Argemone mexicana L.
  • Sp. Pl.
  • Donkey Thistle


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2021): Argemone mexicana L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000547034. Accessed on: 27 Feb 2021'

General Information

Herbs, annual or occasionally short-lived perennial, 30-100 cm tall, usually stout. Stems mostly short, branched, with sparse explanate fulvous spines. Basal leaves dense; petiole 5-10 mm; blade glaucous with blue-green markings on veins, paler abaxially, broadly oblanceolate or obovate to elliptic, 5-20(-25) × 2.5-7.5(-8) cm, glabrous, sparsely sharply spiny on veins, base cuneate, margin pinnatipartite, apex acute; lobes undulate teeth, teeth apically spiny. Cauline leaves alternate, similar to basal leaves, but upper leaves smaller and sessile, often subamplexicaul. Flowers solitary, sometimes in few-flowered cymes. Pedicel very short. Flower buds ovoid, ca. 1.5 cm. Sepals 2(or 3), cymbiform, ca. 1 cm, apex spurred, glabrous or sparsely spiny. Petals 6, yellow or orange, broadly obovate, 1.7-3 cm, base broadly cuneate, apex rounded. Filaments ca. 7 mm; anthers narrowly oblong, 1.5-2 mm, coiling after dehiscence. Ovary elliptic or oblong, 7-10 mm, with explanate fulvous spines; styles very short; stigmas dark red, 4-6-lobed. Capsule oblong to broadly elliptic, 2.5-5 × 1.5-3 cm, sparsely fulvous spiny, 4-6-valved dehiscing from apex to 1/4-1/3 of length. Seeds spherical, 1.5-2 mm in diam., obviously tessellate. Fl. and fr. Mar-Oct. 2n = 28.

  • Provided by: [F].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
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    Plants annual. Stems often branching from base, 2.5-8 dm, unarmed or sparingly prickly. Leaf blades: surfaces unarmed or sparingly prickly on veins; proximal lobed 1/2 or more distance to midrib; distal more shallowly lobed, mostly clasping. Inflorescences: buds subglobose, body 10-15 × 9-13 mm, unarmed or sparingly prickly; sepal horns terete, 5-10 mm, unarmed. Flowers 4-7 cm broad, subtended by 1-2 foliaceous bracts; petals bright yellow or rarely pale lemon yellow; stamens 30-50; filaments yellow; pistil 4-6-carpellate. Capsules oblong to broadly ellipsoid, 25-45 × 12-20 mm (including stigma and excluding prickles when present), unarmed or prickly, longest prickles 6-10 mm. Seeds 1.6-2 mm. 2 n = 28.

  • Provided by: [E].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
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    Argemone mexicana L., Sp. Pl. 508. 1753.

    Hierbas espinosas, hasta 80 cm de alto, glabras y glaucas, látex amarillo. Hojas hasta 20 cm de largo y 8 cm de ancho, pinnatífidas con espinas terminales en cada lobo, sésiles. Flores grandes, solitarias y terminales, abrazadas por una bráctea foliosa; sépalos 3, ca 15 mm de largo, caducos; pétalos 6, ca 20 mm de largo, amarillos; estambres numerosos; estilo corto, estigma grueso. Cápsula elipsoidal, 2–3.5 cm de largo, aculeada, 4–6-valvada; semillas numerosas, globosas, 2 mm de diámetro, conspicuamente foveoladas.

    Común en áreas perturbadas en todas las zonas del país; 0–1250 m; fl y fr todo el año; Neill 4626, Stevens 5737; desde el sur de los Estados Unidos hasta Argentina, también en las Antillas, naturalizada en el Viejo Mundo. Género de ca 28 especies del Nuevo Mundo. "Cardosanto".

  • Provided by: [J].Flora de Nicaragua
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    Coarse, prickly annual of sunny habitats, seldom as much as 1 m. tall; stems fleshy, lightly setose-spinose, containing a yellow sap; leaves moderate, sessile, the blade mostly obovate in outline, 5-25 cm. long and up to 8 or 9 cm. wide, the upper leaves smaller, irregularly lobed or incised, the lobes spinose-dentate and rigidly mucronate at the apex, glabrous, glaucous, pinnate-veined, the lateral veins few, obscurely and laxly reticulate; inflorescence as described for the genus; sub- tending bracts consisting of 2-3 very reduced leaves from condensed nodes; flowers showy, light or dark yellow; sepals 3, roughly ovate, about 2 cm. long, rigidly mucronate-spinose apically, usually bearing a few smaller spines below, glabrous and glaucous; petals normally 6, broadly obovate, mostly 2-4 cm. long, glabrous, more or less parallel-veined. Capsule usually oblongoid, 4- to 6-valvate, prominently spinose; seeds many, from 4-6 parietal placentae, globose, reticulate, glabrous.

  • Provided by: [K].Flora de Panama
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    "Annual, mostly 2.5–8 dm; lvs usually blotched with paler green; fls closely subtended by the upper lvs; pet yellow or cream, 1.5–3.5 cm; stamens 30–50; 2n=28. Native of tropical Amer., occasionally escaped from cult. as far n. as Mass. May–Sept."

  • Provided by: [I].New York Botanical Garden
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    A Prickly glabrous annual herb, 30-125 cm tall, branched. Leaves alternate, elliptic-oblong, pinnatifid, semiamplexicaul, sinuate-lobulated; variegated green and white, 5-20 cm long, 2-8 cm broad, ultimate segments, dentate, prickly on the margin, midrib and the veins beneath; Flowers sessile, 3-8 cm in diam., subtended by 2-3 foliaceous bracts. Sepals 8-12 mm long, 5-7 mm broad, with an acute, terete horn below the apex, very sparsely prickly outside, concave, imbricate caducous. Petals 4-6, obovate, 2.5-3.5 cm long, (1.5-)2-2.5 cm broad, narrowed below, bright yellow, imbricate, more or less crumpled in bud. Stamens indefinite, 8-12 mm long; anther c. 2 mm long, curved after flowering. Ovary ovate, 8-10 mm long, 3-5 mm broad covered with long soft spines; stigma red, 3-6 lobed; lobes usually broad. Capsule, oblong or elliptic-oblong, 2.5-4 cm long, 1.2-2 cm broad, with rounded ribs, covered with sharp erect prickles; valves 3-6. Seeds many, blackish brown to brown, ± rounded, 1.5-2 mm in diam, with fine, con¬spicuous tuberculae.

  • Provided by: [L].Flora of Pakistan
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    Morphology

    Seeds pitted-reticulate.

  • Provided by: [P].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
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    Flowers bright yellow

  • Provided by: [P].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
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    Capsule smooth or setose, 3–4 cm. long

  • Provided by: [P].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 2
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    A prickly glaucous erect herb

  • Provided by: [P].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 2
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    Leaves semi-amplexicaul, pinnately lobed

  • Provided by: [P].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
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    Yellow juice

  • Provided by: [P].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 2
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    Leaves sessile, ± amplexicaul, sinuate-pinnatifid with prickly teeth, often variegated.

  • Provided by: [O].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
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    Erect, glaucous herb up to 1 m. tall.

  • Provided by: [O].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
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    Capsule 3 x 1.5 cm., ellipsoid.

  • Provided by: [O].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 9
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    Flowers 3.5–4.5 cm. in diam., bright yellow, cream or white.

  • Provided by: [O].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
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    Stamens numerous.

  • Provided by: [N].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Fig. 1.

  • Provided by: [N].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
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    Seeds up to 2 mm. in diameter, subspherical with a small beak at one end ; testa pitted in rows radiating from the micropyle end.

  • Provided by: [N].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 10
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    Capsule oblong to broadly ellipsoid, 1.2–4.5 × 2.5 × 2.0 cm. ; valves 4–6, which split away from the vascular strands for about 1/3 of their length, exposing a cage-like frame of these vascular strands, attached apically to the persistent stigma ; outer valve-surface prickly in all tropical East African specimens seen (see Note below).

  • Provided by: [N].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 10
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    Stigma and style persistent, 1–3 mm. long in fruit.

  • Provided by: [N].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 10
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    Petals 6, yellow more rarely cream-white, glabrous.

  • Provided by: [N].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 10
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    Sepals 3, caducous, covered to a greater or lesser degree with prickles.

  • Provided by: [N].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 10
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    Flowers 2.5–4.5 cm. in diameter, subtended by 1 or 2 foliaceous bracts.

  • Provided by: [N].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 10
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    Leaves sessile, ± sheathing (amplexicaul); prickles if present mainly on the veins of the abaxial surface ; leaves with midrib and veins irregularly outlined in greyish-white on the adaxial surface.

  • Provided by: [N].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
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    Herbs erect up to about 1.2 m. high, often branching near the base.

  • Provided by: [N].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 10
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    Annual herb, up to 0.9 m high. Leaves thin-textured, green. Capsule elliptic, spiny. Flowers yellow.

  • Provided by: [G].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 18
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    Habit

    Argemone mexicana grows as an herbaceous annual-biennial to less than 1 m in height. The entire plant is covered with stiff sharp prickles. The leaves are arranged alternately, are sessile on the stems, and up to 20 cm in length. The leaf is sinuate and lobed, with a spiny margin, and has whitish venation. The vegetative parts produce a yellowish sap. The complete, perfect, actinomorphic flowers are arranged solitarily and subtended by bracts. The calyx has 3 greenish sepals each tipped with a spine. There are 6 bright yellow petals in the corolla. There are numerous stamens and a superior ovary with a single locule. The fruit is a poricidal capsule that is covered with spines.

  • Provided by: [D].Leon Levy Native Plant Preserve
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    Habitat

    Argemone mexicana grows in Human Altered environments (abandoned fields, yards, and roadsides).

  • Provided by: [D].Leon Levy Native Plant Preserve
    • Source: [
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    Disturbed places.

  • Provided by: [G].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 18
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    Distribution

    Southern United States and Mexico to Argentina and Chile; West Indies. Naturalized into Old World.

  • Provided by: [K].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 14
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    Argemone mexicana occurs throughout all the island groups of the Lucayan Archipelago as well as the southern United States, the entire Caribbean region, and Central and South America. It is also known to occur in Bermuda as well as becoming naturalized as a weedy species throughout the Africa and Asia

  • Provided by: [D].Leon Levy Native Plant Preserve
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    Native to South America.

  • Provided by: [G].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 18
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    Uses

    Argemone mexicana has been used in the Bahamas to treat a wide variety of diseases including respiratory problems (asthma, coughing, hiccups) as well as blood related diseases (hepatitis, jaundice, and high blood pressure), ringworm, and to remove warts. Oils can be extracted from the seeds and roots and have been used for lighting. Extracts can also be used as a pesticide. In general extracts from Argemone mexicana are considered poisonous and care should be taken when ingesting it.

  • Provided by: [D].Leon Levy Native Plant Preserve
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    Distribution Map

     
    • Introduced distribution
    Introduced into
    • Southern America Brazil Alagoas
    • Bahia
    • Ceará
    • Paraába
    • Pernambuco
    • Piauá
    • Rio Grande do Norte
    • Sergipe
    • Paraní
    • Santa Catarina
    • Espirito Santo
    • Minas Gerais
    • Rio de Janeiro
    • São Paulo
    • Brazilia Distrito Federal
    • Goiás
    • Mato Grosso
    • Mato Grosso do Sul

    Nationally Preferred Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Donkey ThistleEnglishBS
    Mexican PoppyEnglishBS

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    cardo-santoPortuguese

      Bibliography

     Information From

    MBG Floras Images
    http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
    Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
    • A Missouri Botanical Garden
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    Leon Levy Native Plant Preserve
    http://www.levypreserve.org
    Leon Levy Native Plant Preserve. 2020. Flora by Common Name and by Scientific Name. Bahamas National Trust. Available at www.levypreserve.org Accessed on (2020/07/09).
    • C Ethan Freid All rights Preserved
    • D Leon Levy Native Plant Preserve. All rights Preserved
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • E Flora of North America Association
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • F Missouri Botanical Garden
    e-Flora of South Africa
    e-Flora of South Africa. v1.21. 2018. South African National Biodiversity Institute. http://ipt.sanbi.org.za/iptsanbi/resource?r=flora_descriptions&v=1.21
    • G All Rights Reserved
    Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020
    http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br
    Brazil Flora G (2014): Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020. v393.147. Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botanico do Rio de Janeiro. Dataset/Checklist. doi:10.15468/1mtkaw
    • H Group Brazil Flora, REFLORA Program
    New York Botanical Garden
    Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
    • I Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
    Flora de Nicaragua
    http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
    WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
    • J Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora de Panama
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
    Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
    • K Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora of Pakistan
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Pakistan
    Flora of Pakistan. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2020.
    • L Missouri Botanical Garden
    Papaveraceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • M CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • N
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • O
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • P The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • Q CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).