Por C. Ulloa Ulloa.
Hierbas hasta 6 m de alto; tallos acostillados, huecos al madurar. Hojas decusadas en la base del tallo, alternas hacia arriba, los folíolos 3-5(-9), 3-10(-20) × 1-2(-4) cm, linear-lanceolados, pinnatinervios, el envés blanquecino-estrigoso, con puntos glandulares; estípulas hasta 6 mm, triangulares; pecíolos hasta 7 cm. Flores masculinas con sépalos hasta 4 mm, ovados a lanceolados, puberulentos; estambres c. 1 mm. Flores pistiladas sésiles, abrazadas por una bráctea. Aquenios ovoides, 2-5 mm, pubescentes, con el perianto más o menos persistente. Cultivada. Ch (Breedlove y Raven 13152, CAS); H (Espinal s.n., MO); CR (Morales 1186, MO); P (D’Arcy 9813, MO). 500-1500 m.(Nativa de Asia; ampliamente cultivada.)
Cannabis sativa es ampliamente cultivada y escapada en todo el mundo debido a sus fibras y a sus principios narcóticos y medicinales.
Plants 1-3 m tall. Branchlets densely white pubescent. Stipules linear. Leaves alternate; petiole 2-7 cm; leaf blade abaxially whitish green, strigose, and with scattered brownish resinous dots, adaxially dark green and with cystolith hairs; leaflets usually lanceolate to linear, (3-)7-15 × (0.2-)0.5-1.5(-2) cm with longest in middle, margin coarsely serrate, apex acuminate. Male inflorescences ca. 25 cm. Male flowers: yellowish green, nodding; pedicel 2-4 mm, thin; sepals ovate to lanceolate, 2.5-4 mm, membranous, with sparse prostrate hairs; petals absent; filament 0.5-1 mm; anthers oblong. Female inflorescences crowded in apical leaf axils among leaflike bracts and bracteoles. Female flowers: green, sessile; calyx sparsely pubescent; ovary globose, ± enclosed by appressed calyx, surrounded closely by bract and bracteoles. Persistent bracts yellow. Achene flattened ovoid, 2-5 mm; pericarp crustaceous, finely reticulate. Fl. May-Jun, fr. Jul.
Staminate plants usually taller, less robust than pistillate plants. Stems 0.2-6 m. Leaves: petioles 2-7 cm. Leaflet blades mostly 3-9, linear to linear-lanceolate, 3-15 × 0.2-1.7 cm, margins coarsely serrate; surfaces abaxially whitish green with scattered, yellowish brown, resinous dots, strigose, adaxially darker green with large, stiff, bulbous-based conic hairs. Inflorescences numerous. Flowers unisexual, often transitional flowers and flowers of opposite sex developing later. Staminate flowers: pedicels 0.5-3 mm; sepals ovate to lanceolate, 2.5-4 mm, puberulent; stamens caducous after anthesis, somewhat shorter than sepals; filaments 0.5-1 mm. Pistillate flowers ± sessile, enclosed by glandular, beaked bracteole and subtended by bract; perianth appressed to and surrounding base of ovary. Achenes white or greenish, mottled with purple, ovoid, somewhat compressed, 2-5 mm, with ± persistent perianth that sometimes flakes off. 2 n = 20.
Cannabis sativa L., Sp. Pl. 1027. 1753.
Arbustos hasta 5 m de alto, tallos con crestas prominentes, usualmente huecos al madurar, toda la planta normalmente cubierta de tricomas glandulares; plantas estaminadas en general laxamente ramificadas, plantas pistiladas compactas. Hojas decusadas en la base, alternas hacia arriba, palmaticompuestas con 315 folíolos lanceolados, 540 cm de largo y 14 cm de ancho, márgenes serrados, puntos glandulares aparentes abaxialmente; estípulas triangulares. Inflorescencia en plantas estaminadas de panículas cimosas, laxamente ramificadas, erectas; en plantas pistiladas de una serie de espigas falsas. Fruto ovoide, 36 mm de largo.
Si bien no se ha visto material de herbario, la especie es cultivada en el país. Ampliamente introducida y cultivada en todo el mundo debido a sus fibras y a sus principios narcóticos. Género monotípico nativo de Asia. "Marihuana".
"Stem 1–3 m; lfls lance-linear to lance-elliptic, pubescent, 5–15 cm, toothed; achene in ours mostly 3.8–4.5 mm. Native of Eurasia, cult. in many parts of the world, and found here and there in our range. Late summer. Complex sp., differentiated under the influence of cult. into a northern subsp. sativa, used for production of fiber (hemp) from the bast, and a southern subsp. indica (Lam.) E. Small & Cronquist, harvested for an intoxicating, hallucinogenic drug in the epidermal resin glands. The crude flowering or fruiting material is marijuana; the extracted resin is hashish. Plants growing wild in our range are all or nearly all descended from plants formerly cult. for fiber, and the resin has a relatively small percentage of intoxicant. They may be referred to subsp. sativa var. sativa. Our plants appear to be in process of reversion toward the wild-adapted var. spontanea Vavilov (C. ruderalis), marked by its relatively small size, and more especially by its smaller (less than 3.8 mm), irregularly blotched achenes with a variable period of dormancy. Parallel vars. adapted to growth in cult. or in the wild exist in subsp. indica."
Leaves 3–7(–11)-foliolate; petioles 3–7.5 cm. long, pubescent; leaflets sessile, narrowly lanceolate, 2.5–15 cm. long, 0.35–2 cm. wide, tapering-acuminate at the apex, narrowly cuneate at the base, the margins coarsely toothed, covered on both surfaces with very short bristly hairs and small yellow glands.
A rough, rather rank-smelling, leafy, simple or branched herb 0.9–4.5 m. tall, the male plants taller and more slender, dying soon after flowering, the females stockier and living several months after pollination; stems angular, covered with rather short stiffish hairs.
Male inflorescence loosely paniculate, up to 18 cm. long, covered with minute bristly hairs; flowers whitish to yellowish-green; sepals oblong-elliptic, 2.8–4 mm. long, 1–1.6 mm. wide, minutely hairy; stamens at length pendulous, the filaments about 0.3–1 mm. long and the anthers 3–3.7 mm. long.
Male and female flowers on different plants or rarely on one plant but then one sex predominating.
Bracteole green, acuminate, enwrapping the ovary and forming a basally swollen tubular sheath 1.8–8.5 mm. long, up to 6 mm. wide opened out, covered with slender hairs and short-stalked or stalkless circular resin-secreting glands.
Female inflorescences not projecting from the leaves, more compact, short and few-flowered.
Achene (“seed ”, actually consisting of the seed with a hard shell tightly covered by the thin ovary wall) ellipsoid or subglobose, slightly compressed, keeled, shiny, 2.5–5 mm. long, 2–3.5 mm. wide, greyish to brownish and usually covered with a pale “ map-like ” network.
Ovary ± globose, ± 1–1.2 mm. in diameter; stigmas slender, 1.2–7 mm. long, deciduous.
Male flowers small, pedicellate, regular: pedicels to 7 mm. long; perianth lobes free, greenish or white, 3–4 x 1 mm., oblong-elliptic, boat-shaped, spreading or reflexed, appressed-pubescent outside; stamens at length pendulous, filaments 0.3–1 mm. long, anthers 3-- mm. long.
Female inflorescence short, crowded or strobilate, few-flowered, densely leafy; bracts often shorter than in male flowers.
Female flowers ± sessile; enveloping bracteole 2–8 mm. long, green; perianth thin, undivided, enveloping ovary and mature fruit (often reduced or absent in cultivated forms); ovary sessile, c. 1 mm. in diam., ± globose; stigma branches (1)2–5 mm. long, pubescent, caducous.
Fruit 3–4 x 2–3.5 mm., globular to ovoid, surface uniformly coloured, pale with a prominent reticulate pattern of venation or, where a persistent perianth is present, shiny brownish or greyish, mottled with a light and dark marbled pattern, venation visible beneath.
Stems simple or branched, leafy, angular, often with hollow internodes.
Indumentum of most parts consisting of minute appressed swollen-based hairs.
Male and female flowers rarely both on 1 plant, if so then 1 predominating.
Leaves 3–7(11)-digitately-foliolate; petiole 2–6 cm. long; stipule to 1.4 cm. long, linear, acute; leaflets sessile, 2.5–15 x 0.35–2 cm., narrowly lanceolate, tapering acuminate at the apex, narrowly cuneate at the base; margin coarsely dentate to serrate-biserrate; lamina membranous-chartaceous, shortly coarsely-hairy and yellow-glandular on both surfaces, penninerved, midrib prominent beneath.
Male inflorescences numerous, loosely cymose-paniculate, sparsely leafy, up to 20(30) cm. long, few to more than 20-flowered; bracts to c. 15 mm. long, bristly-hairy.
An erect, rank smelling, annual herb up to 2(4.5) m. tall; male plants taller and more slender with longer narrower leaflets than the female, dying soon after flowering; female plants short, more robust, with densely leafy inflorescences, the plants living for several months after pollination.
Erect annual herb, up to 4 m high. Leaves with 5-7 lobes. Female flowers without a perianth but with ovary enclosed in a sheath-like bract copiously dotted with glands, secreting a narcotic resinous substance. Flowers green.
Erect, annual, aromatic herb, up to 4 m high, with minute appressed glandular hairs on most parts of plant. Leaves 5-7-foliolate, blades of leaflets narrowly ovate. Flowers: female flowers without a perianth, but with ovary enclosed in a sheath-like bract copiously dotted with glands, secreting a narcotic resinous substance; green; Nov.-May.
|Hemp, marihuana (marijuana), pot, grass, maryjane; chanvre, cannabis|