Theobroma cacao L.
  • Sp. Pl.
  • cacau da mata


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2021): Theobroma cacao L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000458440. Accessed on: 22 Oct 2021'

General Information

Evergreen trees, to 12 m tall; bark thick, dark gray-brown. Branchlets brown, puberulent. Stipules linear, caducous; leaf blade narrowly ovate- to obovate-elliptic, 20-30 × 7-10 cm, both surfaces glabrous or sparsely stellate, base rounded to shallowly cordate, apex long acuminate. Inflorescence small and delicate, cymose. Flowers ca. 18 mm in diam.; pedicels ca. 12 mm. Calyx pink, lobes narrowly lanceolate, persistent, margin hairy. Petals 5, yellowish, lightly longer than calyx, lower part helmet-shaped and abruptly narrowed, reflexed, apex acute. Staminodes linear. Ovary obovoid, slightly 5-angular, 5-celled; ovules 14-16 per locule, in 2 rows; style cylindrical. Drupe ellipsoid or narrowly ellipsoid, 15-20 × ca. 7 cm, longitudinally 10-grooved; endocarp thick, fleshy, hard and woody when dried, 4-8 mm thick. Seeds 12-14 per cell, ovoid, slightly flattened, ca. 2.5 × 1.5 cm. Fl. throughout year.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
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    Theobroma cacao L., Sp. Pl. 782. 1753; T. pentagonum Bernoulli; T. leiocarpum Bernoulli; T. sphaerocarpum A. Chev.

    Arboles o arbustos de 2–10 m de alto. Hojas ovalado-lanceoladas u ovado-lanceoladas, 18–34 cm de largo y 5–11 cm de ancho, ápice abruptamente afinado, base a veces algo asimétrica, glabras o subglabras, tricomas sobre los nervios principales. Inflorescencias sobre prominencias del tronco; lámina de los pétalos obovado-lanceolada, más corta que la capucha, glabra, blanco-amarillenta, la capucha 3-nervia, nervios laterales muy gruesos y purpúreos; estambres 10, en 5 haces 2-anteríferos; estaminodios largamente subulados, de la misma longitud que los pétalos, pubérulos. Fruto subabayado, ovoide o elipsoidal, muy variable en tamaño, 5–10-acostillado, verrugoso o liso, redondeado o afinado en el ápice.

    Bosques regenerados en cultivos abandonados, nebliselvas y bosques pantanosos, no está fehacientemente registrada en Nicaragua como planta silvestre, en todas las zonas; 50–1400 m; fl sep, dic, fr mar, may; Robleto 538, Stevens 7229; aparentemente silvestre en el sur de México, Guatemala, Belice y en la cuenca amazónica, ampliamente difundida en los trópicos bajo cultivo. Cuatrecasas establece dos subespecies y dos formas sobre la base de variaciones en la forma del fruto y de la semilla, entre otros caracteres. Con el material de herbario no es posible identificar a nivel infraespecífico lo coleccionado en Nicaragua. "Cacao".

  • Provided by: [C].Flora de Nicaragua
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    Tree usually 4-8 m. high, rarely taller and up to 20 m.; growth below jorquette; primary branching quinate; young branchlets terete, grayish-green or brownish, densely or sparsely pubescent with slender, patulous, acute, simple or furcate hairs, later glabrate, rugulose and sparsely lenticellate; stipules subulate, deciduous. Leaves alternate, distichous, the petioles thickened-pulvinate at both ends, 1.5-2 (1-3) cm. long, on orthotropous stems 3-10 cm. long, pubescent or tomentose with slender, spreading, acute, simple hairs; blade subobovate-oblong or elliptic-oblong, slightly asymmetrical, rounded or obtuse at base, attenuate and acuminate at apex, entire or slightly and irregularly sinuate, 15-50 cm. long and 4-15 cm. broad, cori- aceous or chartaceous, the acumen acute or subacute and 1-2.5 mm. long; upper surface green, glabrous except for the pubescent or puberulous, prominent costa, the secondary nerves filiform; lower surface lighter green, glabrous or with very sparse, minute, simple, furcate or stellate hairs, rarely puberulous, the costa prominent, the 9-12 secondary nerves on each side prominent, subpatulous. Infiorescences on the trunk and on the branches, usually borne on small tubercles, the cymose peduncles 1-3 mm. long, stellate-pubescent, hirtellous and with scattered, glandular hairs; bracts and bracteoles ovate or ovate-oblong, acute or subacute, pubescent, deciduous; pedicels capillary, rigid, 5-15 mm. long, pale green, whitish or reddish, hirtellous with patulous, stellate or furcate hairs and glandular, capitate hairs; buds ovoid or oblong-ovoid, acute, white, whitish-green, lilac or reddish, subglabrous or sparsely puberulous. Flowers with lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate sepals, these shortly united at base, acute at apex, 5-8 mm. long and 1.5-2 mm. wide, thick- membranaceous, white, greenish-white, pale violaceous or reddish, slightly 3-nerved, glabrous or with stellate and glandular hairs outside, glabrous or with rare, glan- dular hairs inside; petals thick-membranaceous; petal-hoods obovate, rounded at apex, 3-4 mm. long and 5-2 mm. wide, white, 3-nerved; petal-laminae stipitate, the stipe linear and 2-4 mm. long, obovate or rombic-obovate, the apex attenuate, acuminate or subtruncate and shortly mucronate, rarely blunt, the margin entire or sinuate, 1.5-2.5 mm. long and 1.5-2 mm. wide, pale yellowish; staminodes nar- rowly subulate, very acute, 4-6 mm. long, the middle vein thick, angular, red or purplish, minutely papillose-pilose, the thin margin whitish, ciliate with slender, flexuose, simple hairs; filaments 1.5-2 mm. long, glabrous, 2-antheriferous; ovary glabrous or usually glandular, the glands numerous, stipitate, white or reddish, pluricellular; styles adherent, glabrous. Fruit variable in shape, from globose to fusiform and acute, with a very smooth to a strongly ridged and rugose or verrucose surface; pericarp consistently fleshy, 5-15 mm. thick, usually made of 2 more or less conspicuously different, carnose layers (epicarp and endocarp) separated by a thin, ligneous membrane (mesocarp), the latter sometimes reduced to isolated bundles of fibers or lacking, the endocarp also sometimes lacking; pulp white and sweet; seeds 20-40, ovoid, ellipsoid, amygdaloid, more or less complanate or almost round in cross-section, variable in size, 20-40 mm. long and 12-20 mm. broad, the testa subcoriaceous, brown; cotyledons white, purplish, violet or intermediate in color.

  • Provided by: [A].Flora de Panama
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    Morphology

    Petit arbre'de 5-10 m de haut.'Feuilles'à stipules caduques, lancéolées-aiguës, de 8-15 mm de long, pubescentes; pétiole de 3-4 cm de long; limbe obovale-lancéolé, atténué au sommet en un acumen de 2-3 cm de long, arrondi à la base, glabre, papyracé à subcoriace, de 20-35 cm de long et 7-15 cm de large, discolore, brun foncé en dessus, brun clair en dessous; nervures ± 10 paires; fin réseau de nervilles bien apparent en dessous.'Glomérules'2-5-flores, cauliflores, ou sur le vieux bois, ou fleurs solitaires.'Fleurs'blanc rosé, éparsement pubérulentes; pédicelle de 10-20 mm de long, épaissi à sa partie supérieure, pubérulent; sépales soudés à la base, lancéolés, pubérulents en dessous, ciliés, de 8 mm de long; pétales libres, à appendice étroit et recourbé puis prolongé en spatule, de ± 9 mm de long, vert jaunâtre strié de violet; étamines 5, oppositipétales; filets de 2 mm de long, portant 2-3 anthères, alternant avec de longs staminodes renflés à la base, effilés au sommet, de 6 mm de long, rouges; ovaire pentagonal, de 1 mm de long, pubérulent, à 5 loges 10-12-ovulées; style de 2 mm de long, à 5 branches stigmatiques.'Fruits'bacciformes, à pédicelle atteignant 3 cm de long, ovoïdes-fusiformes, de 10-25 cm de long et 8-10 cm de large, à 10 sillons longitudinaux dont 5 profonds et 5 superficiels, glabres, verruqueux, orange à jaune à maturité complète.'Graines ovoïdes-aplaties, de ± 2 cm de long et 1 cm de large, immergées dans une pulpe blanchâtre, fondante, d'un goût agréable légèrement acidulé; cotylédons charnus blancs à violet foncé.

  • Provided by: [E].Flore d'Afrique Centrale
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    Habit

    Tree

  • Provided by: [A].Flora de Panama
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    Uses

    Cultivé au Mayumbe et dans le Forestier Central. Originaire d'Amérique tropicale où il serait spontané dans le cours supérieur du Rio Branco au nord-est d'Obidos et à l'intérieur de Francez, localité du Moyen Tapajoz; dans ces deux régions, le cacaoyer habite le sous-bois de forêts à dominance d'Orbignya speciosa (Mart.) Barb. Rodr. établies en terrain humide ou un peu marécageux (Ducke A., Arch. Jard. Bot. Rio de Janeiro, IV, p. 130, 1925). La graine de T. cacao fournit, après fermentation, la « fève de cacao » qui contient 4-6 % d'eau, 2-3 % de cendres, 52-55 % de beurre de cacao, 0,89-1,38 % de théobromine et ± 12 % de matières azotées (L'Heureux, Bull. Agr. Congo Belge, XXII, p. 496-509, 1931).

  • Provided by: [E].Flore d'Afrique Centrale
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    Distribution Map

     
    • Introduced distribution
    Introduced into
    • Southern America Brazil Acre
    • Amapí
    • Amazonas
    • Parí
    • Rondônia
    • Bahia
    • Maranh

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    cacau da mataPortuguese
    cacauPortuguese

     Information From

    Flora de Panama
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
    Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
    • A Missouri Botanical Garden
    Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020
    http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br
    Brazil Flora G (2014): Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020. v393.147. Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botanico do Rio de Janeiro. Dataset/Checklist. doi:10.15468/1mtkaw
    • B Group Brazil Flora, REFLORA Program
    Flora de Nicaragua
    http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
    WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
    • C Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • D Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    https://www.floredafriquecentrale.be
    • E http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)
    Global Tree Search
    https://tools.bgci.org/global_tree_search.php
    BGCI. 2018. GlobalTreeSearch online database. Botanic Gardens Conservation International. Richmond, U.K. Available at www.bgci.org. Accessed on 30/11/2018.
    • F Botanic Gardens Conservation International
    Malvaceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • G CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    MBG Floras Images
    http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
    Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
    • H Missouri Botanical Garden
    • I Missouri Botanical Garden
    • J Missouri Botanical Garden
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • K CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).