Boerhavia diffusa L.
  • Sp. Pl. : 3 (1753)
  • Hog Weed


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2023): Boerhavia diffusa L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000567916. Accessed on: 28 Jan 2023'

General Information

Herbs perennial. Stems trailing, to 200 cm; stems glabrous or sparsely pubescent. Roots thick, fleshy. Petiole 0.4-2 cm; leaf blade ovate, 1-5 × 1-4 cm, both surfaces sparsely pubescent, abaxially gray-yellow, wrinkled when dry, base rounded or cuneate, margin undulate, with stout, muticellular hairs, apex obtuse or acute. Inflorescences terminal, capitate-cymose panicles; peduncle slender, sparsely pubescent. Pedicel short to almost absent. Bracts small, lanceolate, pubescent. Perianth limb bright purple or purple-red, 1.5-2 mm. Stamens 1-3(-5), slightly exserted or included. Anthocarp clavate, 3-3.5 mm, 5-ribbed, with viscid glands and sparse pubescence, apex rounded. Fl. and fr. spring-autumn.

  • Provided by: [M].Flora of China @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 18
    • ]. 

    Herbs, perennial [rarely appearing annual], sometimes slightly woody at base; taproot fusiform, woody. Stems decumbent, ascending, or erect, usually profusely branched throughout, 3-10 dm, glabrous or minutely pubescent basally, glabrous or sparsely pubescent distally. Leaves mostly in basal 1/2 of plant; larger leaves with petiole 10-30 mm, blade broadly lanceolate, ovate, or broadly ovate, occasionally ± round, 20-60 × 15-50 mm (distal leaves smaller, often proportionally narrower), base truncate, broadly cuneate, round, or shallowly cordate, often oblique, margins sinuate, apex obtuse to round, abaxial surface paler than adaxial, glabrous or minutely puberulent, sometimes glandular, usually with few large multicellular hairs on veins, adaxial surface glabrous, rarely sparsely puberulent, neither surface punctate. Inflorescences terminal, forked ca. 3-6 times ± equally, diffuse, occasionally with sticky internodal bands; branches divergent, terminating in compact subumbellate or capitate, 2-5-flowered clusters. Flowers: pedicel shorter than 0.5 mm; bract at base of perianth quickly deciduous, 1, lanceolate, 0.8-1 mm; perianth purplish red to reddish pink or nearly white, campanulate beyond constriction, 1-1.5 mm; stamens 2-3, included or barely exserted. Fruits (1-)2-5(-9) per cluster, gray-brown to brown, obpyramidal, (3-)3.5-4.5 × 1-1.2 mm (l/w: 2.8-4.1), apex broadly conic, with sparse or moderately dense stipitate-glandular hairs on ribs, less densely pubescent or glabrous in sulci [rarely entirely glabrous]; ribs 5, round, smooth; sulci ± 2-2.5 times as wide as base of ribs, not rugose, not papillate. 2n = 26, 52, 54, 116.

  • Provided by: [L].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 19
    • ]. 

    Boerhavia diffusa L., Sp. Pl. 3. 1753.

    Hierbas perennes, leñosas en la base, postradas a débilmente ascendentes, puberulencia diminuta y frecuentemente dispersa, frecuentemente con algunos tricomas pilosos más largos a glabrescente. Hojas ampliamente ovadas, subrotundas u oblongas, 0.8–5 cm de largo y 1–4.5 cm de ancho, ápice agudo a redondeado y comúnmente mucronado, base cuneada a subtruncada, glabras o con algunos tricomas en los nervios del envés y los márgenes, sin puntuaciones café-rojas; pecíolo 0.5–4 cm de largo, puberulento- a tomentoso-glandular, comúnmente con algunos tricomas pilosos más largos. Inflorescencia con ramas distales escasa y menudamente puberulentas, casi glabras; porción basal del cáliz globosa, 0.5–1 mm de largo y de ancho, puberulento-glandular, la porción apical del cáliz campanulada, 1–1.5 mm de largo y de ancho, morada. Antocarpo oblanceolado, 2.5–3 mm de largo y 0.7–1.2 mm de ancho, ápice agudo, densamente viscoso-glandular.

    Común en ambientes ruderales, especialmente en playas arenosas, zona pacífica; 0–100 m; fl y fr todo el año; Moreno 6234, Nee 28502; en todos los trópicos y subtrópicos, aparentemente nativa del Viejo Mundo.

  • Provided by: [O].Flora de Nicaragua
    • Source: [
    • 20
    • ]. 

    Perennial herbs; stems decumbent to ascending, 4-12 dm. long, rather slender, more or less viscid-puberulent. Leaves opposite or subopposite, often unequal at the nodes, petiolate; blade orbicular to rhombic-ovate below, frequently grading to lanceolate above, obtuse to rounded or acute at the apex, obtuse to rounded at the base, undulate or sinuate, 2-6 cm. long, 2-5 cm. broad, more or less puberulent to glabrate, yellowish green above, paler beneath, not punctate; petiole 1-4 cm. long. Inflorescences paniculiform, lax and many-flowered, leafy-bracteate at least below, viscid-puberulent to glabrate. Flowers in pedunculate glomerulate clusters, sessile or subsessile, the perianth tube 0.7-1.0 mm. long, somewhat less than 0.5 mm. broad, herbaceous, minutely glandular, the perianth limb campanulate, about 0.5 mm. long, red to purple, rarely white; stamens 3, slightly exserted. Anthocarps obovoid to subellipsoid, obtuse to obscurely beaked, 3-4 mm. long, 1 mm. broad, glandular, sessile or subsessile.

  • Provided by: [H].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 21
    • ]. 

    Prostrate or ascending herb, to 50 cm long, many-branched from a taproot; twigs cylindrical, glabrous. Leaves in unequal pairs; blades 1.2-5.5 x 1.3-4 cm, ovate to wide ovate, chartaceous, sparsely pilose, especially on veins, lower side glaucous, the apex rounded to acute, shortly apiculate, the base rounded, truncate to nearly cordate, the margins wavy, ciliate; petioles pilose, 0.5-3 cm long. Flowers nearly sessile, 2-4(-7) in terminal, subcapitate clusters on axillary racemes or terminal panicles, 10- 30 cm long; the axes glabrous; bracts and bracteoles lanceolate. Calyx base 0.5-1.5 mm , puberulent, the limb funnel-shaped, red or violet, 0.6-1 mm long; stamens usually 2, slightly exserted. Anthocarp sessile, green, glandular-pubescent, sticky, short clubshaped, 2-2.5 mm long, 5-ribbed.

  • Provided by: [K].Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden
    • Source: [
    • 23
    • ]. 

    Resembles Boerhavia procumbens Banks ex Roxb. from which it differs mainly in its fusiform fruits. I have not seen any authentic specimens of this species from Pakistan. It is common in Sri Lanka (the type locality of this species.)

  • Provided by: [N].Flora of Pakistan
    • Source: [
    • 24
    • ]. 

    Herb up to 1 m, sometimes more; often richly branched, erect or decumbent at base, glabrous or puberulous particularly in the upper part. Leaves ovate-oblong or lanceolate, acute to obtuse at apex, truncate to rounded at base, 2–4 by 1.5–3 cm; flower surface often whitish with inserted, reddish glands along the margin; upper surface green. Petioles 1–4 cm. Inflorescences lax, many-flowered; ultimate peduncles glandular, terminated by a small cymose group of flowers. Pedicels 0.5–2 mm; bracteoles 1–2 mm long. Perianth campanulate, ca 2 mm long, constricted at the middle, white, pink or red. Stamens 2–3, slightly exserted. Ovary ovoid; style slightly exserted; stigma capitate-discoid. Anthocarp clavate, 2–3 mm long, with 5 longitudinal ribs with scattered, minute, sessile and stipitate glands.

  • Provided by: [E].e-Flora of Thailand
    • Source: [
    • 26
    • ]. 

    Morphology

    Tallo: presencia de espina(s) inerme(s); ramificación(es) difusa(s); consistencia del caule(s) herbaceo(s); forma de crescimiento procumbente(s)/decumbente(s). Hoja: filotaxia opuesta(s); margen(es) de las hoja(s) entera. Inflorescencia: posición terminal(es); tipo de inflorescencia(s) umbela(s). Flor: bracteola(s) presente(s); forma del perianto(s) campanulada(s). Fruto: antocárpico(s) presente(s); forma obpiramidal(es); presencia de glándula(s) glanduloso(s).

  • Provided by: [F].Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Caule: presença de espinho(s) inerme(s); ramificação(ções) difusa(s); consistência do caule(s) herbáceo(s); forma de crescimento procumbente(s)/decumbente(s). Folha: filotaxia oposta(s); margem(ns) das folha(s) inteira. Inflorescência: posição terminal(ais); tipo de inflorescência(s) umbela(s). Flor: bractéola(s) presente(s); forma do perianto(s) campanulado(s). Fruto: antocárpico(s) presente(s); formato obpiramidal(ais); presença de glândula(s) glanduloso(s).

  • Provided by: [F].Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Stem: presence of the spine unarmed; branching diffuse; consistency of the branch herbaceous; form of the growth procumbent/decumbent. Leaf: phylotaxy opposite; margin of the leaf entire. Inflorescence: position terminal; type of the inflorescence umbel. Flower: bracteole(s) present; form of the perianth campanulate. Fruit: anthocarpous present; shape obpyramidal; presence of the gland(s) glandulose.

  • Provided by: [F].Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Flowers usually 2–7 (11) per cluster, sessile or with pedicels to 1 mm. long.

  • Provided by: [I].Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    • Source: [
    • 16
    • ]. 

    Bracteoles more or less 1 mm. long, ovate to lanceolate, acuminate, margins fimbriate.

  • Provided by: [I].Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    • Source: [
    • 16
    • ]. 

    Stems spreading, decumbent with ascending flowering stems to 1 m., diffusely branched, glabrous to puberulous, often with long septate hairs particularly around nodes.

  • Provided by: [I].Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    • Source: [
    • 16
    • ]. 

    Perennial herbs, usually much branched from base.

  • Provided by: [I].Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    • Source: [
    • 16
    • ]. 

    Inflorescences elongating greatly after start of flowering, ultimately lax, terminal, leafless, cymose panicles, occasionally a few scattered simple axillary cymes, branches glabrous.

  • Provided by: [I].Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    • Source: [
    • 16
    • ]. 

    Leaves 1.5–6 × 0.8–5 cm., ovate, elliptic or subcircular, base subcordate, rounded, more or less truncate or broadly cuneate, apex acute to rounded, sometimes apiculate, usually more or less glabrous with long septate hairs mainly along veins below and margins; petioles to 4 cm., glabrous to puberulous, often with long septate hairs.

  • Provided by: [I].Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    • Source: [
    • 16
    • ]. 

    Anthocarps 3–3.5 × 1–1.75 mm., clavate, apex rounded, glandular pubescent.

  • Provided by: [I].Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    • Source: [
    • 16
    • ]. 

    Ovary more or less 0.5 mm. long, glabrous; style 1–1.5 mm. long, slightly exserted.

  • Provided by: [I].Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    • Source: [
    • 16
    • ]. 

    Stamens 1–3, subequal, slightly exserted 1.5–2.5 mm. long,.

  • Provided by: [I].Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    • Source: [
    • 16
    • ]. 

    Perianth 1.6–2.5 mm. long, lower portion 5-ribbed, glandular-pubescent, upper portion 0.5–1.2 mm. long, campanulate, whitish, pink, carmine or purple.

  • Provided by: [I].Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    • Source: [
    • 16
    • ]. 

    Annual or perennial, prostrate, ascending or erect herb up to 1 m., sometimes with a thick taproot.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 17
    • ]. 

    Leaves broadly ovate to lanceolate, up to 6×5 cm., green, paler beneath, the base truncate to cuneate, the apex rounded to acute, with long septate hairs on the sinuate margins and veins beneath.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 17
    • ]. 

    Inflorescence a large diffuse terminal panicle up to 35 cm., the individual cymes (1–)3–5(–7)-flowered; branches glabrous to glabrescent.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 17
    • ]. 

    Stems fleshy, becoming woody towards the base, green, sometimes tinged purple, branching mainly from the base, the nodes swollen, glabrescent to puberulous with long septate hairs especially around the nodes.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 17
    • ]. 

    Fig. 1/1–4.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 17
    • ]. 

    Ovary ± 0.5 mm.; style slightly exserted.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 17
    • ]. 

    Anthocarp obovoid, 3–4×1–1.5 mm., 5-ribbed, rounded at the apex, glandular-pubescent.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 17
    • ]. 

    Perianth 1.5–2.5 mm. long; upper portion pink to purple, 1–1.5 mm. long.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 17
    • ]. 

    Anthers 1(–3), slightly exserted.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 17
    • ]. 

    Plante' vivace, à racine pivotante atteignant 20 cm de long et 2 cm de diam., à développement très variable, atteignant dans les formes diffuses jusqu'à 1,5 m de haut, glabre ou glabrescente.' Tiges''± longuement rampantes, ascendantes et florifères à leur extrémité, les primaires en général, se ramifiant tôt et abondamment; entre-nœuds de 1-16 cm de long et de 1-5 mm de diam.' Feuilles' d'une même paire inégales; pétiole de 0,5-3,5 cm de long; limbe ovale à ovale-lancéolé, parfois suborbiculaire, à sommet arrondi, obtus, cunéiforme, à base cunéiforme, tronquée, arrondie ou rarement un peu cordée, de 1,5-6,5 cm de long et de 1-4,5 cm de large, généralement discolore, à face inférieure souvent ± blanchâtre ou argentée, parfois ± glauque; nervure médiane émettant, de chaque côté, 2-5 nervures obliques, distinctes au moins en dessous; bords généralement ciliés et ± sinués.' Inflorescences' diversement développées, celles des plantes jeunes courtes et pauciflores, les plus tardives généralement plus amples et pouvant atteindre, dans la forme diffuse, 50 cm de long y compris le pédoncule, terminales mais paraissant souvent axillaires (surtout dans la forme rampante), à 3-15 nœuds et à ramifications dichotomiques, l'axe principal se prolongeant, au delà de chaque nœud, entre les 2 nouveaux axes, par un ramuscule florifère composé le plus souvent d'un pédoncule de 10-20 mm de long et d'une ombelle 4-flore; bractées le plus souvent lancéolées et à sommet aigu, souvent précocement caduques, celles des nœuds inférieurs parfois ± semblables aux feuilles, les dernières de l mm de long.' Fleurs sessiles ou subsessiles, en ombelles capituliformes 4-flores et entourées de bractées membraneuses de 0,5-0,8 mm de long; pédicelles inégaux, de 0,2-1 mm de long; périgone de 1-2 mm de long à partie inférieure ellipsoïde, 5-côtelée, verte, portant des poils glanduleux abondants surtout sur les côtes, à partie supérieure du périgone campanulée, légèrement 5-lobée, pétaloïde, blanche, rose, rouge ou violacée; étamines 2-3, à anthères un peu exsertes; ovaire ellipsoïde; style légèrement exsert, égalant ± les étamines; stigmate en dôme. Anthocarpe obconique, ellipsoïde ou obpyramidal, de 2-3 mm de long, à sillons remplis de cellules à raphides et côtes généralement très glandulifères. Caryopse ellipsoïde, de ± 2 mm de long, à paroi mince, jaunâtre, portant 2 stries longitudinales brunes.

  • Provided by: [J].Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    • Source: [
    • 27
    • ]. 

    Habit

    herbs

  • Provided by: [H].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 21
    • ]. 

    Boerhavia diffusa grows as a decumbent perennial herb with ascending inflorescences to 50 cm. The leaves are arranged oppositely, orbicular to oval, 8 cm in length, with a sinuate leaf margin and an acute leaf apex. The leaf margins have multicellular linear trichomes. The incomplete, perfect, actinomorphic flowers are arranged in panicles. Flowers subtended by bracts. The calyx has 5 sepals that are pink purple. There are no petals. There are 2 stamens. The ovary is superior with 1 locules and ovule. The fruit is a 5 ribbed achene that is retained within the glandular calyx at maturity (anthocarp)

  • Provided by: [C].Leon Levy Native Plant Preserve
    • Source: [
    • 25
    • ]. 

    Ecology

    From sea-level up to 2000 m alt., usually on open ground; on all soils inclusive of salt pans, sands and limestones.

  • Provided by: [E].e-Flora of Thailand
    • Source: [
    • 26
    • ]. 

    Habitat

    Boerhavia diffusa grows in sandy Human Altered environments (yards, abandoned fields, roadsides).

  • Provided by: [C].Leon Levy Native Plant Preserve
    • Source: [
    • 25
    • ]. 

    Plante adventice héliophile, assez commune dans les défrichements et alentours des villages ainsi que dans les savanes.

  • Provided by: [J].Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    • Source: [
    • 27
    • ]. 

    Distribution

    A weed widely dispersed throughout the tropics and subtropics of America, Africa, Asia, and Oceania. Carasola (Taboga Isi.).

  • Provided by: [H].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 21
    • ]. 

    A common weed of open areas, common along sandy beaches. Reef Bay (A2727). Also on St. Croix, St. Thomas, Tortola, and Virgin Gorda; a pantropical weed.

  • Provided by: [K].Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden
    • Source: [
    • 23
    • ]. 

    Boerhavia diffusa occurs throughout the entire Lucayan Archipelago and is found throughout all tropical and subtropical regions of the world.

  • Provided by: [C].Leon Levy Native Plant Preserve
    • Source: [
    • 25
    • ]. 

    Pantropical weed. Type of unknown origin.

  • Provided by: [E].e-Flora of Thailand
    • Source: [
    • 26
    • ]. 

    Uses

    Boerhavia diffusa is not known to be used medicinally in the Lucayan Archipelago.

  • Provided by: [C].Leon Levy Native Plant Preserve
    • Source: [
    • 25
    • ]. 

    Locally used for medicinal purposes.

  • Provided by: [E].e-Flora of Thailand
    • Source: [
    • 26
    • ]. 

    Les feuilles sont employées comme remède contre la blennorrhagie et pour calmer les douleurs (cardiaques ?).

  • Provided by: [J].Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    • Source: [
    • 27
    • ]. 

    Distribution Map

     
    • Introduced distribution
    Introduced into
    • Asia-Tropical Indo-China Thailand
    • Southern America Brazil Parí
    • Bahia
    • Ceará
    • Maranh
    • Pernambuco
    • Piauá
    • Paraní
    • Minas Gerais
    • Rio de Janeiro
    • São Paulo
    • Goiás
    • Mato Grosso

    Nationally Preferred Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Hog WeedEnglishBS

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    pang pae (ปังแป)(Northern)ThaiTHA
    erva-tostãoPortuguese
    phak khom fa (ผักขมฟ้า)(Northern)ThaiTHA
    phak bia hin (ผักเบี้ยหิน)(Northern)ThaiTHA
    Spreading hogweed, red spiderling
    pega-pintoPortuguese
    phak pang din (ผักปังดิน)(Northern)ThaiTHA
    phak khom hin (ผักขมหิน)(Central)ThaiTHA

      Bibliography

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