Brassica rapa L.
  • Sp. Pl.
  • Bird-rape, wild-rape, rapeseed, canola, turnip, wild-turnip, turnip-rape, field-mustard


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Brassica rapa L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000571544. Accessed on: 28 Oct 2020'

General Information

5. Brassica rapa L., Sp. Pl. 666 (1753). Lectotipo (designado por Oost et al., 1987): “Rapum”, Matthioli, Pl. Epit. 219 (1568). Ilustr.: Wu et al., Fl. China Ill. 8: 2, t. 2 (2003). N.v.: Nabo.

Por I.A. Al-Shehbaz y S. Fuentes-Soriano.

Brassica campestris L.

Hierbas anuales o bianuales, glabras o esparcidamente pelosas basalmente, rara vez glaucas, algunas veces con una raíz carnosa. Tallos 30-120(-190) cm, erectos. Hojas caulinares basales y más proximales (5-)10-40(-60) × 3-10(-20) cm, ovadas, oblongas o lanceoladas, los márgenes enteros, repandos, dentados o sinuados, algunas veces pinnatífidos o pinnatisectos y con 1-6 lobos laterales oblongos u ovados en cada lado; pecíolo (1-)2-10(-17) cm; hojas caulinares más distales 2-8(-12) × 0.8-3 cm, ovadas, oblongas o lanceoladas, la base amplexicaule, profundamente cordata o auriculada, sésiles. Flores en la antesis dispuestas por arriba de los botones florales. Pedicelos en fruto (0.5-)1-2.5(-3) cm. Sépalos (3-)4-6.5(-8) mm, ascendentes; pétalos (5-)7-10(-13) × 3-6(-7) mm, obovados, amarillo intenso, unguiculados, la uña 3-6 mm. Frutos (20-)30-80(-110) × 2-4(-5) mm; región valvar (13-)20-50(-75) mm, 8-15-semillas por lóculo, las valvas con una vena central prominente; rostro (3-)10-25(-35) mm, cónico, sin semillas o rara vez con 1 semilla; semillas 1-1.8 mm de diámetro. n = 10. Orillas de caminos, campos, bosques abiertos, sitios alterados. Ch (Cabrera y Cabrera 6022, MO); G (Croat 41085, MO); H (Erazo 130, MO); ES (Carlson 869, F); N (Nee y Stevens 27758, MO); CR (Khan et al. 772, CR); P (Oliver 351, K). 70-2200 m. (Nativa de Eurasia; cultivada en todo el mundo.)

Las hojas y raíces se utilizan como vegetales y es cultivada para la obtención de aceite de semilla. Rollins (2001) registra el ejemplar Moreno 2955 de Nicaragua, como Brassica juncea, sin embargo este ejemplar es B. rapa. Standley y Steyermark (1946) registraron B. pekinensis (Lour.) Rupr. como especie cultivada en Guatemala, sin embargo el nombre correcto de este taxon es B. rapa var. glabra Regel.

  • Provided by: [F].Flora Mesoamericana
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • 15
    • ]. 

    Annuals or biennials; (roots fleshy or slender); (green to slightly glaucous), glabrous or sparsely hairy. Stems unbranched or branched distally, 3-10 dm. Basal leaves: petiole (winged), (1-)2-10(-17) cm; blade ± lyrate-pinnatifid to pinnate to pinnatisect, (5-)10-40(-60) cm × 30-100(-200) mm, (margins sinuate-dentate, sometimes ciliate), lobes 2-4(-6) each side, (terminal lobe oblong-obovate, obtuse, large, blade surfaces usually setose). Cauline leaves (middle and distal) sessile; base auriculate to amplexicaul, (margins subentire). Racemes not paniculately branched, (with open flowers overtopping or equal to buds). Fruiting pedicels ascending to spreading, (5-)10-25(-30) mm. Flowers: sepals (3-)4-6.5(-8) × 1.5-2 mm; petals deep yellow to yellow, obovate, 6-11(-13) × (2.5-)3-6(-7) mm, claw 3-7 mm, apex rounded; filaments 4-6(-7) mm; anthers 1.5-2 mm. Fruits ascending to somewhat spreading, torulose, terete, (2-)3-8(-11) cm × 2-4(-5) mm; valvular segment with 8-15 seeds per locule, (1.3-)2-5(-7.5) cm, terminal segment seedless, 8-22 mm. Seeds black, brown, or reddish, 1.1-2 mm diam.; seed coat very finely reticulate-lightly alveolate, not mucilaginous when wetted. 2n = 20.

  • Provided by: [I].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 14
    • ]. 

    Brassica rapa L., Sp. Pl. 666. 1753; B. campestris L.

    Anuales con raíces axonomorfas, glabras o muy escasamente hirsutas, 2–10 dm de alto, tallos simples a ramificados. Hojas basales delgadas, pecioladas, más o menos lirado-pinnatífidas, lobos laterales 2–4, lobo terminal oblongo-ovado y sinuado-dentado, hojas caulinares inferiores similares a las hojas basales, pero tornándose sésiles y auriculadas hasta muy auriculadas, las caulinares superiores oblongas a ovado-lanceoladas y casi enteras. Pétalos 6–10 mm de largo, amarillos. Pedicelos de las silicuas algo gruesos, ascendentes, 1–2.5 cm de largo; silicuas ascendentes a moderadamente patentes, 3–7 cm de largo, rostro 8–15 mm de largo, atenuándose en un estilo delgado; semillas muy ligeramente alveoladas, ca 1.5 mm de diámetro.

    Aparentemente poco frecuente y ruderal, en las zonas norcentral y pacífica; 100–1350 m; fl y fr sep–ene; Moreno 14331, Nee 27758; maleza ampliamente distribuida en áreas templadas, donde las semillas contaminan los granos básicos; su distribución nativa es desconocida. Una variedad de esta especie es el "Nabo".

  • Provided by: [G].Flora de Nicaragua
    • Source: [
    • 16
    • ]. 

    "Annual to 8 dm, green and sparsely setose-hispid, at least along the lf-margins and the midrib beneath; lower lvs petioled, pinnately ± lobed; upper lvs oblong to lanceolate, dentate or entire, sessile and clasping; fls 1 cm wide; mature pedicels widely ascending, 1–2 cm; frs ascending to suberect, terete or nearly so, 3–5 cm, the slender beak 8–15 mm; seeds 1.5–2 mm, minutely roughened; 2n=20.B. rapa as here defined includes the field-weed (often called B. campestris L.) and a number of cultivars derived from it, notably turnip and bird’s rape. The related sp. B. oleracea L., glabrous and glaucous, 2n=18, includes a host of cultivars (cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, etc.) derived from a wild European form that is often segregated as B. sylvestris (L.) Mill. Rape and rutabaga are referred to B. napus L. (2n=38), thought to be an alloploid of the other two spp. Infraspecific nomenclature here is tangled."

  • Provided by: [J].New York Botanical Garden
    • Source: [
    • 17
    • ]. 

    Herbs annual or biennial, 30-120(-190) cm tall, glabrous or sparsely pubescent basally, rarely glaucous, sometimes with fleshy taproots. Stems erect, simple or branched above. Basal and lowermost cauline leaves petiolate, not rosulate or obscurely to strongly rosulate and forming a compact, oblong head; petiole (1-)2-10(-17) cm, slender or thickened and fleshy, sometimes strongly winged; leaf blade ovate, oblong, or lanceolate in outline, (5-)10-40(-60) × 3-10(-20) cm, margin entire, repand, dentate, or sinuate, sometimes pinnatifid or pinnatisect and with a large terminal lobe and smaller, 1-6, oblong or ovate lateral lobes on each side of midvein. Upper cauline leaves sessile, ovate, oblong, or lanceolate, 2-8(-12) × 0.8-3 cm, base amplexicaul, deeply cordate, or auriculate, margin entire or repand. Fruiting pedicels, straight, ascending or divaricate, (0.5-)1-2.5(-3) cm. Sepals oblong, (3-)4-6.5(-8) × 1.5-2 mm, ascending. Petals bright yellow, rarely pale or whitish yellow, 7-10(-13) × (2.5-)3-6(-7) mm, obovate, apex rounded. Filaments 4-6(-7) mm; anthers oblong, 1.5-2 mm. Fruit linear, (2-)3-8(-11) cm × 2-4(-5) mm, terete, sessile, divaricate or ascending; valvular segment (1.3-)2-5(-7.5) cm, 8-15-seeded per locule, valves with a prominent midvein; terminal segment conical, (0.3-)1-2.5(-3.5) cm, seedless or rarely 1-seeded; style obsolete. Seeds dark or reddish brown, globose, 1-1.8 mm in diam., minutely reticulate. Fl. Mar-Jun, fr. Apr-Jul. 2n = 20*.

  • Provided by: [K].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Morphology

      Annual or biennial herb with stout or tuberous tap-root.

    • Provided by: [H].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 12
      • ]. 

      Basal leaves stalked, bristly, lyrate-pinnatifid, upper ones sessile, amplexicaul, ± glaucous.

    • Provided by: [H].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 12
      • ]. 

      Flowers bright yellow, in terminal racemes.

    • Provided by: [H].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 12
      • ]. 

      Sepals spreading.

    • Provided by: [H].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 12
      • ]. 

      Petals 4, 6–10 mm. long.

    • Provided by: [H].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 12
      • ]. 

      Stamens 6.

    • Provided by: [H].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 12
      • ]. 

      Seeds 1–5–2 mm. in diam., blackish or reddish-brown.

    • Provided by: [H].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 12
      • ]. 

      Silique curved, erect, slightly flattened with a long, tapering beak.

    • Provided by: [H].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 12
      • ]. 

      Ovary with 20–30 ovules.

    • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      • Source: [
      • 13
      • ]. 

      Siliquae linear, rarely on a gynophore, 40–100 mm. long, 2.5–4 mm. broad; beak 5–30 mm. long with 0–1 seed.

    • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      • Source: [
      • 13
      • ]. 

      Seeds dark brown, globose, 1.0–1.5 mm. in diameter, with a fine distinct reticulum.

    • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      • Source: [
      • 13
      • ]. 

      Anthers ± 2 mm. long.

    • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      • Source: [
      • 13
      • ]. 

      Petals yellow, clawed, with obovate slightly emarginate blade, 6–11 mm. long.

    • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      • Source: [
      • 13
      • ]. 

      Sepals yellow-green, spreading, 5–8 mm. long.

    • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      • Source: [
      • 13
      • ]. 

      Racemes loosely corymbiform with open flowers overtopping the buds; in fruit very elongate; pedicels 10–30 mm. long.

    • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      • Source: [
      • 13
      • ]. 

      Basal leaves ± indistinctly petioled, bright green, hispidulous, lyrate-pinnatipartite, dentate, crenate or sinuate; terminal lobe large, orbicular to ovate, obtuse, cordate; lateral lobes in up to 5 pairs, rather small, ovate to triangular; lower cauline leaves sessile, clasping, pinnatifid; upper cauline leaves ± glaucous, sessile, distinctly clasping, undivided (fiddle-shaped, narrowly triangular or lanceolate), entire to repand-dentate.

    • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      • Source: [
      • 13
      • ]. 

      Stem erect, branched, glabrous or slightly hispid below (rarely higher up), up to 150 cm. high.

    • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      • Source: [
      • 13
      • ]. 

      Annual or biennial herb with thin or stout, often fusiform to tuberous taproot.

    • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      • Source: [
      • 13
      • ]. 

      Annual or biennial herb. Upper stem leaves cordate at base, amplexicaul. Petals 6-10 mm long. Flowers yellow.

    • Provided by: [D].e-Flora of South Africa
      • Source: [
      • 18
      • ]. 

      Annual or biennial herbs with slender or stout, tuberous taproots. Basal leaves lyrate-pinnatisect, ±5-jugate, petiolate, shortly hispid or setose, green; lobes dentate, the terminal lobe broadly ovate, lobulate. Upper stem leaves simple, obovate-oblong, ± cordate at the base, sessile, amplexicaul, glaucous, repand-dentate to entire, glabrous or nearly so. Racemes dense in flower, the open flowers generally overtopping the buds; lax in fruit. Flowers yellow, the petals 6-10 mm long. Fruiting pedicels spreading. Siliquae 3.5-6.5 cm long, 2-4 mm broad, linear; valves bulged by the seeds, 1-nerved, reticulately veined; beak 0.8-2 cm long, attenuate. Seeds 18-24, 1.2-1.7 mm in diameter, generally dark-coloured with a reticulate seed-coat.

    • Provided by: [D].e-Flora of South Africa
      • Source: [
      • 19
      • ]. 

      Annual or biennial herb, up to 1.5 m high. Stems erect. Leaves basal ones petiolate, blade lyrate-pinnatisect, lobes dentate, terminal lobe broadly ovate, lobulate, sparsely hispid; upper leaves sessile, simple, blade obovate-oblong, base amplexicaul, glabrous. Flowers: in dense racemes; petals 6-10 mm long, yellow; Nov.-Feb. Fruit with pedicels spreading; siliquae 35-65 x 2-4 mm, reticulately veined, beak 8-20 mm long, attenuate.

    • Provided by: [D].e-Flora of South Africa
      • Source: [
      • 20
      • ]. 

      Habitat

      Mesic Grassland. Disturbed places.

    • Provided by: [D].e-Flora of South Africa
      • Source: [
      • 20
      • ]. 

      Disturbed places.

    • Provided by: [D].e-Flora of South Africa
      • Source: [
      • 18
      • ]. 

      Distribution

      Native to Asia.

    • Provided by: [D].e-Flora of South Africa
      • Source: [
      • 20
      • ]. 

      Distribution Map

       
      • Introduced distribution
      Introduced into
      • Southern America Brazil Piauá
      • Paraní
      • Rio Grande do Sul
      • Santa Catarina
      • Espirito Santo
      • Minas Gerais
      • Rio de Janeiro
      • São Paulo
      • Brazilia Distrito Federal

      Synonyms

      Other Local Names

      NameLanguageCountry
      Bird-rape, wild-rape, rapeseed, canola, turnip, wild-turnip, turnip-rape, field-mustard

        Bibliography

       Information From

      Brassicaceae
      World Flora Online Data. 2017.
      • A CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
      MBG Floras Images
      http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
      Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
      • B Missouri Botanical Garden
      Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
      http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
      • C
      e-Flora of South Africa
      e-Flora of South Africa. v1.21. 2018. South African National Biodiversity Institute. http://ipt.sanbi.org.za/iptsanbi/resource?r=flora_descriptions&v=1.21
      • D All Rights Reserved
      Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020
      http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br
      Brazil Flora G (2014): Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020. v393.147. Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botanico do Rio de Janeiro. Dataset/Checklist. doi:10.15468/1mtkaw
      • E Group Brazil Flora, REFLORA Program
      Flora Mesoamericana
      http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/fm/
      Gerrit Davidse, Mario Sousa Sánchez, A. O. Chater, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Instituto de Biología, Missouri Botanical Garden, Natural History Museum (London, England) UNAM, 1994
      • F Missouri Botanical Garden
      Flora de Nicaragua
      http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
      WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
      • G Missouri Botanical Garden
      Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
      http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
      • H
      Flora of North America @ efloras.org
      http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
      'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
      • I Flora of North America Association
      New York Botanical Garden
      Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
      • J Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
      Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
      http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
      'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
      • K Missouri Botanical Garden
      World Flora Online consortium
      http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
      World Flora Online Data. 2018.
      • L CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).