Rhizophora mangle L.
  • Sp. Pl.
  • Red mangrove

Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2021): Rhizophora mangle L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000460362. Accessed on: 01 Mar 2021'

General Information

Shrubs or trees, 6–7[–25] m. Prop roots numerous, arching, 2–4.5 m. Leaves: stipules lanceolate, leaving ring-shaped scar; petioles 1.5–2 cm; blade elliptic, 6–12 × 2.2–6 cm, thick, leathery, base rounded-cuneate, apex acute to obtuse, midvein extended into caducous point, abaxial surface pale green, black punctate, adaxial surface dark green, shiny; midvein conspicuous, higher order veins obscure. Inflorescences mostly 2–4-flowered, 4–7 cm. Flowers 2 cm diam.; hypanthium campanulate-funnelform, 5 mm; sepals widely spreading, pale yellow, lanceolate or narrowly triangular, 12 mm, leathery; petals recurved, creamy white, turning brown in age, narrowly lanceolate to linear, 6–10 × 1.5–2 mm, adaxially wooly, soon deciduous; anthers sessile; ovary conic; style slender; stigma receptive after stamens and petals fall. Berries persistent on tree until after seed germination, rusty or dark brown, 3 cm; sepals spreading to reflexed. Seed with hypocotyl becoming elongate, cylindric, to 12–25 × 1.2 cm, apex sharply pointed. 2n = 36.

  • Provided by: [G].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    1. Rhizophora mangle L., Sp. Pl. 443 (1753). Ilustr.: Standley y Williams, Fieldiana, Bot. 7: 267, t. 45 (1962).

    Por F.R. Barrie.

    Rhizophora mangle L. var. samoensis Hochr., R. samoensis (Hochr.) Salvoza.

    Árboles hasta 30 m o arbustos, depauperados y muy ramificados. Hojas 5-20 × 2-10 cm, elípticas, el ápice agudo; pecíolo 1-4 cm; estípulas 3-7 cm. Inflorescencias ramificadas dicotómicamente 1-2 veces, rara vez 3 veces, o la primera ramificación tricotómica, o las flores solitarias; pedúnculo 1.5-8 cm, laxo; pedicelos 6-23 mm; brácteas 2 o 3, 5-20 mm, connatas, los márgenes escariosos, el ápice agudo a anchamente agudo; bractéolas 2, 5-20 mm, connatas, los márgenes escariosos, el ápice agudo a anchamente agudo. Yemas floríferas 8-14 mm, ovoides a piriformes; sépalos 6-8 × 2.5-3.5 mm en las flores, 12-15 × 5-7 mm en los frutos, triangulares; pétalos 6-8 × 1-2 mm, caducos, glabros abaxialmente, vilosos adaxialmente; estambres 8, 4-6.5 mm, sésiles, apiculados; estilo c. 4 mm. Fruto 28-33 × 12-15 mm; hipocótilo 11-40 cm, recto o curvado. 2 n =36. Zonas de marea, lagunas estuarinas y costeras, de aguas salobres. T ( Matuda 3329, MO); Ch ( Breedlove y Thorne 20773, MO); Y ( Rico-Gray 88, MO); C ( Rico-Gray 217, MO); QR ( Rico-Gray 207, MO); B ( Dwyer 15031, MO); G ( Molina 21151, F); H ( Saunders 535, F); ES ( González 71, MO); N ( Stevens 2740, MO); CR ( Liesner 1896, MO); P ( Hammel y D'Arcy 5047, MO). 0-10 m. (S. Florida, México, Mesoamérica, Colombia, Ecuador, Perú, Venezuela, Guayanas, Brasil, Antillas, O. de África tropical, Nueva Caledonia, Fiji.)

  • Provided by: [E].Flora Mesoamericana
    • Source: [
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    • ]. 

    Rhizophora mangle L., Sp. Pl. 443. 1753.

    Arboles 4–15 m de alto. Hojas elípticas, 8–14 cm de largo y 4–7 cm de ancho, ápice agudo, base cuneada, glabras, envés con puntos negros. Inflorescencia 1.7–6 cm de largo, ramificada una vez o no ramificada, con 2–4 flores agrupadas, pedúnculo 1.7–9 cm de largo, brácteas delgadas, bífidas; pedicelos 6–22 mm de largo, flores 8–10 mm de largo; estambres 8; yema floral ovada, ápice agudo. Fruto ovado-lanceolado, 1.5–3 cm de largo y 1–1.5 cm de ancho, radícula 15–20 cm de largo.

    Común, en pantanos costeros salobres (manglares) en ambas costas; 0–5 m; fl y fr feb–sep; Moreno 6557, Vincelli 657; México hasta Ecuador en la costa pacífica y desde Estados Unidos (Florida) hasta el sur de Brasil en la costa atlántica, también en Africa. "Mangle colorado".

  • Provided by: [H].Flora de Nicaragua
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Trees to 25 m. tall. Leaves obovate or elliptic, the apex obtuse, the base cune- ate, slightly decurrent on the petiole, 7-15 cm. long, 2.0-8.5 cm. broad, glabrous, coriaceous; petiole 1.0-2.5 cm. long. Inflorescence once-dichotomous and 2- flowered, rarely trichotomous and 3-flowered; peduncles 1.5-3.5 cm. long; pedicels 0.5-2.0 cm. long; bracteoles truncate-trapezoid. Floral buds ampullaceous, broad- est at the base, acuminate at the tip; sepals 11-15 mm. long, 4 mm. wide; petals involute, 9-11 mm. long, 2.0-2.5 mm. wide; stamens 8, 5.5-7.0 mm. long; ovary bilocular, half-inferior, the conical upper half terminating in a bifid style, the length of ovary from base of disc to tip of stigma 5-7 mm. Fruit 1.9-2.6 cm. long, 1.0-1.3 cm. wide, the protruding seedling up to 40 cm. long.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 11
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    Shrub or small tree, to 15 ft. high

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
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    In mangrove swamps.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 


    This species occurs along the Atlantic coast from Florida to Brazil and in the West Indies, and also occurs, though not so commonly, along the west coast of Africa. It grows only along the coast, either within the high tide zone or in lakes behind beaches or river estuaries in which it can become established. Under suitable conditions it forms dense stands in shallow water and apparently contributes to land building once it is established.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    Distribution Map

    • Native distribution
    Found in
    • Southern America Brazil Amapí
    • Parí
    • Alagoas
    • Bahia
    • Ceará
    • Maranh
    • Paraába
    • Pernambuco
    • Piauá
    • Rio Grande do Norte
    • Sergipe
    • Paraní
    • Santa Catarina
    • Espirito Santo
    • Rio de Janeiro
    • São Paulo

    Other Local Names

    Red mangrove

     Information From

    MBG Floras Images
    Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
    • A Missouri Botanical Garden
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora de Panama
    Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
    • C Missouri Botanical Garden
    Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020
    Brazil Flora G (2014): Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020. v393.147. Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botanico do Rio de Janeiro. Dataset/Checklist. doi:10.15468/1mtkaw
    • D Group Brazil Flora, REFLORA Program
    Flora Mesoamericana
    Gerrit Davidse, Mario Sousa Sánchez, A. O. Chater, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Instituto de Biología, Missouri Botanical Garden, Natural History Museum (London, England) UNAM, 1994
    • E Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • F The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • G Flora of North America Association
    Flora de Nicaragua
    WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
    • H Missouri Botanical Garden
    Global Tree Search
    BGCI. 2018. GlobalTreeSearch online database. Botanic Gardens Conservation International. Richmond, U.K. Available at www.bgci.org. Accessed on 30/11/2018.
    • I Botanic Gardens Conservation International
    International Union for Conservation of Nature
    IUCN 2016. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-2
    • J All Rights Reserved
    International Union for Conservation of Nature v.3
    IUCN 2019. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2019-1.
    • K See IUCN Terms and conditions of use http://www.iucnredlist.org/info/terms-of-use
    • L CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • M CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).