Sesamum indicum L.
  • Sp. Pl.
  • sesame ajonjoli


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2021): Sesamum indicum L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000497088. Accessed on: 26 Sep 2021'

General Information

Erect annual, up to 65 cm tall, puberulous. Leaves very variable on the same plant, linear, narrowly oblong, ovate or lanceolate, entire, subentire, lobed or 3-partite, acute, 3-18 cm long, 0.5-4 cm broad, glabrous above, pubescent below, petiole 0.5-12 cm long. Flowers with strong unpleasant odour, bracteate; pedicel up to 5 mm long with 2 glands on either side at the base. Calyx 2-6 mm long, lobes linear to narrowly lanceolate, hairy, persistent. Petals 2-3 cm long, pubescent, obtuse. Stamens c. 1 cm long. Ovary 1-2 mm long, pilose, oblong. Fruit oblong, loculicidal, acuminate capsule, 1.5-2.5 cm long, 5-7 mm broad, slightly scabrid-¬pilose. Seeds black, brown or white, 2-3 mm long, 1-1.5 mm broad, wingless, almost smooth. Lectotype: India, Linn. Herb. 802.3 (LINN)

  • Provided by: [G].Flora of Pakistan
    • Sesamum indicum L., Sp. Pl. 634. 1753.

      Hierbas hasta 1 m de alto, ramificadas o no. Hojas basalmente opuestas, alternas y disminuyendo de tamaño hacia el ápice, ovadas a linear-lanceoladas, ápice agudo, base redondeada a angostamente cuneada, dentadas o enteras; pecíolos acanalados, los inferiores hasta 11 cm de largo, los superiores hasta 3 cm de largo. Flores solitarias en las axilas; sépalos connados solamente en la base, lineares, 5–8 mm de largo, algo carnosos, ebracteolados; corola oblicuamente campanulada, blanca, rosada o rosa viejo, nectarostigmas amarillo pálidos o ausentes, lobos no manchados; estambres 4, estaminodios ausentes. Fruto una cápsula oblongo-cuadrangular, café-amarillenta, no pectinada, dehiscente, con 2 rostros terminales de 3–5 mm de largo; semillas numerosas, obovadas, negras, cafés o blancas, testa brillante.

      Cultivada e introducida en la zona pacífica; 50–350 m; fl jun–sep, fr ago–nov; Baker 42, Grijalva 509; nativa de Africa tropical y la India, ampliamente cultivada en México, Centroamérica y en otros países tropicales como materia prima para obtener aceite. Género con ca 15 especies nativas de los trópicos del Viejo Mundo y de Sur Africa. "Ajonjolí".

    • Provided by: [I].Flora de Nicaragua
      • Source: [
      • 16
      • ]. 

      Erect, fetid, glandular pubescent, annual herb to 2 m tall, somewhat branched; stems 4-angled. Leaves opposite below, often alternate above, variable in shape, entire, serrate, palmately lobed or nearly compound, 8-15 cm long, 6-10 cm wide, pubescent above and below and with copious 4-celled short-stalked glands beneath, the petioles ca. 5 cm long, often pilose. Inflorescence a single flower or 2-3 flowers in the upper leaf axils; pedicels 1-2 cm long with 2 yellow or black basal nectaries. Flowers white, rose or purple, mostly maculate; calyx 6-8 mm long, deeply 5 lobed, the lobes similar, acute or acuminate; corolla campanulate, basally minutely saccate, slightly 2-lipped, pubescent outside and with 1-4 celled glands; anthers pale yellow with a short white or brownish beak; ovary pilose, erect, brown or purple, grooved, with 4 rounded angles, the style slender, gla- brous. Fruit apically dehiscent, to 3 cm long, oblong, glabrate to hirsute; seeds smooth or minutely rugose, to 3 mm long.

    • Provided by: [H].Flora de Panama
      • Source: [
      • 17
      • ]. 

      Herbs annual, erect, to 1.2 m tall. Stems branched or unbranched, 4-angled, finely pubescent to glabrescent. Leaves opposite or alternate; petiole 3-11 cm on lower leaves; leaf blade lanceolate to ovate, variously 3-parted, 4-20 X 2-10 cm; upper stem leaves oblong to linear-lanceolate, 0.5-2.5 cm wide, base cuneate, margin entire. Flowers white, pink, or mauve-pink with darker markings. Calyx persistent. Corolla 1.5-3.3 cm. Capsule narrowly oblong, rounded at base, 1.5-3 cm X 6-7 mm; beak broad, short. Seeds horizontally arranged, double fringe conspicuous; testa white, brown, or black when ripe, smooth. 2n = 26*.

    • Provided by: [J].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
      • "Erect annual to 1.5 m, evidently to inconspicuously hairy; lvs lanceolate to ovate, entire or in part coarsely toothed; fls pink or yellowish to white, 2–3 cm, on short, ascending-erect pedicels; fr 2–3 cm, roundly 4-angled; seeds oily, aromatic; 2n=26. Native probably of India, but unknown in the wild; long in cult., and occasionally found in our range as a casual escape."

      • Provided by: [K].New York Botanical Garden
        • Source: [
        • 18
        • ]. 

        Morphology

        Flowers whitish or pink and purple-tinged and spotted

      • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
        • Source: [
        • 1
        • ]. 

        Cultivated.

      • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
        • Source: [
        • 1
        • ]. 

        Erect, simple or branched, herb, 1-6 ft. high

      • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
        • Source: [
        • 1
        • ]. 

        Erect annual herb, 10–120 (rarely 180) cm. high, simple or branched.

      • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
        • Source: [
        • 14
        • ]. 

        Flowers white, pink or mauve-pink with darker markings.

      • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
        • Source: [
        • 14
        • ]. 

        Leaves very variable, often heteromorphic, opposite or alternate; lower leaves long-petiolate (3–11 cm.), ovate or ovate-lanceolate, 3-lobed, 3-partite or 3-foliolate, 4–20 cm. long, 2–10 cm. broad, rounded or obtuse at the base, acute at the apex; margins often dentate; upper leaves more shortly petiolate (0.5–3 cm.), narrower, oblong-lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, 0.5–2.5 cm. broad, usually entire, and narrowly cuneate at the base (Fig. 7/4); all leaves thinly pubescent and more or less glandular, becoming glabrescent.

      • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
        • Source: [
        • 14
        • ]. 

        Corolla 1.5–3.3 cm. long.

      • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
        • Source: [
        • 14
        • ]. 

        Stems obtusely quadrangular, sulcate, finely pubescent to glabrescent, rarely pilose, usually more or less glandular.

      • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
        • Source: [
        • 14
        • ]. 

        Calyx persistent; lobes oblong, pubescent, 2–5 mm. long.

      • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
        • Source: [
        • 14
        • ]. 

        Filaments glabrous: anthers 2–3 mm. long.

      • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
        • Source: [
        • 14
        • ]. 

        Ovary slightly compressed, 1–1.5 mm. long, more or less rounded at the apex, pilose.

      • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
        • Source: [
        • 14
        • ]. 

        Capsule oblong-quadrangular, slightly compressed, deeply 4-grooved, rounded at the base and apex, then rather abruptly and shortly beaked at the apex, 1.5–3.2 cm. long (including the beak), 6–7 mm. broad, glandular and pubescent; beak 2–4 mm. or rarely shorter (Fig. 7/5–7).

      • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
        • Source: [
        • 14
        • ]. 

        Seeds (Fig. 7/8) more or less horizontal in the capsule, not winged, 2.5–3 mm. long, about 1.5 mm. broad, black, brown or white, with faces smooth or rarely slightly veined, never rugulose or reticulate.

      • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
        • Source: [
        • 14
        • ]. 

        Fig. 7/4–8.

      • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
        • Source: [
        • 14
        • ]. 

        Erect annual herb, 10–120 cm. high; stem simple or branched, obtusely quadrangular, finely pubescent to glabrescent, more or less glandular.

      • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
        • Source: [
        • 15
        • ]. 

        Capsule narrowly oblong in lateral view, 4-sulcate, rounded at the base, 1.5–3.0 x 0.6–0.7 cm.; beak broad and short; walls of the capsule often not smooth, but covered with horizontal stripes (impressions of the seeds) (TAB. 23 fig. 6).

      • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
        • Source: [
        • 15
        • ]. 

        Seeds more or less horizontal, not winged but with an inconspicuous double fringe (TAB. 25 fig. 6); testa smooth, rarely slightly venose, black, brown or white when mature.

      • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
        • Source: [
        • 15
        • ]. 

        Leaves very variable in shape, usually heteromorphic, opposite or alternate; the inferior long-petiolate (petiole 3–11 cm. long), lanceolate to ovate, 3-lobed, 3–partite or 3-foliate, 4–20 x 2–10 cm., cuneate or obtuse at the base, acute at the apex, margins often serrate; superior leaves more shortly petiolate (petiole 3–5 cm. long), narrowed, oblong-lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, 0.5–2.5 cm. broad, usually entire and narrowly cuneate at the base; all leaves thinly pubescent and more or less glandular, glabrescent.

      • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
        • Source: [
        • 15
        • ]. 

        Flowers white, pink or mauve-pink with darker markings.

      • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
        • Source: [
        • 15
        • ]. 

        Calyx persistent.

      • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
        • Source: [
        • 15
        • ]. 

        Corolla 1.5–3.3 cm. long.

      • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
        • Source: [
        • 15
        • ]. 

        Annual herb, 0.1-1.2 m high. Leaves variable; inferior leaves entire or lobed to digitate, opposite or alternate. Bracts of extrafloral nectaries conspicuous. Inferior lip of flower not prominent. Seeds not winged but with an inconspicuous double fringe, testa smooth or slightly venose. Flowers white, pink or mauve-pink with darker markings.

      • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
        • Source: [
        • 19
        • ]. 

        Erect annual herb, 10-120 cm high; stem simple or branched, obtusely quadrangular, finely pubescent to glabrescent, more or less glandular. Leaves very variable in shape, usually heteromorphic, opposite or alternate; the inferior long-petiolate (petiole 3-11 cm long), lanceolate to ovate, 3-lobed, 3-partite or 3-foliate, 4-20 x 2-10 cm, cuneate or obtuse at the base, acute at the apex, margins often serrate; superior leaves more shortly petiolate (petiole 3-5 cm long), narrowed, oblong-lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, 0.5-2.5 cm broad, usually entire and narrowly cuneate at the base; all leaves thinly pubescent and more or less glandular, glabrescent. Flowers white, pink or mauve-pink with darker markings. Calyx persistent. Corolla 1.5-3.3 cm long. Capsule narrowly oblong in lateral view, 4-sulcate, rounded at the base, 1.5-3.0 x 0.6-0.7 cm; beak broad and short; walls of the capsule often not smooth, but covered with horizontal stripes (impressions of the seeds). Seeds more or less horizontal, not winged but with an inconspicuous double fringe; testa smooth, rarely slightly venose, black, brown or white when mature.

      • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
        • Source: [
        • 20
        • ]. 

        Habit

        herb

      • Provided by: [H].Flora de Panama
        • Source: [
        • 17
        • ]. 

        Habitat

        Escaped from cultivation.

      • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
        • Source: [
        • 19
        • ]. 

        Distribution

        Native to Europe and Asia.

      • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
        • Source: [
        • 19
        • ]. 

        Zambia, Zimbabwe, Mozambique. Cultivated in most tropical and subtropical countries all over the world for the oil which is extracted from the seeds.

      • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
        • Source: [
        • 20
        • ]. 

        Common Names

        Beniseed.

      • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
        • Source: [
        • 1
        • ]. 

        Other Local Names

        NameLanguageCountry
        sesame ajonjoli

          Bibliography

         Information From

        MBG Floras Images
        http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
        Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
        • A Missouri Botanical Garden
        e-Flora of South Africa
        e-Flora of South Africa. v1.21. 2018. South African National Biodiversity Institute. http://ipt.sanbi.org.za/iptsanbi/resource?r=flora_descriptions&v=1.21
        • B All Rights Reserved
        Pedaliaceae
        World Flora Online Data. 2017.
        • C CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
        Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
        https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
        http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
        • D
        Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
        https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
        http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
        • E The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
        Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
        https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
        http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
        • F
        Flora of Pakistan
        http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Pakistan
        Flora of Pakistan. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2020.
        • G Missouri Botanical Garden
        Flora de Panama
        http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
        Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
        • H Missouri Botanical Garden
        Flora de Nicaragua
        http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
        WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
        • I Missouri Botanical Garden
        Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
        http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
        'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
        • J Missouri Botanical Garden
        New York Botanical Garden
        Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
        • K Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
        World Flora Online consortium
        http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
        World Flora Online Data. 2018.
        • L CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).