Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P.Beauv.
  • Ess. Agrostogr.


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P.Beauv. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000865236. Accessed on: 28 Oct 2020'

General Information

Annual. Culms coarse, erect or geniculately ascending, 20–150 cm tall. Leaf blades linear, 5–40 × 0.2–1.2 cm, usually glabrous, smooth except for scabrous margins, apex acute. Inflorescence erect, lanceolate to ovate or pyramidal, 6–22 cm; racemes 2–10 cm, usually ascending, simple or the longest with inconspicuous branchlets near the base, rachis usually with tubercle-based setae, spikelets loosely to densely crowded. Spikelets green or purplish, ovate, 2.5–4 mm, spinulose along veins; lower glume ca. 1/3 as long as spikelet, acute; lower lemma sterile, herbaceous, acuminate or extended into an awn to 3 cm; upper lemma pale brownish at maturity, elliptic, 2–3 mm. Fl. and fr. summer and autumn. 2n = 36, 48, 54, 72.

  • Provided by: [H].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
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    3. Echinochloa crusgalli

    (L.) P. Beauv, Ess. Agrostogr. 1: 5, 3, 16, 169 (1812).

    Por G. Davidse.

    Panicum crusgalli L., Sp. Pl. 1: 56 (1753). Lectotipo (designado por Hitchcock, 1908): Canada, Kalm s.n. (LINN).

    Echinochloa crusgalli was not reported for Mesoamérica by Pohl (1994), but besides a Nicaraguan collection, is now also known from two collections from Costa Rica and one from Guatemala. Although the species in its various manifestations is cosmopolitan in subtropical and temperate areas of the world, it is rare in Mesoamérica and the tropics in general. In the New World tropics, the closely related E. crus-pavonis is much more common.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora Mesoamericana
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    Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr. 161, 169. 1812; Panicum crus-galli L.; Oplismenus zelayensis Kunth.

    Anuales cespitosas. Tallos 30–90 cm de alto, erectos o decumbentes y enraizando, ramificados o simples; entrenudos glabros; nudos glabros. Vainas glabras; lígula ausente; láminas 8–20 cm de largo y 6–9 mm de ancho, glabras. Panícula 5–12 cm de largo, racimos 7–13, 1–3 cm de largo, simples, las espiguillas irregularmente agrupadas; espiguillas 3.2–4.6 mm de largo, agudas o aristadas hasta 1.5 mm; gluma inferior 1.5–2 mm de largo, 3–5-nervia, gluma superior tan larga como la espiguilla o un poco más corta, 5–7-nervia; flósculo inferior generalmente estéril o raramente estaminado; pálea inferior 2/3–4/5 la longitud de la lema inferior pero más angosta; flósculo superior 2.8–3.2 mm de largo, el ápice membranáceo 0.2–0.3 mm de largo; anteras 0.7–0.8 mm de largo.

    Conocida en Nicaragua por una sola colección (Moreno 24687) de áreas húmedas perturbadas, Estelí; 850 m; fl y fr sep; sur de Estados Unidos, México, Mesoamérica, Colombia. E. crus-galli no fue reportada por Pohl (1994) en la Flora Mesoamericana, pero además de la colección nicaragüense, actualmente se conocen también otras 2 colecciones de Costa Rica y 1 de Guatemala. A pesar de ser cosmopolita en áreas tropicales y templadas del mundo, es mucho más rara en Mesoamérica.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora de Nicaragua
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    Plantas anuales, cespitosas, 30–90 cm; tallos erectos o decumbentes. Hojas con la vaina glabra; lígulaausente; lámina 8–20 cm × 6–9 mm, glabra. Infl. 5–12 cm; racimos 7–13, 1–3 cm. Espiguillas irregularmenteagrupadas en más de 4 hileras, 3.2–4.6 mm, agudas o aristadas por hasta ca. 1.5 mm; gluma inferior 1.5–2 mm,3–5-nervada, la superior tan larga como la espiguilla o un poco más corta, 5–7-nervada; flósculo inferior es-téril (rara vez estaminado), el superior 2.5–3.2 mm.

  • Provided by: [I].Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica
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    "Stout, often branched from the decumbent base; sheaths glabrous; blades 5–30 mm wide; infl 1–2.5 dm, erect, with usually 15–25 appressed or spreading branches 2–4 cm (to 6 cm in var. frumentacea), the longer ones rebranched; main axis and branches of the infl beset with stout, often papillate-based setae typically as long as or longer than the spikelets; spikelets 2.8–4 mm; second glume and sterile lemma variously scabrous, hispid, or hirsute to subglabrous, but the hairs usually not papillate-based, the glume awnless or nearly so; fertile lemma 2.5–3.5 mm, ca twice as long as wide, the short, soft beak withering, somewhat inflexed, sharply differentiated from the obtuse body, marked by a line of minute bristles at base; 2n=54. Native of Eurasia, widespread in the U.S., Can., and Mex. Two vars. with us:"

  • Provided by: [G].New York Botanical Garden
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    Diagnostic Description

    A very variable and polymorphic species; may be confused with E. colona, which has neat 4-rowed racemes and E. cruspavonis, which has a larger inflorescence and racemes with many short secondary branchlets.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
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    Morphology

    Inflorescence linear to ovate, 6–22 cm. long, the racemes untidily 2–several-rowed, the longest 2–10 cm. long usually with short secondary branchlets at the base.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Spikelets ovate-elliptic, mostly 3–4 mm. long, hispid; lower floret barren, acuminate or with an awn up to 5 cm. long; upper lemma 2–3 mm. long, including the short herbaceous tip.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Coarse annual; culms 25–100 cm. high, erect or spreading.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Leaf-blades 7–35 cm. long, 4–20 mm. wide; ligule absent; sheaths glabrous, rarely appressed hairy.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Coarse annual.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Culms 25–100 cm. high, erect or ascending; ligule absent; leaf laminae 62–20 mm. wide.

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    Inferior lemma acuminate or with an awn up to 5 cm. long.

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    Superior lemma 2–3 mm. long, including the short herbaceous apex.

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    Inflorescence 6–22 cm. long, linear to ovate; racemes untidily 2-several-rowed, the longest 2–10 cm. long usually with short secondary branchlets at the base.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Spikelets mostly 3–4 mm. long, ovate-elliptic, hispid.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Annual, hydrophyte, stoloniferous and tufted, up to 1 m high. Leaf blades 70-350 mm long, 4-20 mm wide; ligule absent. Spikelets 3 or 4(-7) mm long, 1-2 mm wide. Inflorescence 60-220 mm long; racemes untidily 2- to several-rowed, 20-100 mm long and usually with secondary branchlets at base; lower floret sterile; lower lemma usually awnless, rarely with an awn 5-10 mm long.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
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    Tufted annual 250-1 000 mm high; hygrophyte; stoloniferous. Leaf blade 70-350 x 4-20 mm, ligule absent. Inflorescence 60-220 mm long, elongated; raceme 20-100 mm long, untidily 2 to several- rowed, usually with short secondary branchlets at the base, not or inconspicuously compound. Spikelet 3-4(-7) x 1 to 2 mm, ovate- elliptic; glumes and lower lemma minutely hairy, nerves with long, rigid hairs; lower floret sterile; lower lemma usually awnless, sometimes with a awn 5-35 mm long; upper lemma 2 to 3 mm long (including short herbaceous apex); anther 0.7-1.1 mm long.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
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    Annual; up to 1 m high; hydrophyte; stoloniferous and tufted. Leaf blades 70-350 x 4-20 mm; ligule absent. Flowers: inflorescence spike-like; 60-220 mm long; racemes untidily 2- to several-rowed; 20-100 mm long; base usually with secondary branchlets; spikelets 3-4(-7) x 1-2 mm; lower floret sterile; lower lemma usually not awned; rarely with awn 5-35 mm long.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
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    Habitat

    Swampy areas, wet places of cultivation.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
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    Swampy areas, wet places of cultivation.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
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    Kalahari Deciduous Acacia-wooded Grassland; Dry Grassland; Mesic Grassland; Dwarf Karroid Shrubland. Swampy areas; wet places of cultivation.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
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    Distribution

    Native to temperate Eurasia.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
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    Naturalised from temperate Eurasia. Worldwide, in temperate and subtropical regions. N, B, S, L, LIM, NW, G, M, FS, KZN, NC, WC, EC.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
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    Native to temperate Eurasia.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
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    Distribution Map

     
    • Introduced distribution
    Introduced into
    • Southern America Brazil Amazonas
    • Parí
    • Roraima
    • Tocantins
    • Bahia
    • Ceará
    • Maranh
    • Pernambuco
    • Rio Grande do Norte
    • Paraní
    • Rio Grande do Sul
    • Santa Catarina
    • Espirito Santo
    • Minas Gerais
    • Rio de Janeiro
    • São Paulo
    • Brazilia Distrito Federal
    • Goiás
    • Mato Grosso
    • Mato Grosso do Sul

    Synonyms

      Bibliography

     Information From

    MBG Floras Images
    http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
    Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
    • A Missouri Botanical Garden
    e-Flora of South Africa
    e-Flora of South Africa. v1.21. 2018. South African National Biodiversity Institute. http://ipt.sanbi.org.za/iptsanbi/resource?r=flora_descriptions&v=1.21
    • B All Rights Reserved
    Flora de Nicaragua
    http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
    WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
    • C Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora Mesoamericana
    http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/fm/
    Gerrit Davidse, Mario Sousa Sánchez, A. O. Chater, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Instituto de Biología, Missouri Botanical Garden, Natural History Museum (London, England) UNAM, 1994
    • D Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • E
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • F
    New York Botanical Garden
    Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
    • G Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • H Missouri Botanical Garden
    Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Costa%20Rica
    Hammel, B. E.; Grayum, M. H.; Herrera, C.; Zamora, N. Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2003-2014
    • I Missouri Botanical Garden
    Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020
    http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br
    Brazil Flora G (2014): Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020. v393.147. Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botanico do Rio de Janeiro. Dataset/Checklist. doi:10.15468/1mtkaw
    • J Group Brazil Flora, REFLORA Program
    Poaceae
    • K CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • L CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).