Echinochloa pyramidalis (Lam.) Hitchc. & Chase
  • Contr. U. S. Natl. Herb.


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Echinochloa pyramidalis (Lam.) Hitchc. & Chase. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000865411. Accessed on: 05 Aug 2020'

General Information

6. Echinochloa pyramidalis (Lam.) A. Hitchc. et Chase, Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 18: 345 (1917).

Por R.W. Pohl.

Panicum pyramidale Lam., Tabl. Encycl. 1: 171 (1791). Holotipo: Senegal, Rousillon 42 (P-LA).

Echinochloa guadeloupensis (Hackel) Wieg., Panicum spectabile Nees var. guadeloupense Hackel.

Perennes rizomatosas; rizoma corto, escamoso. Tallos hasta 200 cm, erectos o decumbentes y flotantes; entrenudos y nudos glabros. Vainas glabras o híspidas; lígula 1-4 mm; láminas 15-70 cm x 5-13 mm, glabras. Panícula 13-45 x 2-10 cm; racimos numerosos, hasta 10 cm, simples o los inferiores cortamente ramificados, las espiguillas agrupadas. Espiguillas 2.9-3.5 mm, apiculadas; gluma inferior 1.5-2.2 mm, 5-nervia; gluma superior y lema inferior tan largas como la espiguilla, 5-nervias; flósculo inferior generalmente estaminado; pálea inferior casi tan larga como la lema inferior; flósculo superior 2.5-2.7 mm, el ápice membranáceo 0.2-0.4 mm; anteras hasta 2.3 mm. 2n=36. Sitios húmedos abiertos, aguas estancadas, márgenes de lagos. T (Cowan 2385, CAS); Ch (Breedlove y Davidse 55285, MO); G (LeDoux et al. 108, MO); N (Pohl y Davidse 12221, ISC); CR (Pohl y Davidse 11661, ISC). 0-300 m. (Nativa de África tropical y subtropical; introducida en los trópicos del Nuevo Mundo, Asia y Australia.)

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    Echinochloa pyramidalis (Lam.) Hitchc. & Chase, Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 18: 345. 1917; Panicum pyramidale Lam.; E. guadeloupensis (Hack.) Wiegand; P. spectabile var. guadeloupense Hack.

    Perennes rizomatosas; rizoma corto, escamoso; tallos hasta 200 cm de largo, erectos o decumbentes y flotantes; entrenudos y nudos glabros. Vainas glabras o híspidas; lígula 1–4 mm de largo; láminas 15–70 cm de largo y 5–13 mm de ancho, glabras. Panícula 13–45 cm de largo, racimos numerosos, hasta 10 cm de largo, simples o los inferiores cortamente ramificados, las espiguillas agrupadas; espiguillas 2.9–3.5 mm de largo, apiculadas; gluma inferior 1.5–2.2 mm de largo, 5-nervia; gluma superior y lema inferior tan largas como la espiguilla, 5-nervias; flósculo inferior generalmente estaminado; pálea inferior casi tan larga como la lema inferior; flósculo superior 2.5–2.7 mm de largo, el ápice membranáceo 0.2–0.4 mm de largo; anteras hasta 2.3 mm de largo.

    Poco común, sitios húmedos abiertos, aguas estancadas, márgenes de lagos, zona pacífica; 40–300 m; fl y fr jun–sep, dic; Sandino 666, 1130; nativa de Africa tropical y subtropical, introducida en los trópicos de América, Asia y Australia.

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    Plantas perennes, rizomatosas, 90–200 cm, el rizoma escamoso; tallos erectos a erecto-decumbentes o flotantes.Hojas con la vaina glabra a híspida; lígula 1–3 mm, constituida por una hilera de pelos; lámina 14–67(–71)cm × 5–13 mm, glabra. Infl. (13–)16–40(–46) cm; racimos numerosos. Espiguillas agrupadas, 3–3.5 mm,apiculadas, no aristadas, escabriúsculas; gluma inferior 1.5–2.1 mm, 5-nervada; gluma superior y lema inferiortan largas como la espiguilla, 5-nervadas, no aristadas; flósculo inferior estaminado, el superior ca. 2.5 mm.

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    Morphology

    A robust rhizomatous perennial up to 3·5 m. high, somewhat variable in size of spikelets and density of panicle

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    Reed-like rhizomatous perennial; culms robust, 1–4 m. high, firm, erect.

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    Leaf-blades 8–60 cm. long or more, 2–25 mm. wide, stiff, glaucous; ligule a line of hairs; sheaths glabrous or hispid.

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    Spikelets narrowly ovate to broadly elliptic, plump, 2.5–3.5(–4) mm. long, glabrous to hispid; lower lemma acute to acuminate, rarely with a subulate awn-point up to 3 mm. long; upper lemma 2–3 mm. long.

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    Inflorescence ovate to narrowly lanceolate with the racemes overlapping, or linear with the racemes ± distant, 8–40 cm. long, their rhachis glabrous or pilose; racemes simple or compound, 3–20 cm. long, straight, ascending, coarsely spiculate.

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    Superior lemma 2–3 mm. long.

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    Inferior lemma acute to acuminate, rarely with a subulate point up to 2 mm. long.

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    Inflorescence 8–40 cm. long, ovate to narrowly lanceolate with numerous overlapping racemes or linear with 4–10 ± distant appressed racemes; racemes 2–20 cm. long, simple or compound, straight, ascending, coarsely spiculate.

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    Culms robust, 1–4 m. high, firm, erect; ligule a line of hairs.

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    Reed-like rhizomatous perennial.

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    Spikelets 2.5–3.5(4) mm. long, narrowly ovate to broadly elliptic, plump, glabrous to hispid.

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    Perennial, hydrophyte, rhizomatous, stoloniferous and tufted, up to 4 m high. Leaf blades 80-600 mm long, 5-20 mm wide; ligule a fringe of hairs, sometimes absent in upper leaves. Culms robust. Spikelets 2.5-4.0 mm long, 1.0-1.8 mm wide. Inflorescence (150-)200 (-400) mm long; racemes simple or compound, 25-35 mm long; lower floret male; lower lemma awnless, tip acute to acuminate, 3 mm long.

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    Reed-like, tufted perennial 1 000-4 000 mm high; hydrophyte; rhizomatous and stoloniferous; culm robust. Leaf blade 80-600 x 5-20 mm; ligule a fringe of hairs, may be absent in upper leaves. Inflorescence (150-)200(-400) mm long, ovate to narrowly lanceolate; racemes 25-35 mm long, not neatly 4-rowed, simple or compound. Spikelet 2.5-4.0 x 1.0-1.8 mm, narrowly ovate to broadly elliptic, glabrous to hispid; glumes and lower lemma minutely hispid at least near margins, nerves usually with long, rigid hispid hairs; lower floret male; lower lemma awnless, apex 3 mm long, acute to acuminate; upper lemma 2 to 3 mm long; anther 0.6-2.1 mm long.

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    Ecology

    On river banks, marshes or in open water, sometimes forming extensive meadows on flood plains.

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    Habitat

    Swamps and riversides, usually in standing in water and sometimes floating.

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    Swamps and riversides, usually standing in water and may be floating.

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    Distribution

    Northwards to tropical Africa and Madagascar. N, B, S, LIM, G, M, KZN, WC, EC.

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      Bibliography

     Information From

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    • A Missouri Botanical Garden
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    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
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    • D All Rights Reserved
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    http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
    WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
    • E Missouri Botanical Garden
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    http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/fm/
    Gerrit Davidse, Mario Sousa Sánchez, A. O. Chater, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Instituto de Biología, Missouri Botanical Garden, Natural History Museum (London, England) UNAM, 1994
    • F Missouri Botanical Garden
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    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Costa%20Rica
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    • G Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • H The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    International Union for Conservation of Nature
    https://www.iucn.org/
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    • I All Rights Reserved
    International Union for Conservation of Nature v.3
    https://www.iucnredlist.org/
    IUCN 2019. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2019-1.
    • J See IUCN Terms and conditions of use http://www.iucnredlist.org/info/terms-of-use
    Poaceae
    • K CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
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    • L CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).