Portulaca oleracea L.
  • Sp. Pl. : 445 (1753)
  • Porcellana comune


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2022): Portulaca oleracea L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000484425. Accessed on: 07 Dec 2022'

General Information

Herbs annual. Stems sometimes flushed red or purple, not articulated, prostrate or decumbent, less often ± erect, diffuse, much branched; leaf axils with a few inconspicuous stiff bristles. Leaves alternate or occasionally subopposite; petiole short; leaf blade flat, obovate, 10-30 × 5-15 mm, base cuneate, apex obtuse, rounded, truncate, or retuse. Flowers in clusters of 3-5, 0.4-0.5 cm in diam., surrounded by involucre of 2-6 bracts. Sepals green, helmeted, ca. 4 mm, apex acute, keeled. Petals 5, yellow, obovate, 3-5 mm, slightly connate at base, apex retuse. Stamens 7-12, ca. 12 mm; anthers yellow. Ovary glabrous. Stigma 4-6-lobed. Capsule ovoid, ca. 5 mm. Seeds glossy black when mature, never iridescent, obliquely globose-reniform, 0.6-1.2 mm; testa cells stellate, usually with central peglike tubercle, sometimes without and then surface ± granular. Fl. May-Aug, fr. Jun-Sep.

  • Provided by: [Q].Flora of China @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 19
    • ]. 

    Plants annual, glabrous; taproot 2-10 cm. Stems prostrate, succulent; trichomes at nodes and in inflorescence absent or inconspicuous; branches to 56 cm. Leaf blades obovate or spatulate, flattened, 4-28 × 2-13 mm, apex round to retuse or nearly truncate; involucrelike leaves 1-4. Flowers 3-10 mm diam.; petals yellow, oblong, 3-4.6 × 1.8-3 mm; stamens 6-12(-20); stigmas 3-6. Capsules ovoid, 4-9 mm diam. Seeds black or dark brown, orbiculate or elongate, flattened, 0.6-1.1 mm; surface cells ± smooth, granular, or stellate, with rounded tubercles. 2n = 18, 36, 54.

  • Provided by: [M].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 20
    • ]. 

    Portulaca oleracea L., Sp. Pl. 445. 1753; P. neglecta Mack. & Bush; P. retusa Engelm.; P. oleracea ssp. nicaraguensis Danin & H.G. Baker.

    Hierbas anuales, generalmente postradas o ascendentes, ocasionalmente erguidas, el tallo 11–29 cm de largo. Hojas alternas a subopuestas u opuestas, aplanadas, espatuladas, obovadas u oblongo-obovadas, 0.9–3.2 cm de largo y 0.5–1.7 cm de ancho, redondeadas a truncadas en el ápice, sin tricomas en las axilas o con tricomas inconspicuos 0.3–1 mm de largo. Flores 2–6, terminales, abrazadas por 2–6 hojas involucrales, sin tricomas subyacentes o con tricomas inconspicuos de 0.3–0.6 mm de largo; sépalos 3–4.2 (–4.9) mm de largo y 2.8–3.4 (–4.8) mm de ancho, carinados; pétalos 3–4.6 mm de largo y 1.8–3 mm de ancho, amarillos; estambres 6–10; estilos 4–6. Cápsula ovoide-globosa, 3.1–4.2 mm de diámetro, circuncísil hacia el medio; semillas 0.6–0.8 mm de diámetro, negras, la testa con tubérculos redondeados a granulares.

    Común, en áreas abiertas, en todo el país; 0–700 m; fl may–dic, fr durante todo el año; Neill 2066, Stevens 19963; especie de origen desconocido, en la actualidad cosmopolita en zonas tropicales y templadas. Esta especie presenta una gran variación morfológica y citológica. Utilizada en todo el mundo para ensalada. "Verdolaga".

    J.F. Matthews, D.W. Ketron y S.F. Zane. The biology and taxonomy of the Portulaca oleracea L. (Portulacaceae) complex in North America. Rhodora 95: 166–183. 1993.

  • Provided by: [K].Flora de Nicaragua
    • Source: [
    • 21
    • ]. 

    Plants herbaceous, radially spreading and prostrate or somewhat ascending, glabrous throughout, the roots fibrous. Leaves alternate, elliptic to obovoid, 1-3 cm. long, 0.5-1.0 cm. broad, generally obtuse at the apex, cuneate at the base, plane; petiole 1-8 mm. long, the stipules fimbriate, inconspicuous. Inflorescence with the flowers crowded, the flowers sessile or essentially so, yellow. Perianth tube crateriform, 1 mm. long, 1.5 mm. in diameter; sepals ovate, 3.0-4.5 mm. long, 3-4 mm. -broad, strongly keeled, connate at the base, generally persistent and enclosing the operculum of the fruit; petals 4, 3.0-4.5 mm. long, 1.5-3.0 mm. broad; stamens 6-15, the filaments 1.5-1.75 mm. long, the anthers globose, to 0.5 mm. long and broad; ovary half-inferior, short-conical, the style lobes 4-6. Capsule ovoid to fusiform, 6-9 mm. long, about 2.5 mm. in diameter, circumscissile slightly below the middle; seeds almost cochleate, about 0.5-0.75 mm. in diameter, the testa minutely tuberculate, almost black.

  • Provided by: [F].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 22
    • ]. 

    Prostrate or decumbent herb, to 30 cm long, many-branched from a taprooted base; stems succulent, glabrous or pilose at nodes, usually reddish-tinged. Leaves alternate; blades 0.7-2.5 x 0.4-1.1 cm, spatulate or obovate, thick, fleshy, glabrous, the apex rounded to truncate, the base tapering to a short petiole, the margins sometimes pinkish-tinged. Flowers solitary or a few at ends of branches. Sepals green, keeled; petals 5, 3-4.5 mm long, yellow, elliptic, emarginate. Capsule 2.5-3.7 mm wide, ovoid, opening at or below the middle. Seeds ca. 0.7 mm long, dark brown to black, tuberculate.

  • Provided by: [N].Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden
    • Source: [
    • 24
    • ]. 

    Stem prostrate, usually purplish-red, glabrous, repeatedly branched, forming large mats, edible when young; lvs edible, succulent but flat, spatulate to obovate-cuneate, 1–3 cm, commonly rounded at the summit, the cauline alternate or occasionally opposite; fls solitary or in small terminal glomerules, sessile, self-compatible, yellow, 5–10 mm wide; sep ± acute; stamens mostly 6–10; style-branches 4–6; seeds with low, blunt tubercles, requiring light for germination; polyploid series on x=9. A cosmopolitan weed, probably originally native to s. Asia. All summer.

  • Provided by: [R].Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern US and Canada
    • Source: [
    • 26
    • ]. 

    Annual or perennial, prostrate or erect, c. 25 cm tall, succulent, glabrous, green or purplish green herb. Branches and stem with 3-20 mm rarely up to 50 mm long internodes. Leaves alternate or subopposite, closely crowded below the flowers, spathulate or obovate-oblong to linear-oblong, attenuate at the base, sub-sessile, obtuse or truncate, 3-25 mm long, 1.5-8 mm broad, thick, fleshy, glabrous, glistening white below, green or purplish-green above; stipular appendages usually absent, or rarely every minute and setaceous. Inflorescence usually in the forks of branches, cymose, with clusters of 3-6 flowers subtended by 4-leaved involucre, rarely flowers solitary and terminal. Flowers sessile, yellow, 5-8 mm across, bracteate; bracts membranous, ovate, c. 3 mm long, acuminate, white or somewhat purplish. Sepals subequal, basally united into a short, 2-3 mm long tube, keeled; lobes 2-3 mm long, slightly hooded, margin broad membranous, acute, deciduous. Petals 5, deliquescent, slightly united at the base, obovate, 5-6 mm long, 2.5-3 mm wide, yellow, emarginate with mucronulate notch. Stamens 7-12, basally somewhat united and adnate to petals, filaments c. 2.5 mm long, sensitive to touch, anthers ovoid. Ovary c. 2 mm long, half embedded in calyx tube, ovoid; style 1.5-2 mm long, stigmas 4-5, sticky, c. 1 mm long. Capsule many-seeded, 6-8 mm long, 3-4 mm in diam. Seeds shining black, c. 0.5-0.8 mm, reniform, testa tuberculate.

  • Provided by: [O].Flora of Pakistan
    • Source: [
    • 29
    • ]. 

    Herb, up to ca 40 cm, erect or prostrate. Leaves spirally arranged tosubopposite, obovate to spathulate, up to 40 by 20 mm, with inconspicuous, up to ca 1 mm long axillary hairs. Capitula 2–30-flowered; usually 1–2(–3) of the 2–8 involucral leaves with an axillary flowering axis. Flowers surrounded by up to ca 5 by 6 mm long bracteoles and inconspicuous hairs. Sepals up to ca 6 by 6 mm, carina up to ca 3 by 2 mm. Petals (4–)5, broadly obovate, up to 7 by 6 mm, yellow. Stamens 7–10(–15); filaments up to 4 mm; anthers 0.2–0.5 by 0.2–0.4 mm. Style up to ca 5 mm with (4–)5 arms. Fruit ovate, ca 4 by 3 mm; operculum as high as the fruit, shining, straw-yellow: seeds oc, 0.5–1.2 mm diam., granulate; testa cells stellulate, with many fine tubercles.

  • Provided by: [H].e-Flora of Thailand
    • Source: [
    • 30
    • ]. 

    Morphology

    Raiz: tipo fibrosa(s). Tallo: pelo(s) axila(s) longitud menor que hoja(s); pelo(s) axilar(es) inconspicuo(s). Hoja: ápice(s) de la lámina(s) obtusa(s); lámina(s) foliar(es) plana(s); forma de la laminada(s) obovada(s) - espatulada(s); indumento hirsuto(s) ausente(s). Flor: ápice(s) sépala(s) carenada(s); color de la pétala(s) amarilla. Fruto: base sésil(es); forma del opérculo(s) campanulada(s) - tubular(es). Semilla: forma de la célula(s) de la testa estrellado(s); proyeccion presente(s).

  • Provided by: [J].Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Raiz: tipo fibrosa(s). Caule: tricoma(s) axila(s) comprimento menor que folha(s); tricoma(s) axilar(es) inconspícuo(s). Folha: ápice(s) da lâmina(s) obtusa(s); lâmina(s) foliar(es) plana(s); forma da laminada(s) obovada(s) - espatulada(s); indumento hirsuto(s) ausente(s). Flor: ápice(s) sépala(s) carenada(s); cor da pétala(s) amarela. Fruto: base séssil(eis); forma do opérculo(s) campanulado(s) - tubular(es). Semente: formato da célula(s) da testa estrelado(s); projeção presente(s).

  • Provided by: [J].Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Root: type fibrous. Stem: hair axile length smaller than leaf; hair axillary inconspicuous. Leaf: apex of the blade obtuse; blade foliar flat; form of the laminate obovate - spathulate; indumentum hirsute absent. Flower: apex sepal carenate; colour of the petal yellow. Fruit: base sessile; form of the operculum campanulate - tubular. Seed: shape of the cell of the seed-coat stellate; projection present.

  • Provided by: [J].Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Common annual ruderal, with spreading or prostrate succulent branches

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Flowers bright yellow.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Sepals 2–4 mm. long, united below into a tube c. 2 mm. long, free portions fleshy, oblong-ovate, keeled or slightly winged.

  • Provided by: [P].Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    • Source: [
    • 17
    • ]. 

    Petals yellow, 4–8 mm. long, united at the base, obovate-oblong to obovate, sometimes emarginate.

  • Provided by: [P].Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    • Source: [
    • 17
    • ]. 

    Leaves alternate and often somewhat crowded towards the ends of the branches, sessile or shortly stalked, up to 3·0 × 1·2 cm., obovate-spathulate, apex rounded or truncate; stipular hairs very few, inconspicuous, caducous, c. 1 mm. long.

  • Provided by: [P].Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    • Source: [
    • 17
    • ]. 

    Flowers terminal, solitary or up to 5, surrounded by a cluster of subverticillate leaves; bracts membranous, c. 3 mm. long, ovate-acuminate.

  • Provided by: [P].Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    • Source: [
    • 17
    • ]. 

    Annual glabrous rather fleshy herb with numerous spreading or prostrate branches up to 30 cm. long and up to 5 mm. in diam.

  • Provided by: [P].Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    • Source: [
    • 17
    • ]. 

    Stamens 7–12.

  • Provided by: [P].Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    • Source: [
    • 17
    • ]. 

    Ovary ovoid; style short, with 3–6 subulate lobes.

  • Provided by: [P].Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    • Source: [
    • 17
    • ]. 

    Seeds many, c. 0·5 mm. in diam., dull black, reniform, bluntly verrucose-granulate.

  • Provided by: [P].Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    • Source: [
    • 17
    • ]. 

    Capsule obovoid to ovoid, enveloped in the marcescent corolla, transversely dehiscent across the middle.

  • Provided by: [P].Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    • Source: [
    • 17
    • ]. 

    Capsule dehiscing just below the middle, lid conical, chartaceous, constricted 2/3 up, the apical portion thinner, nipple-like and retaining 1 or more seeds above the constriction; seeds orbicular-reniform, 0.65–1 mm long, black, testa cells stellate, often also tuberculate and/or papillose.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 18
    • ]. 

    Flowers in sessile clusters of 3–8 at the branch tips, encircled by several involucral leaves enclosing ovate-cuspidate scales, frequently overtopped by subsequent growth from the axils of the lower two involucral leaves, the flower-cluster thus seated in a fork, flowers opening in the morning.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 18
    • ]. 

    Sepals (2.5–)3–4.5(–5.5) mm long, crested and winged along the midline upwards; petals 5, yellow (very rarely pale pink), 3–8 mm long, emarginate to bilobed; stamens 7–12; stigma 3–6-branched.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 18
    • ]. 

    Prostrate, much-branched, succulent annual forming a spreading mat, or infrequently ascending, stems and leaves green or flushed red.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 18
    • ]. 

    Leaves alternate, subopposite on the branchlets, narrowly obovate to spatulate, 5–30 mm long, 3–10 mm wide, apex rounded, cuneate to a petiole 1–3 mm long; axillary hairs 0.6–1 mm long, inconspicuous, old stems glabrescent.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 18
    • ]. 

    Stängel 10–30 cm, niederliegend, reich verzweigt, ganze Pflanze kahl. Blätter fleischig, oval oder spatelförmig, bis 2 cm lang, sitzend, am Ende der Zweige gehäuft. Blüten einzeln oder zu 2–3, sitzend, Durchmesser 4–6 mm, nur vormitta

  • Provided by: [L].Flora Helvetica – Illustrierte Flora der Schweiz
    • Source: [
    • 25
    • ]. 

    Glabrous, rather fleshy annual herb with spreading or prostrate branches. Leaves obovate-spathulate. Stipular hairs very few, inconspicuous and caducous, 1 mm long. Flowers yellow.

  • Provided by: [D].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 27
    • ]. 

    Herbe' annuelle, charnue, glabre.' Tiges''nombreuses, très ramifiées, le plus souvent étalées, pouvant atteindre 30 cm de long et 5 mm de diam.' Feuilles' alternes, subsessiles, obovales à subspatulées, de 10-30 mm de long et de 5-12 mm de large; poils stipulaires peu nombreux, non apparents.' Fleurs' par 3-5, entourées de quelques feuilles; bractées involucrales carénées, parfois ailées (var. alata Peter, Fedde Rep., Beih. XL, 2, Anhang, p. 32, 1932); périgone jaune, à 5 segments obovales, de 4-6 mm de long; étamines 7-12; style divisé en3-6 branches.' Capsule' à déhiscence médiane.' Graines noires, verruqueuses.

  • Provided by: [I].Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    • Source: [
    • 28
    • ]. 

    Annual herb, up to 0.05 m high. Stems procumbent, reddish. Leaves with shiny; blade obovate, up to 20 x 10 mm, stipular hairs very few, inconspicuous and caducous, ± 1 mm long. Flowers: corolla yellow; Nov.-Feb.

  • Provided by: [D].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 31
    • ]. 

    Habit

    herb

  • Provided by: [F].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 22
    • ]. 

    Ecology

    6–9. Wege, Weinberge, zwischen Pflastersteinen, kollin. CH.

  • Provided by: [L].Flora Helvetica – Illustrierte Flora der Schweiz
    • Source: [
    • 25
    • ]. 

    Waysides, deforested and ruderal places, sandy shores, even on exposed rocks, up to 1800 m. Fl. fr. Jan.–Dee.

  • Provided by: [H].e-Flora of Thailand
    • Source: [
    • 30
    • ]. 

    Habitat

    Dry Grassland. Disturbed places, sandy soil.

  • Provided by: [D].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 31
    • ]. 

    Disturbed land.

  • Provided by: [D].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 27
    • ]. 

    Endroits découverts, habités, piétinés; cultures, jachères, bords des chemins, décombres.

  • Provided by: [I].Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    • Source: [
    • 28
    • ]. 

    Distribution

    Known as verdolaga in Panama.

  • Provided by: [F].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 22
    • ]. 

    A common weed of open areas, such as roadsides and sandy coasts. Road to Lameshur (A2791), Waterlemon Bay (A1937). Also on all of the Virgin Islands; a cosmopolitan weed.

  • Provided by: [N].Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden
    • Source: [
    • 24
    • ]. 

    Cosmopolite en climat chaud et tempéré-chaud

  • Provided by: [I].Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    • Source: [
    • 28
    • ]. 

    Pantropic and subtropical.

  • Provided by: [H].e-Flora of Thailand
    • Source: [
    • 30
    • ]. 

    Native to Europe.

  • Provided by: [D].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 31
    • ]. 

    Uses

    Se mange en légume (souvent cultivé par les Européens).

  • Provided by: [I].Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    • Source: [
    • 28
    • ]. 

    Eaten as a vegetable and used as a medicine.

  • Provided by: [H].e-Flora of Thailand
    • Source: [
    • 30
    • ]. 

    Distribution Map

     
    • Native distribution
    • Introduced distribution
    Found in
    • Southern America Brazil Acre
    • Amapí
    • Amazonas
    • Parí
    • Rondônia
    • Roraima
    • Tocantins
    • Alagoas
    • Bahia
    • Ceará
    • Maranh
    • Paraába
    • Pernambuco
    • Piauá
    • Rio Grande do Norte
    • Sergipe
    • Paraní
    • Rio Grande do Sul
    • Santa Catarina
    • Espirito Santo
    • Minas Gerais
    • Rio de Janeiro
    • São Paulo
    • Brazilia Distrito Federal
    • Goiás
    • Mato Grosso
    • Mato Grosso do Sul
    Introduced into
    • Asia-Tropical Indo-China Thailand

    Synonyms

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Porcellana comuneItalianCH
    phakta khong(ผักตาโค้ง)ThaiTHA
    phakbia yai (ผักเบี้ยใหญ่)(ผักตาโค้ง)ThaiTHA
    Pourpier potagerFrenchCH
    Common purslane
    Gemüse-PortulakGermanCH
    Portulaca cuminaRaeto-RomanceCH

      Bibliography

     Information From

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    http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
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    • A Missouri Botanical Garden
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
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    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
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    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
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    • G All Rights Reserved
    • H Forest Herbarium All rights reserved
    Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    https://www.floredafriquecentrale.be
    • I http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)
    Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020
    https://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br
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    • L All Rights Reserved
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • M Flora of North America Association
    Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden
    https://www.nybg.org/
    Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
    • N Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
    Flora of Pakistan
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Pakistan
    Flora of Pakistan. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2020.
    • O Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
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    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • Q Missouri Botanical Garden
    Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern US and Canada
    https://www.nybg.org/
    Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
    • R Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
    Portulacaceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2021.
    • S CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online Consortium
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    • T CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).