Lolium perenne L.
  • Sp. Pl.
  • Azevém-perene


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Lolium perenne L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000878441. Accessed on: 02 Jul 2020'

General Information

Perennial, turf-forming. Culms tufted, erect or spreading, sometimes prostrate and rooting from lower nodes, 30–90 cm tall, 3–4-noded. Leaf blades soft, 5–20 cm × 3–6 mm, glabrous, young blades folded; auricles to 3 mm; ligule 2–2.5 mm. Raceme stiffly erect, or rarely slightly curved, 10–30 cm; rachis glabrous, smooth, spikelets usually less than their own length apart. Spikelets 0.8–2 cm, florets 5–10, rachilla internodes ca. 1 mm, smooth, glabrous; glume lanceolate, 1/3 as long to subequaling spikelet, 3–9-veined, margins narrowly membranous, apex acute or obtuse; lemmas oblong, herbaceous, 5–9 mm, 5-veined, smooth, apex obtuse to subacute, awnless; palea ciliolate along keels. Caryopsis length more than 3 times width. Fl. and fr. May–Jul. 2n = 14, 28.

  • Provided by: [B].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • 1. Lolium perenne L., Sp. Pl. 83 (1753). Lectotipo (designado por Terrell, 1968): Europa, Anon. (LINN-99.1). N.v.: Zacate ray, ray inglés.

      Por R.W. Pohl y G. Davidse.

      Perennes de vida corta, cespitosas pero produciendo rizomas en lugares húmedos. Tallos 10-90 cm. Hojas glabras; aurículas ausentes o hasta 3 mm; lígula hasta 2.5 mm; láminas 3-20 cm x 2-6 mm, dobladas cuando jovenes. Espigas hasta 20 cm, delgadas. Espiguillas 7-20 mm; gluma superior 3.5-15 mm, 1/3 hasta tan larga como la espiguilla, 5-7-nervia; flósculos bisexuales 4-10; flósculos estériles ausentes o 1; lemas 3.5-9 mm, 5-nervias, no túrgidas cuando maduras, agudas o con una arista hasta 8 mm; anteras 2-4.2 mm. 2n=14. Cultivadas para forraje y peristiendo, potreros. G (de Koninck s.n., ISC); H (Nelson 10752, TEFH); CR (Pohl y Calderón 10336, ISC); P (D'Arcy et al. 12583 en parte, MO). 2200-2700 m. (Nativa de Eurasia; introducida y naturalizada en climas templados del mundo.)

    • Provided by: [G].Flora Mesoamericana
      • Source: [
      • 1
      • ]. 

      Plantas hasta ca. 75 cm, cespitosas (pero que producen rizomas en lugareshúmedos). Hojas con lígula 1–2.5 mm; lámina 4–18(–21) cm × 2–5 mm,doblada cuando joven. Infl. 12–20 cm. Espiguillas 7–18(–20) mm; gluma 4–12(–16) mm; flósculos 4–9; lemas 4–9 mm, no aristadas, o si aristadas,entonces la arista hasta ca. 8 mm.

    • Provided by: [F].Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica
      • Source: [
      • 3
      • ]. 

      "Mostly short-lived perennial; culms slender, 3–9(–12) dm; spike slender, 1–2 dm, the rachis scabrous on the margins and sometimes also on the back; spikelets (2–)5–22-fld; glume 4–12 mm, herbaceous, distinctly shorter than the spikelet; lemmas awned or awnless, the lowest 5–8 mm, the upper progressively reduced; 2n=14, 28. Native of Europe, cult. in meadows and lawns and often escaped onto roadsides and in waste places throughout our range and w. to the Pacific. Two well marked but wholly intergradient vars., apparently originating as agronomic strains."

    • Provided by: [E].New York Botanical Garden
      • Source: [
      • 4
      • ]. 

      Morphology

      Caryopsis c. 4·5 mm. long.

    • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 2
      • ]. 

      Anthers 3-4 mm. long.

    • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 2
      • ]. 

      Leaf-laminae 3-20 cm. x 0·2-0·6 mm.

    • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 2
      • ]. 

      Spikes 4-30 cm. long, stiff, slender to somewhat stout.

    • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 2
      • ]. 

      A caespitose perennial. Similar in habit to the preceding species.

    • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 2
      • ]. 

      Lemmas 5-7 mm. long, 5-nerved, muticous, imbricate, ovate-oblong or oblong, apex acute to sub-obtuse.

    • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 2
      • ]. 

      Paleas with the keels scaberulous.

    • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 2
      • ]. 

      Spikelets 7-20 mm. long, 4-14-flowered, elliptic to obovate-elliptic in lateral view.

    • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 2
      • ]. 

      Superior glume shorter than the rest of the spikelet, 5-7-nerved, narrowly lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, with the apex usually obtuse, smooth.

    • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 2
      • ]. 

      Perennial, tufted (with numerous culms and sterile leafy shoots), up to 500 mm tall. Leaf blades 50-140 (-300) mm long, 2-4 mm wide. Spikelets 10-15 mm long, 3-10 mm wide. Glumes ascending or spreading, not concealing spikelets, half to three-quarters the spikelet length; lemmas acute, not turgid at maturity, awnless. Mature caryopsis more than 3 times as long as wide.

    • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
      • Source: [
      • 5
      • ]. 

      Perennial to 50 cm, with sterile shoots. Leaves linear. Spikelets in a simple spike, 10-15 x 3-10 mm, awnless.

    • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
      • Source: [
      • 6
      • ]. 

      Perennial; up to 0.5 m high; tufted; with many culms and sterile leafy shoots. Leaf blades 50-140(-300) x 2-4 mm; leaves flat; folded along midrib when young. Flowers: panicle a single; flat spike; spikelets 10-15 x 3-10 mm; glumes ascending or spreading; not concealing spikelets; 1/2-3/4 spikelet length; lemmas acute; not turgid at maturity; not awned; mature caryopsis > 3 x as long as wide.

    • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
      • Source: [
      • 7
      • ]. 

      Habitat

      On roadsides, in moist disturbed areas and cultivated and fallow lands.

    • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
      • Source: [
      • 5
      • ]. 

      Disturbed areas.

    • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
      • Source: [
      • 6
      • ]. 

      Dwarf Karroid Shrubland; Zastron Moist Grassland. Roadsides; in moist disturbed areas and cultivated and fallow lands.

    • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
      • Source: [
      • 7
      • ]. 

      Distribution

      Native to Europe.

    • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
      • Source: [
      • 5
      • ]. 

      European weed.

    • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
      • Source: [
      • 6
      • ]. 

      Native to Europe.

    • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
      • Source: [
      • 7
      • ]. 

      Distribution Map

       
      • Introduced distribution
      Introduced into
      • Southern America Brazil Rio Grande do Sul
      • Santa Catarina

      Synonyms

      Other Local Names

      NameLanguageCountry
      Azevém-perenePortuguese
      RAIGRÁ.

        Bibliography

       Information From

      e-Flora of South Africa
      e-Flora of South Africa. v1.21. 2018. South African National Biodiversity Institute. http://ipt.sanbi.org.za/iptsanbi/resource?r=flora_descriptions&v=1.21
      • A All Rights Reserved
      Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
      http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
      'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
      • B Missouri Botanical Garden
      Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
      http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
      • C
      Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020
      http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br
      Brazil Flora G (2014): Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020. v393.147. Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botanico do Rio de Janeiro. Dataset/Checklist. doi:10.15468/1mtkaw
      • D Group Brazil Flora, REFLORA Program
      New York Botanical Garden
      Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
      • E Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
      Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica
      http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Costa%20Rica
      Hammel, B. E.; Grayum, M. H.; Herrera, C.; Zamora, N. Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2003-2014
      • F Missouri Botanical Garden
      Flora Mesoamericana
      http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/fm/
      Gerrit Davidse, Mario Sousa Sánchez, A. O. Chater, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Instituto de Biología, Missouri Botanical Garden, Natural History Museum (London, England) UNAM, 1994
      • G Missouri Botanical Garden
      Poaceae
      • H CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
      World Flora Online consortium
      http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
      World Flora Online Data. 2018.
      • I CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).