Juncus bufonius L.
  • Sp. Pl.


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Juncus bufonius L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000776030. Accessed on: 05 Jul 2020'

General Information

1. Juncus bufonius L., Sp. Pl. 328 (1753). Lectotipo (designado por Cope y Stace, 1978): Europa, van Royen s.n. (L-904,145-433).

Por H. Balslev.

Anuales, cespitosas; tallos 5-40 cm. Hojas 4-15 cm x 1-2 mm, 1-5 basales y 1-3 caulinares por tallo; vainas 1-3 cm, sin aurículas; láminas aplanadas con márgenes realzados. Inflorescencia 1/ 2 o más que la altura total de la planta, laxa, con varias cimas unilaterales; bráctea inferior parecida a una hoja caulinar; bractéolas 1.5-2.5 mm. Tépalos 3.5-7 mm; estambres 6, 1.5-2.5 mm. Cápsula 3-4 x 1.5-2 mm, elipsoide, truncada, mucronata, trígona, 3-locular. Semillas 0.4-0.6 x 0.2-0.3 mm, oblongas, apiculadas. Malezas a lo largo de caminos y veredas. Ch (Breedlove y Raven 8113, DS); G (Skutch 424, US); CR (Davidse 861, NY). 1400-3300 m. (Cosmopolita.)

  • Provided by: [E].Flora Mesoamericana
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Plants annual, 4--20(--30) cm tall. Stems usually many, erect or ascending, usually weak, base often reddish brown. Leaves basal and cauline; leaf sheath often swollen basally, margin hyaline; leaf blade flat, 1--13 cm × ca. 1 mm, margin often slightly convolute. Inflorescences usually lax, 1/4--4/5 × plant height; branches few, ascending, somewhat arcuate, usually weak, few flowered. Flowers subterminal, remote, appressed to subappressed; involucral bract leaflike. Bracteoles 2 or 3, 1.3--2.5 × 1.2--2.2 mm. Perianth segments lanceolate; outer segments 4.25--5.5 × 1--1.8 mm, center green, margin broadly white membranous, apex sharply pointed; inner segments 4--5 mm, often mostly membranous, apex acute. Stamens 6, 1/3--1/2 as long as perianth; filaments 0.8--1.2 mm; anthers 0.5--0.8 mm. Style absent; stigmas ca. 0.5 mm. Capsule ovoid to subellipsoid, 3--4(--5) mm, 3-loculed, apex slightly obtuse. Seeds ellipsoid, 0.4--0.6 mm, striate, base and apex usually apiculate. Fl. May--Jul, fr. Jun--Sep. 2 n = 100, 110.

  • Provided by: [B].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Herbs, annual, cespitose, 0.5--4 dm. Culms 1--many, occasionally becoming decumbent. Cataphylls 0--2. Leaves basal and cauline; auricles rudimentary or absent; blade flat, 3--13 cm x 0.3--1.1 mm. Inflorescences loose and diffuse or less often compact, usually at least ½1/2 total height of plant; primary bract shorter than inflorescence. Flowers: bracteoles 2; tepals greenish, lanceolate, 3.8--7(--8.5) mm; inner series slightly shorter, apex sometimes obtuse; stamens 3--6, filaments (0.7--)1--1.8 mm, anthers 0.3--0.8 mm; style 0.1--0.2 mm. Capsules tan to reddish brown, 3-locular, ellipsoid to narrowly so, slightly truncate, 2.7--4 x 1--1.5 mm, sometimes exceeding inner tepals but usually not outer series. Seeds yellowish, widely ellipsoid to ovoid, 0.26--0.49, not tailed. 2n = 27--37, 58--81, 108--115.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Tallos 5–40 cm. Hojas 4–15 cm × 1–2 mm, aplanadas; vaina sin aurículas. Infl. ca. 6–20 × 1–6 cm,abierta, las fls. terminales, normalmente solitarias (rara vez 2–4 juntas). Frs. 3–4 × 1.5–2 mm, elipsoides, trí-gonos en corte transversal, puntiagudos.

  • Provided by: [K].Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    "Annual to 3 dm, the stems terete, sometimes branched; lvs basal and usually also cauline, capillary, 0.5–10 cm × 0.2–1.1 mm, convex on the lower surface, flat or channeled on the upper; fls often cleistogamous, scattered singly along the upper part (often more than half) of the stem, short-pedicellate or subsessile in the axils of hyaline-scarious or partly leafy bracts, each one also closely subtended by a pair of broad, hyaline-scarious bracteoles 1–2.5 mm; tep slender, with greenish midstrip and hyaline margins, mostly 3–6 mm, the outer a little the longer; anthers 6, 0.3–1 mm, up to as long as the filaments; style very short, fr imperfectly trilocular; seeds 0.3–0.6 mm, apiculate; 2n=26–120, a small polyploid pillar-complex. Moist or vernally wet or moist places; nearly cosmopolitan, and throughout our range. Most of our plants are polyploid and have acuminate pet slightly longer than the fr. A ± diploid halophytic phase, found in salt-marshes along the coast from Lab. to Mass., and widespread in Europe, differs morphologically from typical, widespread J. bufonius in its consistently small size (rarely to 15 cm) and obtuse or mucronate pet equaling or slightly shorter than the fr. This phase has been segregated as var. halophilus Fernald or J. ambiguus Guss."

  • Provided by: [L].New York Botanical Garden
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Morphology

    Soft annual, 15-30 cm. Leaves linear. Flowers in leafy, branched spikes, green.

  • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Annuals, tufted, soft, 30-300 mm tall. Leaves few, radical and cauline, narrowly linear-acuminate, with an orange, loosely sheathing base. Flowers in leafy panicles or lateral secund spikes, sessile, solitary; bracts 3, hyaline. Tepals c. 5 mm long, green with a hyaline border, outer aristate, inner shorter, acute. Stamens 6(-3), short; anthers about as long as filaments. Ovary 3-locular; style and stigmas about as long as perianth. Capsule included, ellipsoid, obtuse; seed obovoid, c. 0.4 mm long, base rounded, apex truncate, ribbed, pale brown, becoming mucilaginous when wet. Flowering in spring.

  • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Soft annual, up to 300 mm high. Stems leafy. Leaves forming loose basal rosettes; blade flat, linear, base not persisting; cataphylls absent. Flowers: solitary or in clusters of 2-5, in leafy panicles, each flower with a bract and 2 bracteoles; perianth green; Oct.-Jan.

  • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Annual, cespitose herbs, 5-40 cm tall. Rhizome absent. Culms erect, procumbent or ascending, terete, smooth, 0.5- 1.5 mm diameter, sometimes producing foliar shoots in leaf axils on procumbent stems. Cataphylls absent or rarely one to each culm and then inconspicuous, membranous, 7-12 mm long. Foliar leaves 1-5 basal and 1-3 cauline to each culm, 4-15 cm long; sheaths 0.5-3 cm long, with membranous margin which is not extended into auricles; blade flat with raised margins, slightly channeled above, 0.5-1.5 mm wide. Inflorescence usually occupying more than half of the total plant height, lax, compound, consisting of several unilateral cymes (drepania) with the flowers inserted individually and emoved from one another, or rarely 2-4 flowers clustered together, individual drepania up to 10 cm long; lower inflorescence bract resembling cauline leaf, 4 -15 cm long, distal bracts progressively shorter, the ultimate ones to 5 mm long and membranous; each flower clasped by two 1.5-2.5 mm long bracteoles. Tepals unequal, lanceolate, acuminate, light green with membranous margins, turning brown at fruit ripening, outer ones 4-6(-7) mm long, inner ones 3.5-5(-6) mm long. Stamens six, 1.3-2.2(-2.6) mm long; anthers linear or oblong, 0.3-1(-1.5) mm long. Capsule ellipsoid, trigonous, truncate and mucronate, 3-4 x 1.5-2 mm, with persisting 0.1-0.3 mm long style, castaneous at maturity, dehiscing apically, 3-locular. Seeds oblong, apiculate, 0.4-0.6 x 0.2-0.3 mm, smooth to slightly rugose, yellow-brown

  • Provided by: [F].Flora de Colombia
    • Habitat

      Disturbed areas.

    • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
      • Source: [
      • 8
      • ]. 

      Dry Grassland; Dwarf Karroid Shrubland. Disturbed areas that may be flooded for very short periods.

    • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
      • Source: [
      • 10
      • ]. 

      Distribution

      Cosmopolitan.

    • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
      • Source: [
      • 8
      • ]. 

      An innocuous introduced weed fairly frequent in disturbed places in the south-western Cape. Also recorded from the Orange Free State and Natal where it is rare.

    • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
      • Source: [
      • 9
      • ]. 

      Nativity unknown.

    • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
      • Source: [
      • 10
      • ]. 

      Distribution Map

       
      • Native distribution
      Found in
      • Southern America Brazil Rio Grande do Sul

      Synonyms

        Bibliography

       Information From

      e-Flora of South Africa
      e-Flora of South Africa. v1.21. 2018. South African National Biodiversity Institute. http://ipt.sanbi.org.za/iptsanbi/resource?r=flora_descriptions&v=1.21
      • A All Rights Reserved
      Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
      http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
      'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
      • B Missouri Botanical Garden
      Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020
      http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br
      Brazil Flora G (2014): Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020. v393.147. Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botanico do Rio de Janeiro. Dataset/Checklist. doi:10.15468/1mtkaw
      • C Group Brazil Flora, REFLORA Program
      Flora of North America @ efloras.org
      http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
      'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
      • D Flora of North America Association
      Flora Mesoamericana
      http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/fm/
      Gerrit Davidse, Mario Sousa Sánchez, A. O. Chater, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Instituto de Biología, Missouri Botanical Garden, Natural History Museum (London, England) UNAM, 1994
      • E Missouri Botanical Garden
      Flora de Colombia
      http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/floradecolombia
      Betancur B. Julio., Aguirre-C. Jaime., Amat-G. Germán. (eds.) (2018–): Flora de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Published in http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/floradecolombia
      • F Instituto de Ciencias Naturales - Universidad Nacional de Colombia
      International Union for Conservation of Nature v.3
      https://www.iucnredlist.org/
      IUCN 2019. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2019-1.
      • G See IUCN Terms and conditions of use http://www.iucnredlist.org/info/terms-of-use
      International Union for Conservation of Nature
      https://www.iucn.org/
      IUCN 2016. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-2
      • H All Rights Reserved
      Juncaceae
      World Flora Online Data. 2017.
      • I CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
      MBG Floras Images
      http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
      Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
      • J Missouri Botanical Garden
      Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica
      http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Costa%20Rica
      Hammel, B. E.; Grayum, M. H.; Herrera, C.; Zamora, N. Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2003-2014
      • K Missouri Botanical Garden
      New York Botanical Garden
      Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
      • L Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
      World Flora Online consortium
      http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
      World Flora Online Data. 2018.
      • M CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).