Brassica rapa L.
  • Sp. Pl. : 666 (1753)
  • Tornapa fiáin


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2023): Brassica rapa L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000571544. Accessed on: 29 Jan 2023'

General Information

5. Brassica rapa L., Sp. Pl. 666 (1753). Lectotipo (designado por Oost et al., 1987): “Rapum”, Matthioli, Pl. Epit. 219 (1568). Ilustr.: Wu et al., Fl. China Ill. 8: 2, t. 2 (2003). N.v.: Nabo.

Por I.A. Al-Shehbaz y S. Fuentes-Soriano.

Brassica campestris L.

Hierbas anuales o bianuales, glabras o esparcidamente pelosas basalmente, rara vez glaucas, algunas veces con una raíz carnosa. Tallos 30-120(-190) cm, erectos. Hojas caulinares basales y más proximales (5-)10-40(-60) × 3-10(-20) cm, ovadas, oblongas o lanceoladas, los márgenes enteros, repandos, dentados o sinuados, algunas veces pinnatífidos o pinnatisectos y con 1-6 lobos laterales oblongos u ovados en cada lado; pecíolo (1-)2-10(-17) cm; hojas caulinares más distales 2-8(-12) × 0.8-3 cm, ovadas, oblongas o lanceoladas, la base amplexicaule, profundamente cordata o auriculada, sésiles. Flores en la antesis dispuestas por arriba de los botones florales. Pedicelos en fruto (0.5-)1-2.5(-3) cm. Sépalos (3-)4-6.5(-8) mm, ascendentes; pétalos (5-)7-10(-13) × 3-6(-7) mm, obovados, amarillo intenso, unguiculados, la uña 3-6 mm. Frutos (20-)30-80(-110) × 2-4(-5) mm; región valvar (13-)20-50(-75) mm, 8-15-semillas por lóculo, las valvas con una vena central prominente; rostro (3-)10-25(-35) mm, cónico, sin semillas o rara vez con 1 semilla; semillas 1-1.8 mm de diámetro. n = 10. Orillas de caminos, campos, bosques abiertos, sitios alterados. Ch (Cabrera y Cabrera 6022, MO); G (Croat 41085, MO); H (Erazo 130, MO); ES (Carlson 869, F); N (Nee y Stevens 27758, MO); CR (Khan et al. 772, CR); P (Oliver 351, K). 70-2200 m. (Nativa de Eurasia; cultivada en todo el mundo.)

Las hojas y raíces se utilizan como vegetales y es cultivada para la obtención de aceite de semilla. Rollins (2001) registra el ejemplar Moreno 2955 de Nicaragua, como Brassica juncea, sin embargo este ejemplar es B. rapa. Standley y Steyermark (1946) registraron B. pekinensis (Lour.) Rupr. como especie cultivada en Guatemala, sin embargo el nombre correcto de este taxon es B. rapa var. glabra Regel.

  • Provided by: [J].Flora Mesoamericana
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • 17
    • ]. 

    Herbs annual or biennial, 30-120(-190) cm tall, glabrous or sparsely pubescent basally, rarely glaucous, sometimes with fleshy taproots. Stems erect, simple or branched above. Basal and lowermost cauline leaves petiolate, not rosulate or obscurely to strongly rosulate and forming a compact, oblong head; petiole (1-)2-10(-17) cm, slender or thickened and fleshy, sometimes strongly winged; leaf blade ovate, oblong, or lanceolate in outline, (5-)10-40(-60) × 3-10(-20) cm, margin entire, repand, dentate, or sinuate, sometimes pinnatifid or pinnatisect and with a large terminal lobe and smaller, 1-6, oblong or ovate lateral lobes on each side of midvein. Upper cauline leaves sessile, ovate, oblong, or lanceolate, 2-8(-12) × 0.8-3 cm, base amplexicaul, deeply cordate, or auriculate, margin entire or repand. Fruiting pedicels, straight, ascending or divaricate, (0.5-)1-2.5(-3) cm. Sepals oblong, (3-)4-6.5(-8) × 1.5-2 mm, ascending. Petals bright yellow, rarely pale or whitish yellow, 7-10(-13) × (2.5-)3-6(-7) mm, obovate, apex rounded. Filaments 4-6(-7) mm; anthers oblong, 1.5-2 mm. Fruit linear, (2-)3-8(-11) cm × 2-4(-5) mm, terete, sessile, divaricate or ascending; valvular segment (1.3-)2-5(-7.5) cm, 8-15-seeded per locule, valves with a prominent midvein; terminal segment conical, (0.3-)1-2.5(-3.5) cm, seedless or rarely 1-seeded; style obsolete. Seeds dark or reddish brown, globose, 1-1.8 mm in diam., minutely reticulate. Fl. Mar-Jun, fr. Apr-Jul. 2n = 20*.

  • Provided by: [I].Flora of China @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 15
    • ]. 

    Annuals or biennials; (roots fleshy or slender); (green to slightly glaucous), glabrous or sparsely hairy. Stems unbranched or branched distally, 3-10 dm. Basal leaves: petiole (winged), (1-)2-10(-17) cm; blade ± lyrate-pinnatifid to pinnate to pinnatisect, (5-)10-40(-60) cm × 30-100(-200) mm, (margins sinuate-dentate, sometimes ciliate), lobes 2-4(-6) each side, (terminal lobe oblong-obovate, obtuse, large, blade surfaces usually setose). Cauline leaves (middle and distal) sessile; base auriculate to amplexicaul, (margins subentire). Racemes not paniculately branched, (with open flowers overtopping or equal to buds). Fruiting pedicels ascending to spreading, (5-)10-25(-30) mm. Flowers: sepals (3-)4-6.5(-8) × 1.5-2 mm; petals deep yellow to yellow, obovate, 6-11(-13) × (2.5-)3-6(-7) mm, claw 3-7 mm, apex rounded; filaments 4-6(-7) mm; anthers 1.5-2 mm. Fruits ascending to somewhat spreading, torulose, terete, (2-)3-8(-11) cm × 2-4(-5) mm; valvular segment with 8-15 seeds per locule, (1.3-)2-5(-7.5) cm, terminal segment seedless, 8-22 mm. Seeds black, brown, or reddish, 1.1-2 mm diam.; seed coat very finely reticulate-lightly alveolate, not mucilaginous when wetted. 2n = 20.

  • Provided by: [L].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 16
    • ]. 

    Brassica rapa L., Sp. Pl. 666. 1753; B. campestris L.

    Anuales con raíces axonomorfas, glabras o muy escasamente hirsutas, 2–10 dm de alto, tallos simples a ramificados. Hojas basales delgadas, pecioladas, más o menos lirado-pinnatífidas, lobos laterales 2–4, lobo terminal oblongo-ovado y sinuado-dentado, hojas caulinares inferiores similares a las hojas basales, pero tornándose sésiles y auriculadas hasta muy auriculadas, las caulinares superiores oblongas a ovado-lanceoladas y casi enteras. Pétalos 6–10 mm de largo, amarillos. Pedicelos de las silicuas algo gruesos, ascendentes, 1–2.5 cm de largo; silicuas ascendentes a moderadamente patentes, 3–7 cm de largo, rostro 8–15 mm de largo, atenuándose en un estilo delgado; semillas muy ligeramente alveoladas, ca 1.5 mm de diámetro.

    Aparentemente poco frecuente y ruderal, en las zonas norcentral y pacífica; 100–1350 m; fl y fr sep–ene; Moreno 14331, Nee 27758; maleza ampliamente distribuida en áreas templadas, donde las semillas contaminan los granos básicos; su distribución nativa es desconocida. Una variedad de esta especie es el "Nabo".

  • Provided by: [G].Flora de Nicaragua
    • Source: [
    • 18
    • ]. 

    Annual to 8 dm, green and sparsely setose-hispid, at least along the lf-margins and the midrib beneath; lower lvs petioled, pinnately ± lobed; upper lvs oblong to lanceolate, dentate or entire, sessile and clasping; fls 1 cm wide; mature pedicels widely ascending, 1–2 cm; frs ascending to suberect, terete or nearly so, 3–5 cm, the slender beak 8–15 mm; seeds 1.5–2 mm, minutely roughened; 2n=20.

  • Provided by: [H].Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern US and Canada
    • Source: [
    • 20
    • ]. 

    Morphology

    Raiz: tipo tuberoso(s). Tallo: indumento híspido(s). Hoja: base amplexicaule(s); forma lirado(s) pinatifido(s); superficie(s) áspero(s) rugoso(s). Fruto: estilo(s) sin estilete; silicua(s) 6 a(s) 8 compr. (cm); valva(s) muy convexa(s); valva(s) estrangulado(s) entre a las semilla(s).

  • Provided by: [E].Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Raiz: tipo tuberoso(s). Caule: indumento híspido(s). Folha: base amplexicaule(s); formato lirado(s) pinatifido(s); superfície(s) áspero(s) rugoso(s). Fruto: estilete(s) sem estilete; síliqua(s) 6 a(s) 8 compr. (cm); valva(s) muito convexa(s); valva(s) estrangulado(s) entre às semente(s).

  • Provided by: [E].Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Root: type tuberous. Stem: indumentum hispid. Leaf: base amplexicaul; shape lyrate pinnatifid; surface rough rugose. Fruit: style astylous; silicle 6 to 8 long (cm); valve very convex; valve strangled between to the seed.

  • Provided by: [E].Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Annual or biennial herb with stout or tuberous tap-root.

  • Provided by: [K].Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    • Source: [
    • 13
    • ]. 

    Basal leaves stalked, bristly, lyrate-pinnatifid, upper ones sessile, amplexicaul, ± glaucous.

  • Provided by: [K].Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    • Source: [
    • 13
    • ]. 

    Flowers bright yellow, in terminal racemes.

  • Provided by: [K].Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    • Source: [
    • 13
    • ]. 

    Sepals spreading.

  • Provided by: [K].Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    • Source: [
    • 13
    • ]. 

    Petals 4, 6–10 mm. long.

  • Provided by: [K].Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    • Source: [
    • 13
    • ]. 

    Stamens 6.

  • Provided by: [K].Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    • Source: [
    • 13
    • ]. 

    Seeds 1–5–2 mm. in diam., blackish or reddish-brown.

  • Provided by: [K].Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    • Source: [
    • 13
    • ]. 

    Silique curved, erect, slightly flattened with a long, tapering beak.

  • Provided by: [K].Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    • Source: [
    • 13
    • ]. 

    Ovary with 20–30 ovules.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 14
    • ]. 

    Siliquae linear, rarely on a gynophore, 40–100 mm. long, 2.5–4 mm. broad; beak 5–30 mm. long with 0–1 seed.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 14
    • ]. 

    Seeds dark brown, globose, 1.0–1.5 mm. in diameter, with a fine distinct reticulum.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 14
    • ]. 

    Anthers ± 2 mm. long.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 14
    • ]. 

    Petals yellow, clawed, with obovate slightly emarginate blade, 6–11 mm. long.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 14
    • ]. 

    Sepals yellow-green, spreading, 5–8 mm. long.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 14
    • ]. 

    Racemes loosely corymbiform with open flowers overtopping the buds; in fruit very elongate; pedicels 10–30 mm. long.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 14
    • ]. 

    Basal leaves ± indistinctly petioled, bright green, hispidulous, lyrate-pinnatipartite, dentate, crenate or sinuate; terminal lobe large, orbicular to ovate, obtuse, cordate; lateral lobes in up to 5 pairs, rather small, ovate to triangular; lower cauline leaves sessile, clasping, pinnatifid; upper cauline leaves ± glaucous, sessile, distinctly clasping, undivided (fiddle-shaped, narrowly triangular or lanceolate), entire to repand-dentate.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 14
    • ]. 

    Stem erect, branched, glabrous or slightly hispid below (rarely higher up), up to 150 cm. high.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 14
    • ]. 

    Annual or biennial herb with thin or stout, often fusiform to tuberous taproot.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 14
    • ]. 

    30–100 cm hoch, verzweigt, am Grund fleischig verdickt. Blätter grün, untere gestielt, fiederschnittig, Endabschnitt gross, besonders unterseits behaart, obere sitzend, mit runden Zipfeln umfassend. Traube beim Aufblühen verkürzt, offene Blü

  • Provided by: [F].Flora Helvetica – Illustrierte Flora der Schweiz
    • Source: [
    • 19
    • ]. 

    Annual or biennial herb. Upper stem leaves cordate at base, amplexicaul. Petals 6-10 mm long. Flowers yellow.

  • Provided by: [C].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 21
    • ]. 

    Annual or biennial herbs with slender or stout, tuberous taproots. Basal leaves lyrate-pinnatisect, ±5-jugate, petiolate, shortly hispid or setose, green; lobes dentate, the terminal lobe broadly ovate, lobulate. Upper stem leaves simple, obovate-oblong, ± cordate at the base, sessile, amplexicaul, glaucous, repand-dentate to entire, glabrous or nearly so. Racemes dense in flower, the open flowers generally overtopping the buds; lax in fruit. Flowers yellow, the petals 6-10 mm long. Fruiting pedicels spreading. Siliquae 3.5-6.5 cm long, 2-4 mm broad, linear; valves bulged by the seeds, 1-nerved, reticulately veined; beak 0.8-2 cm long, attenuate. Seeds 18-24, 1.2-1.7 mm in diameter, generally dark-coloured with a reticulate seed-coat.

  • Provided by: [C].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 22
    • ]. 

    Annual or biennial herb, up to 1.5 m high. Stems erect. Leaves basal ones petiolate, blade lyrate-pinnatisect, lobes dentate, terminal lobe broadly ovate, lobulate, sparsely hispid; upper leaves sessile, simple, blade obovate-oblong, base amplexicaul, glabrous. Flowers: in dense racemes; petals 6-10 mm long, yellow; Nov.-Feb. Fruit with pedicels spreading; siliquae 35-65 x 2-4 mm, reticulately veined, beak 8-20 mm long, attenuate.

  • Provided by: [C].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 23
    • ]. 

    Ecology

    4–5. Äcker, Schuttplätze, kultiviert und verwildert, kollin-montan(-subalpin).

  • Provided by: [F].Flora Helvetica – Illustrierte Flora der Schweiz
    • Source: [
    • 19
    • ]. 

    Habitat

    Disturbed places.

  • Provided by: [C].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 21
    • ]. 

    Mesic Grassland. Disturbed places.

  • Provided by: [C].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 23
    • ]. 

    Distribution

    Native to Asia.

  • Provided by: [C].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 23
    • ]. 

    Distribution Map

     
    • Introduced distribution
    Introduced into
    • Europe Northern Europe Ireland
    • Southern America Brazil Piauá
    • Paraní
    • Rio Grande do Sul
    • Santa Catarina
    • Espirito Santo
    • Minas Gerais
    • Rio de Janeiro
    • São Paulo
    • Brazilia Distrito Federal

    Synonyms

    Nationally Preferred Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Tornapa fiáinIrishIE
    Wild turnipEnglishIE

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    RavaRaeto-RomanceCH
    Rüben-KohlGermanCH
    Cavolo rapaItalianCH
    RaveFrenchCH
    NeipIrishIE
    Bird-rape, wild-rape, rapeseed, canola, turnip, wild-turnip, turnip-rape, field-mustard

      Bibliography

     Information From

    Brassicaceae
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/Brassicaceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2021.
    • A CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    MBG Floras Images
    http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
    Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    e-Flora of South Africa
    e-Flora of South Africa. v1.21. 2018. South African National Biodiversity Institute. http://ipt.sanbi.org.za/iptsanbi/resource?r=flora_descriptions&v=1.21
    • C All Rights Reserved
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • D
    Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020
    https://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br
    The Brazilian Flora Group (2018): Brazilian Flora 2020. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/2175-7860201869402 Dataset/Checklist: https://ckan.jbrj.gov.br/dataset/thebrazilfloragroup_feb2018
    • E Group Brazil Flora, REFLORA Program
    Flora Helvetica – Illustrierte Flora der Schweiz
    http://www.flora-helvetica.ch
    Flora Helvetica – Illustrierte Flora der Schweiz, Konrad Lauber, Gerhart Wagner, Andreas Gygax. Haupt Verlag 2018.
    • F All Rights Reserved
    Flora de Nicaragua
    http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
    W. D. Stevens, C. Ulloa Ulloa, A. Pool & O. M. Montiel. 2001–. Flora de Nicaragua, Tropicos Project. Loaded from Tropicos Project: October 2017
    • G Missouri Botanical Garden
    Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern US and Canada
    https://www.nybg.org/
    Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
    • H Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
    Flora of China @ efloras.org
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • I Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora Mesoamericana
    http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/fm/
    Gerrit Davidse, Mario Sousa Sánchez, A. O. Chater, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Instituto de Biología, Missouri Botanical Garden, Natural History Museum (London, England) UNAM, 1994
    • J Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • K
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • L Flora of North America Association
    Irish Vernacular Names
    https://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/plant-science/plant-science/research-staff/article/380/wyse-jackson-peter-s.aspx
    • M All Rights Reserved
    World Flora Online Consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • N CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).