with acute, eglandular hairs; pedicels mostly up to 3 mm long in lower (rarely up to 12 mm long in lowermost flower developed in axil of upper leaves) but upper flowers subsessile. Calyx sub-cylindrical in flower, 8-10 x 1.5-2.0 mm at anthesis, equally 10-veined without reticulate venation, densely puberulous with mix of gland-tipped and acute hairs and with conspicuous, glassy bristles 2-3 mm long on veins, lobes awl-like, 2-3 mm long. Flowers suberect at anthesis, unscented, diurnal. Petals longitudinally twisted and propellar-like, white or pink, sometimes with large crimson blotch or stain, claw 6-8 mm long, oblong, without auricles, limb obovate or oblong, minutely crenulate, unlobed, 1.5-4 x 1.0-2.5 mm, coronal scales ± 1 mm long. Stamen filaments unequal, shorter series ± 4-6 mm long, included, longer series ± 7-9 mm long, exserted up to 2 mm, puberulous. Ovary pyriform, ± 2 mm long; styles ± 1.5 mm long, deeply included. Capsule ovoid, 6-8 x 4-5 mm, ± 6-8 x longer than carpophore, minutely transversely rugulose; carpophore ± 1 mm long, pubescent. Seeds 0.7-1.0 mm, reniform, greyish brown, face concave-excavate, testal cells radially elongated-fusiform and mostly 2-4 granulate, back flat or weakly concave, tuberculate.

  • Provided by: [C].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 8
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    Glandular-hairy annual to 45 cm. Leaves oblanceolate, ciliate. Flowers in subsecund, spike-like, monochasial cymes, white or pink, calyx bristly, 7-10 mm long, petals entire, carpophore ± 1 mm long.

  • Provided by: [C].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 9
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    Annual herb, up to 0.45 m high. Stems sticky hairy. Leaves opposite, sessile; narrowly ovate. Flowers: in a spike-like inflorescence, mostly pointing in one direction; calyx 10-12 mm long; petals notched, white or pink or with a deep red mark (var. quinquevulnera).

  • Provided by: [C].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 10
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    Glandular-hairy, ± sticky annual, up to 450 mm tall. Leaves oblanceolate, ciliate. Flowers in ± one-sided, spike-like monochasial cymes, white or pink, calyx coarsely hairy, 7-10 mm long, petals entire, carpophore ± 1 mm long. Calyx contracted at mouth in fruit.

  • Provided by: [C].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 11
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    Habitat

    A weed of argicultural lands and in waste places, along roadsides, and in other disturbed sites, but in some places has also invaded more open native vegetation that has been subjected to light disturbance, such as trampling and grazing.

  • Provided by: [C].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Weed of disturbed places.

  • Provided by: [C].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Dry Grassland.

  • Provided by: [C].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Weed of disturbed places.

  • Provided by: [C].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    Distribution

    European weed.

  • Provided by: [C].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    European weed.

  • Provided by: [C].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    Distribution Map

     
    • Introduced distribution
    Introduced into
    • Southern America Brazil Paraní
    • Rio Grande do Sul
    • Santa Catarina
    • Minas Gerais
    • Rio de Janeiro
    • São Paulo

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    alfinete-da-terraPortuguese
    Small-flowered catchfly, silène de France
    rosa-do-campoPortuguese
    alfinetePortuguese

      Bibliography

     Information From

    Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020
    http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br
    Brazil Flora G (2014): Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020. v393.147. Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botanico do Rio de Janeiro. Dataset/Checklist. doi:10.15468/1mtkaw
    • A Group Brazil Flora, REFLORA Program
    Caryophyllaceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • B CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    e-Flora of South Africa
    e-Flora of South Africa. v1.21. 2018. South African National Biodiversity Institute. http://ipt.sanbi.org.za/iptsanbi/resource?r=flora_descriptions&v=1.21
    • C All Rights Reserved
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • D
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • E
    New York Botanical Garden
    Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
    • F Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • G Flora of North America Association
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • H CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).