Por H. Balslev.
Anuales, cespitosas; tallos 5-40 cm. Hojas 4-15 cm x 1-2 mm, 1-5 basales y 1-3 caulinares por tallo; vainas 1-3 cm, sin aurículas; láminas aplanadas con márgenes realzados. Inflorescencia 1/ 2 o más que la altura total de la planta, laxa, con varias cimas unilaterales; bráctea inferior parecida a una hoja caulinar; bractéolas 1.5-2.5 mm. Tépalos 3.5-7 mm; estambres 6, 1.5-2.5 mm. Cápsula 3-4 x 1.5-2 mm, elipsoide, truncada, mucronata, trígona, 3-locular. Semillas 0.4-0.6 x 0.2-0.3 mm, oblongas, apiculadas. Malezas a lo largo de caminos y veredas. Ch (Breedlove y Raven 8113, DS); G (Skutch 424, US); CR (Davidse 861, NY). 1400-3300 m. (Cosmopolita.)
Plants annual, 4--20(--30) cm tall. Stems usually many, erect or ascending, usually weak, base often reddish brown. Leaves basal and cauline; leaf sheath often swollen basally, margin hyaline; leaf blade flat, 1--13 cm × ca. 1 mm, margin often slightly convolute. Inflorescences usually lax, 1/4--4/5 × plant height; branches few, ascending, somewhat arcuate, usually weak, few flowered. Flowers subterminal, remote, appressed to subappressed; involucral bract leaflike. Bracteoles 2 or 3, 1.3--2.5 × 1.2--2.2 mm. Perianth segments lanceolate; outer segments 4.25--5.5 × 1--1.8 mm, center green, margin broadly white membranous, apex sharply pointed; inner segments 4--5 mm, often mostly membranous, apex acute. Stamens 6, 1/3--1/2 as long as perianth; filaments 0.8--1.2 mm; anthers 0.5--0.8 mm. Style absent; stigmas ca. 0.5 mm. Capsule ovoid to subellipsoid, 3--4(--5) mm, 3-loculed, apex slightly obtuse. Seeds ellipsoid, 0.4--0.6 mm, striate, base and apex usually apiculate. Fl. May--Jul, fr. Jun--Sep. 2 n = 100, 110.
Herbs, annual, cespitose, 0.5--4 dm. Culms 1--many, occasionally becoming decumbent. Cataphylls 0--2. Leaves basal and cauline; auricles rudimentary or absent; blade flat, 3--13 cm x 0.3--1.1 mm. Inflorescences loose and diffuse or less often compact, usually at least ½1/2 total height of plant; primary bract shorter than inflorescence. Flowers: bracteoles 2; tepals greenish, lanceolate, 3.8--7(--8.5) mm; inner series slightly shorter, apex sometimes obtuse; stamens 3--6, filaments (0.7--)1--1.8 mm, anthers 0.3--0.8 mm; style 0.1--0.2 mm. Capsules tan to reddish brown, 3-locular, ellipsoid to narrowly so, slightly truncate, 2.7--4 x 1--1.5 mm, sometimes exceeding inner tepals but usually not outer series. Seeds yellowish, widely ellipsoid to ovoid, 0.26--0.49, not tailed. 2n = 27--37, 58--81, 108--115.
Tallos 5–40 cm. Hojas 4–15 cm × 1–2 mm, aplanadas; vaina sin aurículas. Infl. ca. 6–20 × 1–6 cm,abierta, las fls. terminales, normalmente solitarias (rara vez 2–4 juntas). Frs. 3–4 × 1.5–2 mm, elipsoides, trí-gonos en corte transversal, puntiagudos.
"Annual to 3 dm, the stems terete, sometimes branched; lvs basal and usually also cauline, capillary, 0.5–10 cm × 0.2–1.1 mm, convex on the lower surface, flat or channeled on the upper; fls often cleistogamous, scattered singly along the upper part (often more than half) of the stem, short-pedicellate or subsessile in the axils of hyaline-scarious or partly leafy bracts, each one also closely subtended by a pair of broad, hyaline-scarious bracteoles 1–2.5 mm; tep slender, with greenish midstrip and hyaline margins, mostly 3–6 mm, the outer a little the longer; anthers 6, 0.3–1 mm, up to as long as the filaments; style very short, fr imperfectly trilocular; seeds 0.3–0.6 mm, apiculate; 2n=26–120, a small polyploid pillar-complex. Moist or vernally wet or moist places; nearly cosmopolitan, and throughout our range. Most of our plants are polyploid and have acuminate pet slightly longer than the fr. A ± diploid halophytic phase, found in salt-marshes along the coast from Lab. to Mass., and widespread in Europe, differs morphologically from typical, widespread J. bufonius in its consistently small size (rarely to 15 cm) and obtuse or mucronate pet equaling or slightly shorter than the fr. This phase has been segregated as var. halophilus Fernald or J. ambiguus Guss."
Soft annual, 15-30 cm. Leaves linear. Flowers in leafy, branched spikes, green.
Annuals, tufted, soft, 30-300 mm tall. Leaves few, radical and cauline, narrowly linear-acuminate, with an orange, loosely sheathing base. Flowers in leafy panicles or lateral secund spikes, sessile, solitary; bracts 3, hyaline. Tepals c. 5 mm long, green with a hyaline border, outer aristate, inner shorter, acute. Stamens 6(-3), short; anthers about as long as filaments. Ovary 3-locular; style and stigmas about as long as perianth. Capsule included, ellipsoid, obtuse; seed obovoid, c. 0.4 mm long, base rounded, apex truncate, ribbed, pale brown, becoming mucilaginous when wet. Flowering in spring.
Soft annual, up to 300 mm high. Stems leafy. Leaves forming loose basal rosettes; blade flat, linear, base not persisting; cataphylls absent. Flowers: solitary or in clusters of 2-5, in leafy panicles, each flower with a bract and 2 bracteoles; perianth green; Oct.-Jan.
Annual, cespitose herbs, 5-40 cm tall. Rhizome absent. Culms erect, procumbent or ascending, terete, smooth, 0.5- 1.5 mm diameter, sometimes producing foliar shoots in leaf axils on procumbent stems. Cataphylls absent or rarely one to each culm and then inconspicuous, membranous, 7-12 mm long. Foliar leaves 1-5 basal and 1-3 cauline to each culm, 4-15 cm long; sheaths 0.5-3 cm long, with membranous margin which is not extended into auricles; blade flat with raised margins, slightly channeled above, 0.5-1.5 mm wide. Inflorescence usually occupying more than half of the total plant height, lax, compound, consisting of several unilateral cymes (drepania) with the flowers inserted individually and emoved from one another, or rarely 2-4 flowers clustered together, individual drepania up to 10 cm long; lower inflorescence bract resembling cauline leaf, 4 -15 cm long, distal bracts progressively shorter, the ultimate ones to 5 mm long and membranous; each flower clasped by two 1.5-2.5 mm long bracteoles. Tepals unequal, lanceolate, acuminate, light green with membranous margins, turning brown at fruit ripening, outer ones 4-6(-7) mm long, inner ones 3.5-5(-6) mm long. Stamens six, 1.3-2.2(-2.6) mm long; anthers linear or oblong, 0.3-1(-1.5) mm long. Capsule ellipsoid, trigonous, truncate and mucronate, 3-4 x 1.5-2 mm, with persisting 0.1-0.3 mm long style, castaneous at maturity, dehiscing apically, 3-locular. Seeds oblong, apiculate, 0.4-0.6 x 0.2-0.3 mm, smooth to slightly rugose, yellow-brown
An innocuous introduced weed fairly frequent in disturbed places in the south-western Cape. Also recorded from the Orange Free State and Natal where it is rare.