Alternanthera pungens Kunth
  • Nov. Gen. Sp.


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Alternanthera pungens Kunth. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000528787. Accessed on: 25 Nov 2020'

General Information

Herbs annual. Stem diffuse, creeping, much branched, 20-30 cm tall, densely rigidly hairy. Petiole 3-10 mm, glabrous or hairy; leaf blade ovate, obovate, or elliptic-obovate, 1.5-4.5 × 0.5-1.5 cm, unequal in each pair, glabrous or annexed pilose, base acuminate, apex obtuse. Heads sessile, 1-3, axillary, white, globose or oblong, 5-10 mm. Bracts lanceolate, ca. 4 mm, spiny at apex; bracteoles lanceolate, 3-4 mm, apex acuminate, without spines. Tepals unequal, outer 2 lanceolate, ca. 5 mm, 3-veined below, rigid after anthesis, midvein stretching into spines; central segment elliptic, 3-3.5 mm, compressed; inner 2 small, enclosing ovary. Stamens 5; filaments 0.5-0.8 mm; pseudostaminodes shorter than filaments, entire or irregularly dentate. Style very short. Utricles brown, broadly ellipsoid, 1-1.5 mm. Fl. May, fr. Jul.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Herbs, perennial, 3-8 dm. Stems prostrate, villous. Leaves sessile; blade oval to obovate, usually as broad as long, 1.3-3 × 1.1-1.7 cm, apex rounded, pilose, glabrate. Inflorescences axillary, sessile; heads stramineous, globose to ovoid, 0.6-1 × 0.6-0.7 cm; bracts equaling tepals, apex attenuate. Flowers: tepals dimorphic, stramineous, lanceolate, 5-7 mm, apex acuminate, spinose tipped, sparsely villous, hairs barbed; stamens 5; anthers 3-5, globose; pseudostaminodes triangular, shorter than filaments, margins dentate. Utricles included within tepals, brown, compressed, 1.8 mm, apex truncate. Seeds lenticular, 1.3-1.5 mm.

  • Provided by: [G].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Prostrate mat-forming perennial herb with a stout vertical rootstock, also rooting at the lower nodes, much-branched from the base outwards, mats up to c. 1 m across. Stem and branches terete, striate, ± densely villous with long, white hairs but frequently glabrescent. Leaves broadly rhomboid-ovate to broadly oval or obovate, 1.5-4.5 x 0.3-2.7 cm, rounded to subacute at the apex with a mucro which in the young leaves is often fine and bristle-like, narrowed below to a petiole up to 1 cm long, glabrous or thinly appressed-pilose on both surfaces, especially on the lower surface of the primary venation. Inflorescences sessile, axillary, solitary or more commonly 2-3 together, globose to shortly cylindrical, 0.5-1.5 cm long and 0.5-1 cm wide; bracts membranous, white or stramineous, 4-5 mm, lanceolate-ovate, glabrous or dorsally pilose, distinctly aristate with the excurrent midrib, strongly denticulate around the upper margin; bracteoles similar but smaller, 3-4 mm, falling with the fruit. Tepals extremely dissimilar; the 2 outer (abaxial) deltoid-lanceolate, 5 mm, very rigid, 5-nerved below (the intermediate pair of nerves much shorter and finer), outer 2 nerves meeting above to join the excurrent, pungently mucronate midrib; inner (adaxial) tepal oblong, flat, 3 mm, blunt and strongly dentate at the apex, 3-nerved below but the nerves meeting well below the apex and the apical mucro short and fine; lateral tepals c. 3 mm, sinuate in side view with the two sides of the lamina connivent and denticulate above, sharply mucronate; abaxial and adaxial tepals with small tufts of glochidiate and barbed whitish bristles about the basal angles, the lateral tepals each with a large tuft about the centre of the midrib. Stamens 5, all with anthers, at anthesis slightly exceeding the ovary and style, the alternating pseudostaminodes broad, subquadrate, shorter than the filaments, entire to dentate. Ovary compressed, squat, narrowed below, style very short, wider than long. Fruit orbicular, rounded or retuse above, 2 mm. Seed discoid, c. 1.25 m, brown, shining faintly reticulate.

  • Provided by: [F].Flora of Pakistan
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Morphology

    Prostrate, perennial herb. Leaves elliptic to obovate, base cuneate to oblique. Inflorescence a dense axillary spike. Perianth segments 5 mm long, pungent. Flowers white.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Perennial herb. Stems procumbent. Leaves with blade elliptic to obovate, 15-45 x 3-27 mm, base cuneate to oblique. Flowers: inflorescence a dense axillary spike; perianth segments very dissimilar in form, ± 5 mm long, abaxial segments very long-aristate, awn ± 1/3 of total segment length, pungent, white; Jul.-Jun. Fruit orbicular, ± 0.2 mm long.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Hierba rastrera. Tallo glabro a hirsuto, tricomas abietiformes de 1.5-3 mm de largo. Hojas de tamaños diferentes, pecioladas; pecíolo 1-5 mm de largo, escabroso; lámina elíptica a ampliamente elíptica, 1-3 x 0.5-2.4 cm, escabrosa; ápice mucronado, base cuneada, asimétrica. Inflorescencias en cabezuelas, cilíndricas, 0.7-1.5 x 0.7-1 cm, axilares, pedunculadas, solitarias o en grupos de 2-3, blancas a amarillentas; pedúnculo ca. 0.5 mm de largo, escabroso; bráctea 1, carinada, membranácea, mayor que la mitad del perianto, con un nervio medio, glabra, margen levemente aserrada, ápice aristado; bractéolas 2, carinadas, membranáceas, mayores que la mitad del perianto, glabras, ápice aristado. Flores 4-5 x 1-1.5 mm. Sépalos 5, espinescentes y amarillentos, desiguales; 2 externos carinados, 4-5 mm de largo, coriáceos, margen membranácea, con gloquidios hacia la base, 3 nervios prominentes; 1 externo cóncavo, membranáceo, 3.5 mm de largo, trinervado, ápice mucronado y aserrado, con tricomas junto a los nervios laterales; 2 internos carinados, membranáceos, 3 mm de largo, con el dorso curvado y tricomas sobre la región media; ápice aristado, con un nervio medio prominente. Estambres 5; filamentos ca. 0.4 mm de largo, unidos en la base formando una copa de hasta 0.2 mm de largo; anteras 0.2 mm de largo; estaminodios triangulares, 0.2 mm de largo. Ovario globoso, 1-1.7 mm de diámetro; estilo 0.1 mm de largo; estigma penicilado, 0.1 mm de diámetro. Fruto globoso, 1-1.7 mm de diámetro. Semilla 1, globosa, parda.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora de Colombia
    • Habitat

      On fully exposed ground and ruderal places.

    • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
      • Source: [
      • 4
      • ]. 

      Vredefort Dome Savanna; Kalahari Deciduous Acacia-wooded Grassland; Dry Grassland; Mesic Grassland; Dwarf Karroid Shrubland. On fully exposed ground and ruderal places.

    • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
      • Source: [
      • 6
      • ]. 

      Distribution

      Native to tropical America.

    • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
      • Source: [
      • 4
      • ]. 

      Native to tropical America.

    • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
      • Source: [
      • 6
      • ]. 

      Distribution Map

       
      • Native distribution
      Found in
      • Southern America Brazil Bahia
      • Ceará
      • Paraába
      • Rio Grande do Norte
      • Paraní
      • Minas Gerais
      • Rio de Janeiro
      • São Paulo
      • Mato Grosso
      • Mato Grosso do Sul

        Bibliography

       Information From

      Amaranthaceae
      World Flora Online Data. 2017.
      • A CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
      e-Flora of South Africa
      e-Flora of South Africa. v1.21. 2018. South African National Biodiversity Institute. http://ipt.sanbi.org.za/iptsanbi/resource?r=flora_descriptions&v=1.21
      • B All Rights Reserved
      Flora de Colombia
      http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/floradecolombia
      Betancur B. Julio., Aguirre-C. Jaime., Amat-G. Germán. (eds.) (2018–): Flora de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Published in http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/floradecolombia
      • C Instituto de Ciencias Naturales - Universidad Nacional de Colombia
      Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
      http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
      'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
      • D Missouri Botanical Garden
      Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020
      http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br
      Brazil Flora G (2014): Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020. v393.147. Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botanico do Rio de Janeiro. Dataset/Checklist. doi:10.15468/1mtkaw
      • E Group Brazil Flora, REFLORA Program
      Flora of Pakistan
      http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Pakistan
      Flora of Pakistan. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2020.
      • F Missouri Botanical Garden
      Flora of North America @ efloras.org
      http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
      'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
      • G Flora of North America Association
      World Flora Online consortium
      http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
      World Flora Online Data. 2018.
      • H CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).