Cannabis sativa L.
  • Sp. Pl. : 1027 (1753)
  • Indian hemp


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2022): Cannabis sativa L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000584001. Accessed on: 26 Sep 2022'

General Information

1. Cannabis sativa L., Sp. Pl. 1027 (1753). Lectotipo (designado por Villiers, 1973): Herb. Linn. 1177.2 (LINN). Ilustr.: Wu et al., Fl. China Ill. 5: t. 83 (2004). N.v.: Marihuana.

Por C. Ulloa Ulloa.

Hierbas hasta 6 m de alto; tallos acostillados, huecos al madurar. Hojas decusadas en la base del tallo, alternas hacia arriba, los folíolos 3-5(-9), 3-10(-20) × 1-2(-4) cm, linear-lanceolados, pinnatinervios, el envés blanquecino-estrigoso, con puntos glandulares; estípulas hasta 6 mm, triangulares; pecíolos hasta 7 cm. Flores masculinas con sépalos hasta 4 mm, ovados a lanceolados, puberulentos; estambres c. 1 mm. Flores pistiladas sésiles, abrazadas por una bráctea. Aquenios ovoides, 2-5 mm, pubescentes, con el perianto más o menos persistente. Cultivada. Ch (Breedlove y Raven 13152, CAS); H (Espinal s.n., MO); CR (Morales 1186, MO); P (D’Arcy 9813, MO). 500-1500 m.(Nativa de Asia; ampliamente cultivada.)

Cannabis sativa es ampliamente cultivada y escapada en todo el mundo debido a sus fibras y a sus principios narcóticos y medicinales.

  • Provided by: [N].Flora Mesoamericana
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • 26
    • ]. 

    Plants 1-3 m tall. Branchlets densely white pubescent. Stipules linear. Leaves alternate; petiole 2-7 cm; leaf blade abaxially whitish green, strigose, and with scattered brownish resinous dots, adaxially dark green and with cystolith hairs; leaflets usually lanceolate to linear, (3-)7-15 × (0.2-)0.5-1.5(-2) cm with longest in middle, margin coarsely serrate, apex acuminate. Male inflorescences ca. 25 cm. Male flowers: yellowish green, nodding; pedicel 2-4 mm, thin; sepals ovate to lanceolate, 2.5-4 mm, membranous, with sparse prostrate hairs; petals absent; filament 0.5-1 mm; anthers oblong. Female inflorescences crowded in apical leaf axils among leaflike bracts and bracteoles. Female flowers: green, sessile; calyx sparsely pubescent; ovary globose, ± enclosed by appressed calyx, surrounded closely by bract and bracteoles. Persistent bracts yellow. Achene flattened ovoid, 2-5 mm; pericarp crustaceous, finely reticulate. Fl. May-Jun, fr. Jul.

  • Provided by: [R].Flora of China @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 24
    • ]. 

    Staminate plants usually taller, less robust than pistillate plants. Stems 0.2-6 m. Leaves: petioles 2-7 cm. Leaflet blades mostly 3-9, linear to linear-lanceolate, 3-15 × 0.2-1.7 cm, margins coarsely serrate; surfaces abaxially whitish green with scattered, yellowish brown, resinous dots, strigose, adaxially darker green with large, stiff, bulbous-based conic hairs. Inflorescences numerous. Flowers unisexual, often transitional flowers and flowers of opposite sex developing later. Staminate flowers: pedicels 0.5-3 mm; sepals ovate to lanceolate, 2.5-4 mm, puberulent; stamens caducous after anthesis, somewhat shorter than sepals; filaments 0.5-1 mm. Pistillate flowers ± sessile, enclosed by glandular, beaked bracteole and subtended by bract; perianth appressed to and surrounding base of ovary. Achenes white or greenish, mottled with purple, ovoid, somewhat compressed, 2-5 mm, with ± persistent perianth that sometimes flakes off. 2 n = 20.

  • Provided by: [P].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 25
    • ]. 

    Cannabis sativa L., Sp. Pl. 1027. 1753.

    Arbustos hasta 5 m de alto, tallos con crestas prominentes, usualmente huecos al madurar, toda la planta normalmente cubierta de tricomas glandulares; plantas estaminadas en general laxamente ramificadas, plantas pistiladas compactas. Hojas decusadas en la base, alternas hacia arriba, palmaticompuestas con 3–15 folíolos lanceolados, 5–40 cm de largo y 1–4 cm de ancho, márgenes serrados, puntos glandulares aparentes abaxialmente; estípulas triangulares. Inflorescencia en plantas estaminadas de panículas cimosas, laxamente ramificadas, erectas; en plantas pistiladas de una serie de espigas falsas. Fruto ovoide, 3–6 mm de largo.

    Si bien no se ha visto material de herbario, la especie es cultivada en el país. Ampliamente introducida y cultivada en todo el mundo debido a sus fibras y a sus principios narcóticos. Género monotípico nativo de Asia. "Marihuana".

  • Provided by: [F].Flora de Nicaragua
    • Source: [
    • 27
    • ]. 

    Annual, 75 cm—1.5 (-2 5) in tall, slender; stem and branches slightly angular with appressed hairs (dense on younger shoots). Leaves palmately 3-9 (-11) foliolate, petiole ( .5) 2-10 (-12), cm pubescent, hairs white, appresed; lobes sessile, narrowly lanceolate, narrowed at base, palmtinerved, serrate, accuminate-caudate, 2-11 (14) cm long, 3-15 ( 20) mm broad; upper surface scabrid with stiff hairs topping the cystoliths; lower surface more or less densely pubescent, covered with sessile glands, stipules 4-6 mm long. Male flowers 4-6 mm across, greenish, pedicel 1-1.5 mm long, filiform. Tepals elliptic or oblong, finely pubescent, 3-4 ( 5) mm long, 1.5-2 mm broad, entire, acute. Stamen 4-5 mm long, Female flower as large as the perigonium; bracts foliaceous (-2) 4-13 mm long, covered with small glandular hairs, bracteole linear, 1.5-2.5 mm long. Perigonium entire, membranous, broadly ovate, beaked at the tip, compressed, much enlarged, contorted and rolled above the upper half in the fruit, up to 5-8 mm long, densely hispid or pilose, prominently ridged. Ovary sessile, sub-globose, C 0.5 mm long, styles 2-3 (-4) mm long, brown, caducous-pubescent. Achene 3-4 mm in diameter, shining, yellowish brown, minutely pilose to glabrous, ovate; seed only with fleshy unilateral endosperm.

  • Provided by: [M].Flora of Pakistan
    • Source: [
    • 29
    • ]. 

    Robust, tall, erect herb, 1–5 m high; all parts viscid pubescent; stems slightly angular. Leaves opposite at base, spirally arranged upwards; stipules erect, filiform or narrowly subulate, ± 0.5 cm long, persistent; petioles 1.5–7 cm long, pubescent; lamina (3–)5–7(–11)-partite; upper ones often undivided, entire; segments narrowly lanceolate, serrate, 4–14 by 0.3–1.8 cm; upper surface scabrid with short, stiff hairs on systoliths, and pubescent with appressed hairs on the under surface; apex acuminate to caudate; base narrowly cuneate; nerves 8–20 pairs, reticulate veins inconspicuous. Male flowers in axillary or terminal panicles with few leaves. Tepals 5, free, finely pubescent, ± 5 mm long. Stamens 5, with slender filaments; anthers dehiscing by an apical pore. Female flowers solitary, axillary and terminal; each flower enveloped by a membranous spathe-like, dark green bract with glandular hairs. Perianth absent. Ovary 1-locular; style short divided into 2 long stigmatic arms; ovule 1. Fruit smooth, shining, yellowish or brownish, ovoid or ellipsoid, ± 4 mm long; seeds with fleshy endosperm.

  • Provided by: [J].e-Flora of Thailand
    • Source: [
    • 30
    • ]. 

    Stem 1–3 m; lfls lance-linear to lance-elliptic, pubescent, 5–15 cm, toothed; achene in ours mostly 3.8–4.5 mm. Native of Eurasia, cult. in many parts of the world, and found here and there in our range. Late summer. Complex sp., differentiated under the influence of cult. into a northern subsp. sativa, used for production of fiber (hemp) from the bast, and a southern subsp. indica (Lam.) E. Small & Cronquist, harvested for an intoxicating, hallucinogenic drug in the epidermal resin glands. The crude flowering or fruiting material is marijuana; the extracted resin is hashish. Plants growing wild in our range are all or nearly all descended from plants formerly cult. for fiber, and the resin has a relatively small percentage of intoxicant. They may be referred to subsp. sativa var. sativa. Our plants appear to be in process of reversion toward the wild-adapted var. spontanea Vavilov (C. ruderalis), marked by its relatively small size, and more especially by its smaller (less than 3.8 mm), irregularly blotched achenes with a variable period of dormancy. Parallel vars. adapted to growth in cult. or in the wild exist in subsp. indica.

  • Provided by: [K].Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern US and Canada
    • Source: [
    • 32
    • ]. 

    Morphology

    Leaves 3–7(–11)-foliolate; petioles 3–7.5 cm. long, pubescent; leaflets sessile, narrowly lanceolate, 2.5–15 cm. long, 0.35–2 cm. wide, tapering-acuminate at the apex, narrowly cuneate at the base, the margins coarsely toothed, covered on both surfaces with very short bristly hairs and small yellow glands.

  • Provided by: [L].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 22
    • ]. 

    A rough, rather rank-smelling, leafy, simple or branched herb 0.9–4.5 m. tall, the male plants taller and more slender, dying soon after flowering, the females stockier and living several months after pollination; stems angular, covered with rather short stiffish hairs.

  • Provided by: [L].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 22
    • ]. 

    Male inflorescence loosely paniculate, up to 18 cm. long, covered with minute bristly hairs; flowers whitish to yellowish-green; sepals oblong-elliptic, 2.8–4 mm. long, 1–1.6 mm. wide, minutely hairy; stamens at length pendulous, the filaments about 0.3–1 mm. long and the anthers 3–3.7 mm. long.

  • Provided by: [L].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 22
    • ]. 

    Male and female flowers on different plants or rarely on one plant but then one sex predominating.

  • Provided by: [L].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 22
    • ]. 

    Bracteole green, acuminate, enwrapping the ovary and forming a basally swollen tubular sheath 1.8–8.5 mm. long, up to 6 mm. wide opened out, covered with slender hairs and short-stalked or stalkless circular resin-secreting glands.

  • Provided by: [L].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 22
    • ]. 

    Female inflorescences not projecting from the leaves, more compact, short and few-flowered.

  • Provided by: [L].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 22
    • ]. 

    Achene (“seed ”, actually consisting of the seed with a hard shell tightly covered by the thin ovary wall) ellipsoid or subglobose, slightly compressed, keeled, shiny, 2.5–5 mm. long, 2–3.5 mm. wide, greyish to brownish and usually covered with a pale “ map-like ” network.

  • Provided by: [L].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 22
    • ]. 

    Ovary ± globose, ± 1–1.2 mm. in diameter; stigmas slender, 1.2–7 mm. long, deciduous.

  • Provided by: [L].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 22
    • ]. 

    Fig. 1.

  • Provided by: [L].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 22
    • ]. 

    Male flowers small, pedicellate, regular: pedicels to 7 mm. long; perianth lobes free, greenish or white, 3–4 x 1 mm., oblong-elliptic, boat-shaped, spreading or reflexed, appressed-pubescent outside; stamens at length pendulous, filaments 0.3–1 mm. long, anthers 3-- mm. long.

  • Provided by: [G].Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    • Source: [
    • 23
    • ]. 

    Female inflorescence short, crowded or strobilate, few-flowered, densely leafy; bracts often shorter than in male flowers.

  • Provided by: [G].Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    • Source: [
    • 23
    • ]. 

    Female flowers ± sessile; enveloping bracteole 2–8 mm. long, green; perianth thin, undivided, enveloping ovary and mature fruit (often reduced or absent in cultivated forms); ovary sessile, c. 1 mm. in diam., ± globose; stigma branches (1)2–5 mm. long, pubescent, caducous.

  • Provided by: [G].Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    • Source: [
    • 23
    • ]. 

    Fruit 3–4 x 2–3.5 mm., globular to ovoid, surface uniformly coloured, pale with a prominent reticulate pattern of venation or, where a persistent perianth is present, shiny brownish or greyish, mottled with a light and dark marbled pattern, venation visible beneath.

  • Provided by: [G].Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    • Source: [
    • 23
    • ]. 

    Stems simple or branched, leafy, angular, often with hollow internodes.

  • Provided by: [G].Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    • Source: [
    • 23
    • ]. 

    Indumentum of most parts consisting of minute appressed swollen-based hairs.

  • Provided by: [G].Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    • Source: [
    • 23
    • ]. 

    Male and female flowers rarely both on 1 plant, if so then 1 predominating.

  • Provided by: [G].Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    • Source: [
    • 23
    • ]. 

    Leaves 3–7(11)-digitately-foliolate; petiole 2–6 cm. long; stipule to 1.4 cm. long, linear, acute; leaflets sessile, 2.5–15 x 0.35–2 cm., narrowly lanceolate, tapering acuminate at the apex, narrowly cuneate at the base; margin coarsely dentate to serrate-biserrate; lamina membranous-chartaceous, shortly coarsely-hairy and yellow-glandular on both surfaces, penninerved, midrib prominent beneath.

  • Provided by: [G].Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    • Source: [
    • 23
    • ]. 

    Male inflorescences numerous, loosely cymose-paniculate, sparsely leafy, up to 20(30) cm. long, few to more than 20-flowered; bracts to c. 15 mm. long, bristly-hairy.

  • Provided by: [G].Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    • Source: [
    • 23
    • ]. 

    An erect, rank smelling, annual herb up to 2(4.5) m. tall; male plants taller and more slender with longer narrower leaflets than the female, dying soon after flowering; female plants short, more robust, with densely leafy inflorescences, the plants living for several months after pollination.

  • Provided by: [G].Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    • Source: [
    • 23
    • ]. 

    Bis über 2 m hoch, meist verzweigt. Zweihäusig. Blätter lang gestielt, handförmig 5–9zählig, mit schmal-lanzettlichen, grob und scharf gezähnten Abschnitten, die seitlichen viel kleiner als die mittleren. Blütenstände rispig, endständig, tei

  • Provided by: [E].Flora Helvetica – Illustrierte Flora der Schweiz
    • Source: [
    • 31
    • ]. 

    Erect annual herb, up to 4 m high. Leaves with 5-7 lobes. Female flowers without a perianth but with ovary enclosed in a sheath-like bract copiously dotted with glands, secreting a narcotic resinous substance. Flowers green.

  • Provided by: [H].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 33
    • ]. 

    Herbe' annuelle, à feuillage abondant.' Tige' de 1-3 m de haut et 1-1,5 cm de diam., émettant de nombreux rameaux latéraux minces, et couverte de poils courts, couchés.' Feuilles' à pétiole de 3-6 cm de long, digitées, à 5-7 folioles étroitement elliptiques, aigues à la base et au sommet, à bords serretés, les médianes de 8-15 cm de long et de 1-1,5 cm de large, les latérales plus courtes (les feuilles du sommet des rameaux progres-sivement plus petites et à folioles moins nombreuses), rugueuses, à nombreux cystolithes blancs.' Inflorescences' axillaires et terminales formant une ample panicule feuillue, à bractées nombreuses, presque linéaires et de dimensions décroissantes; les ♂ plus amples, à fleurs pédicellées; les ♀ plus contractées, à fleurs sessiles cachées par une bractéole couverte de poils glanduleux, bractéole que dépassent les stigmates.' Akène de 3-4 mm de long.

  • Provided by: [Q].Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    • Source: [
    • 34
    • ]. 

    Erect, annual, aromatic herb, up to 4 m high, with minute appressed glandular hairs on most parts of plant. Leaves 5-7-foliolate, blades of leaflets narrowly ovate. Flowers: female flowers without a perianth, but with ovary enclosed in a sheath-like bract copiously dotted with glands, secreting a narcotic resinous substance; green; Nov.-May.

  • Provided by: [H].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 35
    • ]. 

    Ecology

    7–8. Ödland, Schuttplätze, kultiviert und verwildert, kollin. M, seltener A und J.

  • Provided by: [E].Flora Helvetica – Illustrierte Flora der Schweiz
    • Source: [
    • 31
    • ]. 

    Habitat

    Gardens, open veld and cultivated land.

  • Provided by: [H].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 33
    • ]. 

    Mesic Grassland; Zastron Moist Grassland. Gardens, open veld and cultivated land.

  • Provided by: [H].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 35
    • ]. 

    Distribution

    Cultivated nearly throughout the world, native of Central Asia, type from India.

  • Provided by: [J].e-Flora of Thailand
    • Source: [
    • 30
    • ]. 

    Native to central Asia.

  • Provided by: [H].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 35
    • ]. 

    Uses

    Fibre from the stems (male plant) for rope making and textile (especially Hill-Tribes in northern Thailand); leaves from female plant as euphoric drug for smoking (hashish).

  • Provided by: [J].e-Flora of Thailand
    • Source: [
    • 30
    • ]. 

    Plante textile d'usage universel (cordes, câbles, toile de sac), qui, dans les pays chauds, élabore, surtout sur les jeunes inflorescences femelles, des produits aromatiques et toxiques qui ont fait distinguer une variété indica Lam., sans doute purement physiologique. Ces produits servent en Asie à préparer le haschich et le bang; au Congo belge, les indigènes fument les feuilles du chanvre, ce qui leur procure une ivresse si violente et dangereuse que « la culture, la vente, le transport et la détention du chanvre à fumer sont interdits » par la loi, ainsi que « son usage, soit en le fumant soit en le consommant de toute autre manière. » (Ordonnance du Gouverneur Général du 22-1-1903, approuvée par décret du 1-3-1903: voir Louwers et Grenade, Codes et Lois du Congo Belge, p. 535-536, 1923).

  • Provided by: [Q].Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    • Source: [
    • 34
    • ]. 

    Common Names

    The Common, European or Indian Hemp.

  • Provided by: [O].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Distribution Map

     
    • Introduced distribution
    Introduced into
    • Asia-Tropical Indo-China Thailand
    • Europe Northern Europe Ireland

    Synonyms

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Indian hempEnglishIE
    HanfGermanCH
    HempEnglishIE
    ChonvRaeto-RomanceCH
    CanapaItalianCH
    CaineabIrishIE
    CnaibIrishIE
    CannabisEnglishIE
    MarijuanaEnglishIE
    Hemp, marihuana (marijuana), pot, grass, maryjane; chanvre, cannabis
    ChanvreFrenchCH
    kancha chin (กัญชาจีน)(Central)ThaiTHA
    kancha (กัญชา)(General)ThaiTHA

      Bibliography

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    Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
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    • O The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
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    • P Flora of North America Association
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    • Q http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)
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    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • R Missouri Botanical Garden
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    • S All Rights Reserved
    Polygonaceae
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    • T CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
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    • U CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).