Allium cepa L.
  • Sp. Pl. : 300 (1753)
  • Cultivated onion

Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2023): Allium cepa L. Published on the Internet; Accessed on: 27 Jan 2023'

General Information

Bulb solitary or clustered, applanate-globose to cylindric-ovoid; tunic purple-red, brown-red, pale brown-red, or yellow to pale yellow, papery to thinly leathery, entire. Leaves shorter than scape, 0.5--2 cm wide, terete, fistulose. Scape developed or not, if developed then to 1 m, terete, conspicuously inflated below middle, fistulose, covered with leaf sheaths only at base. Spathe 2- or 3-valved, persistent. Umbel globose, densely many flowered or with bulblets and a few flowers. Pedicels equal, ca. 5 × as long as perianth, bracteolate. Perianth chalk white or white; segments with green or pale red midvein, oblong-ovate, 4--5 × ca. 2 mm. Filaments equal, slightly longer than perianth segments, connate at base for ca. 1/5 their length, adnate to perianth segments for 1/2 of connate part; outer ones subulate; inner ones broadened at base, 1-toothed on each side. Ovary subglobose, with concave nectaries covered by hoodlike projections at base. Style slightly exserted. Fl. and fr. May--Jul. 2 n = 16*, 32.

  • Provided by: [G].Flora of China @
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Bulbs 1–3, not rhizomatous, mostly depressed-globose, varying in size from cultivar to cultivar, 5–8 × 3–10 cm; outer coats enclosing 1 or more bulbs, yellowish brown, red, or white, membranous, without reticulation; inner coats white to pink, cells obscure to quadrate. Leaves persistent, 4–10, sheathing proximal 1/6–1/4 scape; blade fistulose, usually ± semicircular in cross section, 10–50 cm × 4–20 mm. Scape persistent, solitary, erect, fistulose, inflated below middle, 30–100 cm × 3–20 mm. Umbel persistent, erect, compact, to 500-flowered, globose, bulbils occasionally found; spathe bracts caducous, 2–3, 3–4-veined, ovate, ± equal, apex acute to acuminate. Flowers stellate to campanulate to urceolate, 3–7 mm; tepals erect to ± spreading, white to pink with greenish midveins, withering in fruit, margins entire, apex obtuse or acute, outer ovate, inner oblong; stamens exserted; anthers white; pollen white; ovary crestless; style linear, ± equaling stamens; stigma capitate, unlobed; pedicel 10–50 mm. Seed coat not known.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora of North America @
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Allium cepa L., Sp. Pl. 300. 1753.

    Hierbas bulbíferas, escaposas; bulbos solitarios o varios, hasta 10 cm de diámetro, tunicados, las túnicas externas membranáceas. Hojas basales, 1–10, envainadoras en la base, más o menos semicirculares en sección transversal, hasta 40 cm de largo y 2 cm de ancho. Escapo inflado en la parte inferior, 30–60 cm de largo; inflorescencia una umbela multiflora terminal con 2 ó 3 brácteas subyacentes reflexas más o menos connadas, pedicelos 1–26 mm de largo, flores actinomorfas; tépalos 6 en 2 verticilos de 3, libres, marcescentes, todos semejantes, angostamente lanceolados, 3–4.5 mm de largo y 2–2.5 mm de ancho, de color lila o blanco con la costa verde; estambres 6, exertos, filamentos adnados en la base a los tépalos, los 3 internos ensanchados y lobulados o dentados por ambos lados, anteras dorsifijas, introrsas, longitudinalmente dehiscentes; ovario súpero, 3-locular, estilo solitario, ginobásico, estigma diminutamente 3-lobado. Fruto una cápsula loculicida.

    Cultivada; 50 m; fl ago; Araquistain 1; especie cuyas poblaciones nativas son desconocidas, hoy en día cultivada en todo el mundo. Género con ca 500 especies, principalmente del hemisferio norte. "Cebolla".

  • Provided by: [F].Flora de Nicaragua
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Bulbo simple, hasta por lo menos 15 cm de ancho, ampliamente ovoide a oblato. Hojas hasta ca. 2 cm deancho, cilíndricas, huecas. Escapo hasta ca. 120 cm, inflado. Fls. blanquecinas a rosadas.

  • Provided by: [E].Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Bulbs clustered, cylindrical to ovoid or almost rounded; coats papery, white to brownish or reddish. Scape up to 1 m tall, stout, fistular, usually inflated below the middle. Leaves cylindrical, fistular. Umbels spherical, densely flowered. Flowers stellate. Pedicels 3-4 times as long as the tepals. Tepals greenish-white, 4-5 mm long, oblong, obtuse. Filaments exserted, inner 2-toothed at the base.

  • Provided by: [H].Flora of Pakistan
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 


    Zwiebel ± abgeflacht, Durchmesser 5–10 cm. Stängel 60–120 cm hoch, aufgeblasen, grösste Dicke etwa in der Mitte. Alle Blätter grundständig, röhrig, rund, bläulich-grün. Blütenstand kugelig, dicht, Durchmesser 5–10 cm, mit kurzen, zurückgesch

  • Provided by: [C].Flora Helvetica – Illustrierte Flora der Schweiz
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 


    6. Kultiviert und selten verwildert. Schalotte und Winter-Zwiebel sind meist Kultursorten von Allium cepa oder Hybriden.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora Helvetica – Illustrierte Flora der Schweiz
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 


    Other Local Names

    Cultivated onion
    Cipolla comuneItalianCH

     Information From

    World Flora Online Data. 2022.
    • A CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    MBG Floras Images
    Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora Helvetica – Illustrierte Flora der Schweiz
    Flora Helvetica – Illustrierte Flora der Schweiz, Konrad Lauber, Gerhart Wagner, Andreas Gygax. Haupt Verlag 2018.
    • C All Rights Reserved
    Flora of North America @
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • D Flora of North America Association
    Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica
    Hammel, B. E.; Grayum, M. H.; Herrera, C.; Zamora, N. Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2003-2014
    • E Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora de Nicaragua
    W. D. Stevens, C. Ulloa Ulloa, A. Pool & O. M. Montiel. 2001–. Flora de Nicaragua, Tropicos Project. Loaded from Tropicos Project: October 2017
    • F Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora of China @
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • G Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora of Pakistan
    Flora of Pakistan. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2020.
    • H Missouri Botanical Garden
    World Flora Online Consortium
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • I CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).