Adansonia digitata L.
  • Sp. Pl.


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2021): Adansonia digitata L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000519672. Accessed on: 18 Sep 2021'

Diagnostic Description

Adansonia digitata has many diagnostic characters, including several that are unique in the genus and likely to be apomorphic, e.g., a pendulous flower, globose buds, and broad petals.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
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    Morphology

    Arbre'de 20 m de haut; tronc conique atteignant 5 m et plus de diam.; cime étalée; écorce lisse et inerme; jeunes pousses pubescentes.'Feuilles'groupées à l'extrémité des rameaux, 5-7-foliolées; pétiole de 7-12 cm de long, pubérulent à pubescent à l'état jeune; folioles subsessiles à très courtement pétiolulées; limbe oblong à obovale-oblong, cunéiforme à la base et décurrent, graduellement acuminé vers le sommet, de 6-13 cm de long et 2,8-5,5 cm de large, pubescent à l'état jeune, parfois glabre.'Fleurs'pendantes; pédicelle flexible, de 28-90 cm de long, tomenteux; bouton ovale à globuleux, pointu au sommet; calice se déchirant à l'anthèse en (3)5 lobes largement triangulaires, aigus, de 6-9 cm de long et 2,8-3,5(6) cm de large à la base, tomentelleux extérieurement, soyeux intérieurement; pétales largement obovales, réfléchis, de 7-9 cm de long et 6-8 cm de large, blancs ou légèrement teintés de rouge sur le vivant, glabres ou à poils épars extérieurement; tube staminal conique, de 4-7 cm de long et ± 1,8 cm de large, glabre, se divisant en ∞ filets horizontaux et formant une large couronne; anthères réniformes, de ± 2 mm de long; ovaire conique, de 0,9-1,8 cm de long et 0,9-1,2 cm de large, hirsute-tomenteux, 5-10-loculaire; style de 8-15 cm de long, à base hirsute-tomenteuse; stigmate étoilé.'Capsules'oblongues à oblongues-ovoïdes, ± sillonnées, pointues ou arrondies aux extrémités, de 25-40 cm de long et 8-10 cm de large, de couleur fauve, veloutées.'Graines'réniformes, de 1,1-1,3 cm de long et 0,8-1 cm de large, noires, enfouies dans une pulpe farineuse blanchâtre.'Plantule à hypocotyle aplati, de 4,2-5,2 cm de long; cotylédons à pétiole de 0,6-1,1 cm de long; limbe ovale, entier, de 4,4-6,4 cm de long et 3,3-5 cm de large; épicotyle de 3-4,8 cm de long; premières feuilles nettement pétiolées, généralement simples, étroitement lancéolées-linéaires (Wagemans 2255, 2261).

  • Provided by: [A].Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    • Source: [
    • 1
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    Usually massive deciduous trees reaching 25 m in height and up to 10 m diam., with single or multiple, cylindrical or fluted, often buttressed trunks and spreading, rounded crowns. Branches irregularly distributed, massive. Bark gray, smooth to irregularly tuberculate. Leaves 5-7(-9)-foliolate; petioles pubescent or glabrous; stipules caducous; leaflets sessile to subsessile, varying greatly in size, medial leaflet 5-15 x 3-7 cm, usually elliptic-obovate, with acuminate apices and decurrent bases; glabrous or with simple or clumped hairs; margins entire. Flowers produced during dry or wet season; buds globose with an acute-conical apex, solitary, rarely paired; flower stalk pendulous, 15-90 cm long. Calyx lobes (3-)5, triangular, green and tomentose to scabrous outside, cream and villous within, reflexed, 5-9 x 3-5 cm, fused into a broad (5 cm diam.) disc below. Petals white, crumpled in bud, broadly obovate, approximately equal in length to breadth, 4-8 x 4-8 cm, narrowing to a thickened base. Androecium white, comprising a 3-6-cm cylindrical or tapering staminal tube, surmounted by 720-1600 free filaments, ± equal in length to the staminal tube. Ovary conical-ovoid or globose with a thick indumentum of upward-pointing hairs; 7-9 deeply intruded placentae. Style white, bent over at right angles or rarely straight; densely villous below, glabrous above, fitting loosely into staminal tube and persisting after floral abscission. Stigma white with irregular lobes. Fruit variable; globose to ovoid to oblong-cylindrical, calyx lobes persistent or caducous; pericarp up to 8-10 mm thick, woody, with few embedded longitudinal fibers, covered in a velvety indumentum of yellow-brown or greenish hairs. Seeds reniform, laterally flattened, 10-13 x 8-10 x 4-5 mm Germination phanerocotylar.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 2
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    Tree, up to 20 m high. Flowers large, 48-150 mm long. Calyx deeply 5-lobed. Stamens numerous. Fruit indehiscent, with floury acid pulp. Flowers white.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Habitat

    Savanes; emplacements d'anciens villages en forêt remaniée.

  • Provided by: [A].Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Mainly found in drier lowland areas (up to 1250 m in Sudan) having 200-800 mm annual rainfall (extremes of 90 mm and 1400 mm). Well-drained sandy soils seem to be preferred, although the plants are also found on lateritic soils around the margins of seasonal pools and along rivers.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    In woodland or thicket.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Distribution

    It is indigenous in semiarid sub-Saharan Africa, extending from Angola, through Southern Africa to East Africa, as far north as southern Sudan and Ethiopia. The extensive populations in West Africa are isolated from those in East Africa by a major, and not fully explained, gap which includes the whole of the Central African Republic. It should be noted that the current distribution of A. digitata in Africa is partly anthropogenic with naturalized populations, e.g., in Zaire. It has been introduced by humans throughout the tropics (see specimen localities above).

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 2
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    Uses

    Le bois du Baobab est léger et spongieux. L'écorce fibreuse du jeune arbre sert à la fabrication de cordages et peut même être tissée. Les jeunes feuilles sont employées comme légume. La pulpe du fruit, mélangée à de l'eau, donne une limonade fébrifuge et les graines sont utilisées comme aliment.

  • Provided by: [A].Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

      Bibliography

    • 1 A. Robyns (1963) “Flore du Congo du Rwanda et du Burundi:Bombacaceae”
    • 2 Baum, DA. 1995. A systematic revision of Adansonia (Bombacaceae). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 82(1): 440 - 470.
    • 3 Herman, PPJ; Retief, E. 1997. Plants of thenorthern provinces of South Africa: keys and diagnostic characters. Strelitzia 6: 1 - 681. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • 4 Sp. Pl.

     Information From

    Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    https://www.floredafriquecentrale.be
    • A http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)
    e-Flora of South Africa
    e-Flora of South Africa. v1.21. 2018. South African National Biodiversity Institute. http://ipt.sanbi.org.za/iptsanbi/resource?r=flora_descriptions&v=1.21
    • B All Rights Reserved
    Global Tree Search
    https://tools.bgci.org/global_tree_search.php
    BGCI. 2018. GlobalTreeSearch online database. Botanic Gardens Conservation International. Richmond, U.K. Available at www.bgci.org. Accessed on 30/11/2018.
    • C Botanic Gardens Conservation International
    Malvaceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • D CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • E CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).