Sida rhombifolia L.
  • Sp. Pl.
  • Arrowleaf sida, axocatzín, Cuba jute, escobilla, huinar


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2021): Sida rhombifolia L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000505360. Accessed on: 18 Sep 2021'

General Information

Subshrubs erect or prostrate, many branched, to ca. 1 m tall. Branchlets stellate. Stipules spinelike, 3-5 mm; petiole 2-5(-8) mm, stellate puberulent; leaf blade rhombic to oblong-lanceolate or obovate, rarely linear-lanceolate, 1-4.5 × 0.6-2 cm, abaxially gray-white stellate pilose, adaxially sparsely stellate pilose to subglabrous, base broadly cuneate, margin dentate, apex obtuse to acute. Flowers solitary, axillary. Pedicel 1-2.5 cm, densely stellate tomentose, articulate above middle. Calyx cup-shaped, 4-5 mm, abaxially stellate pubescent, lobes triangular, apices acute. Corolla ca. 1 cm in diam.; petals yellow, obovate, ca. 8 mm, base attenuate, apex rounded. Filament tube 4-5 mm, glabrous. Style branches 8-10. Fruit semiglobose to broadly turbinate, 6-7 mm in diam.; mericarps 7-10, 2.5-3 mm excluding awn, shallowly grooved to near base, eventually dehiscent, side walls usually thin, not veined, stellate puberulent, apex usually (1 or)2-awned, awns to 1.5 mm. Seeds reniform, ca. 2 mm, blackish. Fl. autumn-winter.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Subshrubs, 1 m. Stems erect, stellate-puberulent, hairs to 0.1 mm. Leaves: stipules free from petiole, 1-veined, subulate, 5–6 mm, subequal to petiole; petiole 5–7 mm, 1/10–1/4 length of blade, stellate-puberulent; blade ± rhombic, 2.5–9 cm, smaller distally, 2–3(–4) times longer than wide, base usually cuneate, sometimes somewhat truncate to subcordate, margins serrate distally, entire basally, apex acute to subobtuse, surfaces stellate-puberulent or glabrescent adaxially. Inflorescences axillary solitary flowers. Pedicels slender, (1–)3–4 cm, 4–6 times length of calyx, much shorter than to ± equaling subtending leaf, at least distalmost. Flowers: calyx ribbed, 5–6 mm, puberulent, lobes ovate; petals yellow, 7–9 mm; staminal column hairy; style 10–14-branched. Schizocarps subconic, 4–5 mm diam., glabrous; mericarps 10–14, 3–4 mm, laterally reticulate, apex muticous to spined, sometimes 1-spined through failure of dehiscence, glabrous. 2n = 14, 28.

  • Provided by: [G].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Sida rhombifolia L., Sp. Pl. 684. 1753.

    Sufrútices erectos, ca 1 m de alto, con ramas ascendentes; tallos puberulentos con los tricomas estrellados y diminutos, apareciendo farináceos. Hojas más o menos rómbicas, 2.5–9 cm de largo, agudas u obtusas en el ápice, serradas distalmente, finamente puberulentas en ambas caras o glabrescentes en la haz; estípulas subuladas, 5–6 mm de largo. Pedicelos solitarios en las axilas y más o menos dispersos a lo largo del tallo, 1–3 cm de largo; cáliz 5–6 mm de largo, 10-acostillado en la base, puberulento; corola 7–9 mm de largo, amarilla o amarillo-anaranjada. Frutos 4–5 mm de diámetro, glabros, carpidios 10–14, múticos o con 2 espinas, la espina a veces única por falta de dehiscencia durante su desarrollo.

    Abundante, creciendo como maleza, común en sitios alterados, incluyendo zonas urbanas, en todas las zonas del país; 0–1800 m; fl y fr durante todo el año; Araquistain 160, Moreno 398; casi cosmopolita, encontrándose en todas partes de los trópicos, subtrópicos y como anual en las zonas templadas. "Escoba".

  • Provided by: [E].Flora de Nicaragua
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Herb or shrub up to 1.5 m high, the stem erect, usually profusely branched. minutely stellate-puberulus, infrequently also hirsute with mostly simple hairs, ultimately glabrescent. Leaves short-petiolate, the petiole usually ca 5 mm long, more or less densely stellate-puberulus and sometimes also hirsute, the stipules subulate, 5-10 mm long, more or less persistent; blade often more or less rhombic, narrowly ovate, narrowly oblong-elliptic, or narrowly oblong-obovate, cuneate to obtuse at the base, obtuse or acute at the apex, serrate or serrulate above the base at the margin, varying much in size, 1.5-8.5 cm long or sometimes shorter and 0.6-3.5 cm broad, 3(-5)-palminerved, discolor, shortly and sparsely stellate- puberulus or almost glabrous on the dark green upper surface, more or less densely and minutely stellate-puberulus to stellate-tomentellous and infrequently also hirsute especially along the main veins on the pale lower surface, the main veins prominent beneath. Flowers axillary and solitary, those toward the apex of the branches and branchlets often corymbose, the pedicel short to usually elongate and up to 3.5 cm long, filiform, articulated generally above the middle, minutely stellate-puberulus and sometimes also hirsute, the fruiting pedicel slightly longer; calyx campanulate, subplicate-5-angulate, ca 6(9) mm long, foliaceous, green, with the 5 midribs and 5 commissural ribs markedly thickened and yellowish at the base, minutely stellate-tomentellous, sometimes also hirsute especially on the ribs and along the margins, moderately accrescent, the lobes deltoid, acuminate, ca 3(5) mm long and broad at the base; petals broadly ovate, strongly oblique, unguiculate, slightly emarginate at the apex, 7-8.5(15) mm long and 5-6(13) mm wide, yellow or sometimes orange or white, the claw minutely tomentellous; androecium ca 5.5(9) mm long, the staminal tube ca 3.5(6) mm long, sparsely and minutely stellate-puberulus; styles ca 4(8) mm long, connate basally for ca l/2 of their length or less. Mericarps (7)8-12(14), triquetrous, 2.2-5.5 mm long (the beaks included), chartaceous, the dorsum with the lower part rugose-reticulate, and with the upper part with 2 longitudinal crests, each terminating into a beak 0.2-2.5 mm long, the lateral walls more or less rugose-reticulate, glabrous or with very minute stellate hairs on crests and beaks; seeds trigonous-subrotund, ca 2 mm long, smooth, glabrous but minutely whitish-pilose near the hilum.

  • Provided by: [B].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Subarbusto erecto, 0.3–1.5 m; tallos estrellado-puberulentos, que parecen farináceos (los tricomas 0.1 mm); estípulas lineares, uninervadas. Hojas espiraladas, 2 –7[–11] X 0.5 – 3[– 4] cm, ± rómbicas a angostamente elípticas u obovadas, agudas a angostamente redondeadas en la base, agudas a subobtusas en el ápice, serradas distalmente, [escasa a] densamente puberulentas en el haz con tricomas estrellados diminutos [a glabrescentes]. Infls. axilares, de 1 fl. solitaria; pedicelos 2 – 35[– 50] mm. Fls. con el cáliz 5 – 6[–7] mm, estrellado-pubescente; pétalos amarillos. Frs. 0.4 – 0.6[– 0.7] cm de diám., glabros a (raramente) con pocos tricomas estrellados dis- talmente; mericarpos 10 –14, canela, grises o negros, dorsal y notablemente reticulado-rugulosos [o lisos a débilmente estriados], obtusos o con 2 aristas apicales cortas (hasta ca. 0.4 mm) [o sólo 1 arista hasta ca. 1.5 mm], ± lisa(s).

  • Provided by: [L].Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    "Branching annual (in our range) to 1 m; lvs oblong to ovate or rhombic, 2–6 cm, crenate chiefly beyond the middle; cal thinly stellate; pet pale yellow, 4–8 mm; carpels commonly 10, each tipped by a single erect, subulate beak grooved longitudinally and split into two at dehiscence; 2n=14, 28. A weed in waste places and along roads; pantropical, n. occasionally to se. Va., and as a ballast-waif farther n. All summer."

  • Provided by: [M].New York Botanical Garden
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    Morphology

    A widespread perennial weed

  • Provided by: [O].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Requiring further taxonomical study throughout its range.There appear to be three varieties in our area: — Sida rhombifolia var. α, Sida rhombifolia var. β and Sida rhombifolia var. γ

  • Provided by: [O].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Leaf-lamina 2–6 × 0·5–2·5 cm., oblong to lanceolate-oblong or somewhat rhomboid, shortly and sparsely stellate-pubescent or almost glabrous on the darker upper surface, shortly stellate-pubescent to velutinous on the pale lower surface, apex usually obtuse to rounded or rarely acute, margin finely crenate or subserrate, base broadly cuneate to rounded; petiole usually less than 5 mm. long; stipules c. 5. mm. long.

  • Provided by: [N].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Annual or biennial herb or suffrutex or shrublet, up to c. 1 m. tall; erect, often ± virgate, usually not much branched; stems terete, grey or brown, stellate-pubescent to stellate-tomentose, ultimately glabrescent.

  • Provided by: [N].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Calyx 4–5 mm. long, saucer- to cup-shaped, divided to about 1/3, stellate-velutinous or more sparsely pubescent, 10-nerved; lobes triangular, acute, sometimes mucronate.

  • Provided by: [N].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Flowers pale yellow to cream, axillary, solitary; pedicels rarely exceeding 20 mm. long in flower and 35 mm. long in fruit.

  • Provided by: [N].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Seeds smooth and glabrous except for the pubescent area around the hilum.

  • Provided by: [N].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Staminal tube glabrous or sparsely glandular-papillose.

  • Provided by: [N].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Mericarps 8–12, c. 4 mm. long, birostrate, with awns usually connivent until dehiscence of the fruit, glabrous except for the usually shortly pubescent awns.

  • Provided by: [N].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Petals c. 8 mm. long.

  • Provided by: [N].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Annual or biennial herb or suffrutex or shrublet, up to c. 1 m tall; erect, often ± virgate, usually not much branched; stems terete, grey or brown, stellate-pubescent to stellate-tomentose, ultimately glabrescent. Leaf-lamina 2-6 x 0.5-2.5 cm, oblong to lanceolate-oblong or somewhat rhomboid, shortly and sparsely stellate-pubescent or almost glabrous on the darker upper surface, shortly stellate-pubescent to velutinous on the pale lower surface, apex usually obtuse to rounded or rarely acute, margin finely crenate or subserrate, base broadly cuneate to rounded; petiole usually less than 5 mm long; stipules c. 5. mm long. Flowers pale yellow to cream, axillary, solitary; pedicels rarely exceeding 20 mm long in flower and 35 mm long in fruit. Calyx 4-5 mm long, saucer- to cup-shaped, divided to about 1/3, stellate-velutinous or more sparsely pubescent, 10-nerved; lobes triangular, acute, sometimes mucronate. Petals c. 8 mm long. Staminal tube glabrous or sparsely glandular-papillose. Mericarps 8-12, c. 4 mm long, birostrate, with awns usually connivent until dehiscence of the fruit, glabrous except for the usually shortly pubescent awns. Seeds smooth and glabrous except for the pubescent area around the hilum.

  • Provided by: [D].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 12
    • ]. 

    Annual or biennial herb or shrub, up to 1 m high. Leaves discolorous, rhomboid. Mericarps with 2 distinct suberect connivent awns, glabrous. Flowers pale yellow to cream.

  • Provided by: [D].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 13
    • ]. 

    Herbe'ou suffrutex de 0,5-1,5 m de haut, à tige principale dressée, parfois lignifiée, de 1 cm de diam. à la base, le plus souvent à rameaux très nombreux ± fastigiés, non distiques, de 20-40 cm de long et ± 1,5 mm de diam., couverts d'une très fine pubescence à très petits poils étoilés.'Feuilles'en disposition spiralée, à stipules filiformes, de 5-8 mm de long; pétiole, de ± 5 mm de long ± tomenteux; limbe très variable, typiquement losangique, cunéiforme vers le bas, ovale-lancéolé, aigu et denté-serreté dans la 1/2 supérieure, souvent étroitement elliptique, de 3-8 cm de long et 0,8-3,5 cm de large, avec très grandes différences entre feuilles des tiges principales et celles des rameaux, vert foncé et glabre en dessus, plus pâle et finement tomenteux en dessous, le tomentum cachant complètement, au moins dans les feuilles jeunes, le réseau des plus fines nervures.'Fleurs'd'abord axillaires et subsolitaires à pédicelle filiforme de 1,5-3 cm de long, articulé près du milieu, mais aussi en glomérules pauciflores à l'extrémité des ramilles qui se produisent très vite à l'aisselle des feuilles florifères; calice comme celui de S. acuta mais finement tomenteux sur la face externe et présentant un renflement de la base des nervures; corolle de 7 mm de long, jaune à orangée; androcée et gynécée comme chez S. acuta.'Fruits'± globuleux, à 8-10 méricarpes nettement prismatiques, 2-aristés, de 3,5-5 mm de long dont 0,5-2 pour les arêtes qui portent des poils étoilés ± espacés; déhiscence apicale.'Graines lisses.

  • Provided by: [A].Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    • Source: [
    • 14
    • ]. 

    Hierba anual o bienal o sufrútice, erecto, 40-100 cm. Tallos con corteza con o sin patrón rómbico, ramificados desde la base o más raramente en los 2/3 superiores, densamente estrellado-pubérulos, pelos de (5)6-12(14) radios y 0,1-0,8 mm de diámetro. Hojas espiraladas. Estípulas 2,2-9 x 0,1-0,8 mm, subuladas, raramente filiformes, a veces con un pequeño tubérculo en la base, 1-nervias, estrellado-tomentosas, a veces con el margen ciliado. Pecíolo 1,5-5 mm, acanalado, distalmente pulvinulado, densamente estrellado-pubérulo, pelos de (3)5-13 radios y 0,1-0,9 mm de diámetro. Lámina 1,5-6,1 x 0,4-2,5 cm, simétrica, discólora, de rómbica o rómbico-elíptica a obovada y oblanceolada, raramente lanceolada, base cuneada, raramente subcordada, margen aserrado en los 2/3 superiores, ápice obtuso o agudo; palmatinervia, con 3 nervios básales y 3-6 pares de nervios de segundo orden, acródromos, hundidos por la haz y prominentes por el envés; haz laxamente estrellado-pubérula, pelos de 6-9 radios y 0,05-0,8 mm de diámetro, eventualmente mezclados con pelos simples, cortos, adpresos, 0,4-0,7 mm y bifurcados adapicales del mismo tamaño; envés densamente estrellado-pubérulo, pelos de 5-13 radios y 0,05-0,8 mm de diámetro. Flores, axilares, solitarias o más raramente en racimos condensados. Pedicelos 2,2-27 mm, articulado por encima de la mitad, densamente estrellado-pubérulos, pelos de (4)5-11(12) radios y 0,1-0,2 mm de diámetro. Cáliz 4,7-7,1 x 3,2-7 mm, campanulado, decacostado, costillas prominentes en la base, no acrescente, indurado en el fruto, densamente estrellado-pubérulo, pelos de (4)5-11 radios y 0,1-0,5 mm de diámetro; sépalos rómbicos, lóbulo 1,3-3,8 x 2-4 mm, triangular-ovado, agudo. Pétalos 5-6,2 x 3,7-4,9 mm, obovados, asimétricos, limbo de color amarillo pálido, o amarillo fuerte, uña del mismo color. Androceo con 12-22 estambres, soldados en un tubo de 0,9-1,9 mm, cilíndrico, habitualmente simple-pubérulo, a veces glabro; filamentos separándose del tubo en 5 fascículos; anteras alargadas, amarillas, 1,4-2,5 mm. Columela cilíndrica, con tapa, los mericarpos unidos a ella por ligamentos. Mericarpos 7-10(12), 2-3 mm de largo x 1,2-2,3 mm de ancho x 0,8-2 mm de grueso, dehiscentes apicalmente, rostrados o múticos; espinas apicales de 0,8-1,8 mm, glabras o más raramente con un indumento patente, estrellado; pared externa de la zona apical triangular, glabra o raramente estrellado-pubérula; pared interna de la zona de dehiscencia inconspicua, cuando está presente triangular, glabra, raramente estrellado-pubérula; pared lateral de la zona basal semicircular, reticulada; pared dorsal de la zona basal rómbica, reticulada. Semilla 1,2-1,9 x 0,9-1,8 mm, reniforme, marrón oscura lisa, glabra.

  • Provided by: [F].Flora de Colombia
    • Habit

      Herb shrub

    • Provided by: [B].Flora de Panama
      • Source: [
      • 9
      • ]. 

      Habitat

      Rudéral, parfois en lisière de forêts ou de galeries forestières; jusqu'à 2200 m d'altitude.

    • Provided by: [A].Flore d'Afrique Centrale
      • Source: [
      • 14
      • ]. 

      Ruderal, usually near settlements.

    • Provided by: [D].e-Flora of South Africa
      • Source: [
      • 12
      • ]. 

      Pantropical, ruderal.

    • Provided by: [D].e-Flora of South Africa
      • Source: [
      • 13
      • ]. 

      Distribution

      A polymorphic, widely distributed weed in tropical and subtropical regions of both hemispheres; savannas, roadsides, moist thickets, brushy fields and slopes, wooded swamps, and gravel bars; known in Panama as escobilla or hierba de puerco;

    • Provided by: [B].Flora de Panama
      • Source: [
      • 9
      • ]. 

      Pantropical.

    • Provided by: [D].e-Flora of South Africa
      • Source: [
      • 12
      • ]. 

      Uses

      Confection de balais, de cordes; en médecine indigène: vulnéraire émollient (voir De Wild., Pl. Ut. ou Int. Congo, II, p. 143 (1906).

    • Provided by: [A].Flore d'Afrique Centrale
      • Source: [
      • 14
      • ]. 

      Distribution Map

       
      • Native distribution
      Found in
      • Southern America Brazil Acre
      • Amapí
      • Amazonas
      • Parí
      • Rondônia
      • Roraima
      • Tocantins
      • Alagoas
      • Bahia
      • Ceará
      • Maranh
      • Paraába
      • Pernambuco
      • Piauá
      • Rio Grande do Norte
      • Sergipe
      • Paraní
      • Rio Grande do Sul
      • Santa Catarina
      • Espirito Santo
      • Minas Gerais
      • Rio de Janeiro
      • São Paulo
      • Brazilia Distrito Federal
      • Goiás
      • Mato Grosso
      • Mato Grosso do Sul

      Other Local Names

      NameLanguageCountry
      Arrowleaf sida, axocatzín, Cuba jute, escobilla, huinar

        Bibliography

       Information From

      Flore d'Afrique Centrale
      https://www.floredafriquecentrale.be
      • A http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)
      Flora de Panama
      http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
      Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
      • B Missouri Botanical Garden
      Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
      http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
      'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
      • C Missouri Botanical Garden
      e-Flora of South Africa
      e-Flora of South Africa. v1.21. 2018. South African National Biodiversity Institute. http://ipt.sanbi.org.za/iptsanbi/resource?r=flora_descriptions&v=1.21
      • D All Rights Reserved
      Flora de Nicaragua
      http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
      WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
      • E Missouri Botanical Garden
      Flora de Colombia
      http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/floradecolombia
      Betancur B. Julio., Aguirre-C. Jaime., Amat-G. Germán. (eds.) (2018–): Flora de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Published in http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/floradecolombia
      • F Instituto de Ciencias Naturales - Universidad Nacional de Colombia
      Flora of North America @ efloras.org
      http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
      'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
      • G Flora of North America Association
      Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020
      http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br
      Brazil Flora G (2014): Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020. v393.147. Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botanico do Rio de Janeiro. Dataset/Checklist. doi:10.15468/1mtkaw
      • H Group Brazil Flora, REFLORA Program
      Malvaceae
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      • I CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
      MBG Floras Images
      http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
      Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
      • J Missouri Botanical Garden
      • K Missouri Botanical Garden
      Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica
      http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Costa%20Rica
      Hammel, B. E.; Grayum, M. H.; Herrera, C.; Zamora, N. Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2003-2014
      • L Missouri Botanical Garden
      New York Botanical Garden
      Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
      • M Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
      Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
      http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
      • N
      Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
      https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
      http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
      • O The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
      World Flora Online consortium
      http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
      World Flora Online Data. 2018.
      • P CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).