Triumfetta rhomboidea Jacq.
  • Enum. Syst. Pl.
  • malva-preta


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Triumfetta rhomboidea Jacq. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000457668. Accessed on: 01 Apr 2020'

General Information

Subshrubs or herbs. Branchlets gray-brown tomentose. Petiole 1-5 cm; lower leaf blades broadly ovate-orbicular, rhomboid, or broadly ovate, 3-lobed, 3-9.5 × 2-8.5 cm, abaxially stellate pilose, adaxially sparsely hairy, basal veins 3-5, 2 lateral ones reaching tip of lobes, base broadly cuneate or rounded, margin irregularly bluntly serrate, apex acute; upper leaf blades oblong-lanceolate, not lobed. Cymes 3-5 per axil; peduncle to 2 mm. Flower buds cylindrical, apex slightly wider, ca. 4 mm. Pedicel less than 1 mm. Sepals narrowly oblong, 4.5-5.5 mm, villous, appendaged at tip. Petals yellow, slightly shorter than sepals, hairy along margins. Stamens 10. Ovary spiny. Capsule globose, ca. 3 mm in diam., spiny, indehiscent; spines ca. 2 mm, gray-yellow puberulent, tip hooked. Seeds 2-6. Fl. summer-autumn. 2n = 32.

  • Provided by: [B].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
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    Herbs, annual. Stems erect, branched, 3–18 dm, stellate-pubescent to glabrate. Leaves: petiole 1–5(–7) cm; proximal blades broadly ovate-orbiculate, rhombic, elliptic, or broadly ovate, usually palmately 3-lobed, 3–9(–15) cm, distal ovate to ovate-lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, not lobed, base broadly cuneate or rounded to cordate or truncate, margins irregularly serrate, apex acute, surfaces: abaxial densely stellate-pubescent, adaxially sparsely stellate-pubescent, 3–5-veined from base. Inflorescences 3–5(–6) per axil, often subspicate; peduncle 1–3 mm. Pedicels 0.5–2 mm. Flowers: sepals narrowly oblong to linear-oblong, subapically appendaged, 4–5.5 mm, stellate abaxially; stamens 10–15; ovaries 3–4-locular. Capsules globose to ovoid-globose, 2.5–3 mm, surface densely tomentose-pilose; spines uncinate, glabrate, sparsely and minutely stipitate-glandular. 2n = 32.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
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    Triumfetta rhomboidea Jacq., Enum. Syst. Pl. 22. 1760; Bartramia indica L.; T. bartramia L.

    Arbustos 1–3 m de alto; ramas e inflorescencia dispersamente pilosas con tricomas estrellados de brazos largos sobre una capa densa a dispersa, tomentosa a cortamente pilosa, de tricomas estrellados de brazos cortos; plantas hermafroditas. Hojas ampliamente ovadas, a veces 3-lobadas, ápice obtuso a acuminado, base redondeada o aguda, márgenes irregularmente serrados, con dientes glandulares cerca de la base, haz con pocos a numerosos tricomas estrellados de brazos largos y cortos, envés con numerosos tricomas estrellados de brazos largos traslapados; pecíolos 3–5 cm de largo, más cortos en las hojas subyacentes a las inflorescencias. Inflorescencias axilares, yemas ligeramente panduradas con ápice más ancho que la base, ligeramente contraídas abajo del ápice bulbosamente lobado, 5–7 mm de largo; sépalos ca 6.5 mm de largo, con ápice conspicuamente cuculado, capuchones ca 1 mm de largo y apéndices 0.5–1 mm de largo, externamente con numerosos tricomas estrellados a glabrescentes; pétalos ampliamente obovados, 5–6 mm de largo; androginóforo 0.5–0.8 mm de largo, urcéolo ca 1/2 de esta longitud, no lobado (lobado), ciliado; estambres 10–15; ovario con espínulas marcadamente uncinadas en el ápice hialino, estilo 5–6 mm de largo. Frutos globosos, cuerpo 3–4 mm de diámetro, densa, persistente y cortamente blanco-vellosos, espinas delgadas y rígidas, 70–100, ca 0.8–1 mm de largo, glabras, ápice hialino marcada a débilmente arqueado; semillas 1.8–2.5 mm de largo.

    Conocida en Nicaragua de una sola colección, (Stevens 20869) realizada en playas de mar, Río San Juan; nivel del mar; fl oct; una planta costera ruderal desde Estados Unidos (Florida) hasta Perú y este de Brasil, también en las Antillas. Aparentemente introducida en Centroamérica y luego en el Pacífico e Indo-Malasia. Tratada por Lay, 1950 y en la Flora of Guatemala bajo el nombre de T. bartramia, un nombre superfluo para B. indica.

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    Morphology

    Flowers orange or yellow.

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    A weedy undershrub, variable in habit and foliage

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    Stamens (14–)15.

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    Petals spathulate, 5–7 mm long, 1.5–2 mm wide, basal 1 mm hairy.

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    Sepals narrowly elliptic to linear, 8–9 mm long, sparsely stellate-hairy outside, apical spine 0.25–0.5 mm long, conspicuously red in bud.

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    Inflorescence terminal, 1–4-branched, (5–)10–35 cm long, nodes with reduced leaves becoming more linear and smaller towards the top, internodes 1.5–4 cm, each with 1–6 leaf-subopposed cymes; peduncles 2–3 mm long, each bearing (1–)3(–5) flowers; bracts as stipules 1–3.5 mm long; pedicels 1–2 mm long.

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    Leaf blade rhombic to broadly or narrowly elliptic or ovate, 3-lobed to 1/2–3/4-way to base, rarely entire, 2.5–11.5(–17) cm long, 2.5–8(–10.5) cm wide, apex acute, rarely shortly acuminate, base cuneate to obtuse, 1–2-serrate-dentate, the tips of the proximal teeth replaced with black crater-like glands, subglabrous or more often subscabrid to thinly pubescent above, often deeply pubescent beneath; petiole terete, 1–4.5(–7) cm long, thickly pubescent; stipules narrowly elliptic to linear, to 4 mm long, 1 mm wide, black, falling early.

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    Annual herb to perennial woody subshrub, 15 cm to 2 m tall; stem erect, to 1 cm diameter at base, red-brown, pubescent, scurfy, scabrid or glabrous above.

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    Fig. 13/1–5.

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    Fruits 3–20 per node, indehiscent, globose, 5–7 mm diameter (fruit body 3–5 mm), densely covered in long white hairs, with ± 120 patent, glabrous or rarely subglabrous, dark brown spines, each with a translucent, forward directed recurved hair at the tip.

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    Ovary sparsely hairy.

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    Stamens c. 15.

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    Petals yellow, slightly shorter than the sepals, linear-oblanceolate, villous at the base.

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    Androgynophore 0·25 mm. tall with circular glands: annulus villous on its upper margin.

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    Inflorescences leafy, with the inflorescence leaves smaller and narrower than the cauline ones; cymes crowded at the nodes; peduncles of cymes and pedicels short, 1·5–3 mm. long; bracts c. 3 mm. long, linear, pubescent.

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    Sepals 4–5 mm. long, linear, hooded towards the apex, stellate-pubescent outside or almost glabrous; subapical horn c. 0·5 mm. long, setulose-pubescent.

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    Stems almost glabrous to velvety or tomentose, up to c. 2 m. tall.

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    Leaf-lamina 2·5–15 × 2–10 cm., ovate to ovate-lanceolate, acute at the apex, often 3-lobed, cordate or truncate at the base, 3–7-nerved from the base, irregularly serrate; petiole up to 5 cm. long; stipules c. 4 mm. long, linear-lanceolate, setose-pubescent.

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    Very polymorphic species, usually annual but there seem to be perennial forms.

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    Ovary 2–3-locular, closely setulose or echinulate.

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    Fruit 4–5 mm. in diam. including the aculei, globose or ovoid-globose, its body densely tomentose; aculei uncinate at the apex, glabrous.

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    Annual or perennial herb, 2 m high. Leaves broadly ovate to ovate-lanceolate, often 3-lobed, obtuse to rounded at base. Prickles on fruit uncinate at apex, hooked or falcate, glabrous. Flowers yellow.

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    Very polymorphic species up to about 2 m tall, usually annual but there seem to be perennial forms; branches almost glabrous to velvety or tomentose. Leaf-blade 25-150 x 20-100 mm, ovate to ovate-lanceolate, acute at the apex, often three-lobed, cordate or truncate at the base, 3-7-nerved from the base, irregularly serrate; petiole up to 50 mm long; stipules about 4 mm long, linear-lanceolate, setose-pubescent. Inflorescence foliose with the inflorescence leaves smaller and narrower than the cauline leaves; cymes crowded at the nodes; peduncles and pedicels short, 1.5-3 mm long; bracts linear, about 3 mm long, pubescent. Sepals 4-5 mm long, linear, hooded towards the apex, stellate-pubescent outside or almost glabrous; subapical hom about 0.5 mm long, setulose-pubescent. Petals yellow, slightly shorter than the sepals, linear-oblanceolate, villous at the base. Androgynophore 0.25 mm tall with suborbicular glands opposite the petal bases; annulus villous on its upper margin. Stamens about 15. Ovary 2-3-locular, closely setulose or echinulate. Capsule 4-5 mm in diam. including the prickles, globose or ovoid-globose, its body densely tomentose; pricles uncinated at the apex, glabrous.

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    Habitat

    Open grassland and woodland; also weed of cultivation.

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    Commonly occurs as a weed of cultivation but is also found growing naturally in open grassland and woodland.

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    Distribution

    Common in the north-eastern Cape, Natal, Swaziland, the Transvaal, South West Africa/Namibia and throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world.

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    Distribution Map

     
    • Native distribution
    Found in
    • Southern America Brazil Acre
    • Amazonas
    • Alagoas
    • Bahia
    • Paraába
    • Pernambuco
    • Paraní
    • Santa Catarina
    • Minas Gerais
    • Rio de Janeiro
    • São Paulo
    • Brazilia Distrito Federal
    • Goiás
    • Mato Grosso
    • Mato Grosso do Sul

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    malva-pretaPortuguese
    carrapicho-grandePortuguese
    Diamond burrbark

      Bibliography

     Information From

    e-Flora of South Africa
    e-Flora of South Africa. v1.21. 2018. South African National Biodiversity Institute. http://ipt.sanbi.org.za/iptsanbi/resource?r=flora_descriptions&v=1.21
    • A All Rights Reserved
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • C Flora of North America Association
    Flora de Nicaragua
    http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
    WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
    • D Missouri Botanical Garden
    Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020
    http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br
    Brazil Flora G (2014): Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020. v393.147. Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botanico do Rio de Janeiro. Dataset/Checklist. doi:10.15468/1mtkaw
    • E Group Brazil Flora, REFLORA Program
    Malvaceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • F CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    MBG Floras Images
    http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
    Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
    • G Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • H
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • I The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • J
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • K CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).