Trees, occasionally shrubs , previously often massive, to 20 m, now rarely more than 10 m, mostly resprouting following blight. Bark brownish, deeply or moderately fissured. Twigs glabrous when young. Leaves: petiole usually (8-)10-15 mm. Leaf blade narrowly obovate or oblanceolate, (40-)120-200(-260) × 30-100 mm, base rounded to slightly cordate or slightly cuneate, margins sharply serrate, each lateral vein terminating in cuneate, gradually acuminate tooth with awn usually more than 2 mm, apex acute or acuminate; surfaces abaxially densely to sparsely covered with appressed, whitish, minute, stellate trichomes, sometimes essentially glabrate, especially on shade leaves, veins glabrous or with a few simple trichomes. Pistillate flower 1 per cupule. Fruits: cupule 2-valved, enclosing 1 flower/fruit, valves irregularly dehiscing along 2 sutures, longest spines usually more than 10 mm; nut 1 per cupule, oval-conic, 9-19 × 8-14 mm, round in cross section, not flattened, beak less than 3mm excluding styles.