Lolium temulentum L.
  • Sp. Pl.
  • Joio


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Lolium temulentum L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000878503. Accessed on: 06 Jun 2020'

General Information

Annual. Culms tufted, erect or decumbent, slender to moderately robust, 20–120 cm tall, 3–5-noded. Leaf blades flat, thin, 10–25 cm × 4–10 mm, smooth or scabridulous on abaxial surface, margins scabrid, young blades rolled; auricles present or absent; ligule 0.5–2.5 mm, obtuse to truncate. Raceme stiff, straight, 10–30 cm; rachis thick, smooth or scabridulous, spikelets about their own length apart. Spikelets turgid, 0.8–2.5 cm, florets 4–10, rachilla internodes 1–1.5 mm, smooth, glabrous; glume linear-oblong, rigid, as long as spikelet, often exceeding florets, 5–9-veined, margins narrowly membranous, apex obtuse; lemmas elliptic to ovate, turgid at maturity, 5.2–8.5 mm, apex obtuse; awn usually present, stiff, scabrid; palea ciliolate along keels. Caryopsis very plump, length 2–3 times width, 4–7 mm. Fl. and fr. May–Aug. 2n = 14.

  • Provided by: [B].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
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    3. Lolium temulentum L., Sp. Pl. 83 (1753). Lectotipo (designado por Loos y Jarvis, 1992): Herb. Burser I: 113 (UPS).

    Por R.W. Pohl y G. Davidse.

    Anuales cespitosas. Tallos 20-120 cm. Hojas glabras; aurículas ausentes o hasta 4 mm; lígula 0.5-3 mm; láminas 9-33 cm x 4-10 mm, enrolladas cuando jovenes. Espigas 5-40 cm, rígidas. Espiguillas 8-28 mm; gluma (5.5-)7-30 mm, 3/4-1 1/2 la longitud de la espiguilla, 3-11-nervia; flósculos bisexuales 2-10; flósculos estériles ausentes o hasta 4; lemas 5-8.5 mm, 5-7-nervias, túrgidas cuando maduras, generalmente con una arista hasta 17(-23) mm; anteras (1.8-)2-3.2(-4) mm. 2n=14. Arvenses en cultivos de grano. G (Standley 60916, US); P (D'Arcy et al. 12583 en parte, MO). 1800-2800 m. (Nativa de Eurasia; introducida y naturalizada en climas templados del mundo.)

  • Provided by: [F].Flora Mesoamericana
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    "Annual; culms solitary or few together, 4–10 dm, scaberulous; lvs usually glabrous beneath, scabrous above, 3–10 mm wide; spike 1–2(–4) dm with scabrous margins; spikelets 4–8-fld; glume firm, straight, strongly veined, equaling or surpassing the uppermost lemma, (12–)15–25 mm; lemmas obtuse, with an awn to 17 mm, or sometimes awnless, the lower lemmas in the spikelet 5–8.5 mm; paleas shorter than the lemmas, grain 2–3 times as long as thick; 2n=14. Probably native to the Mediterranean region, now widespread as a weed and occasionally found throughout most of our range."

  • Provided by: [A].New York Botanical Garden
    • Source: [
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    Morphology

    Spikes 10-30 cm. long, erect, rigid, pale-green; rhachis stout, somewhat waved, dorsally scaberulous or smooth.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Leaf-laminae 6-30(-40) x 0·3-1·3 cm., linear, tapering to a fine point, with 2 narrow auricles at the base, usually expanded, firm, scaberulous or smooth except for the margins.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
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    Leaf-sheaths prominently striate, rather tight, dorsally rounded, smooth or scaberulous, glabrous; Ligule c. 2 mm. long.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
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    Culms up to 90 cm. tall, 2-4-noded, solitary or tufted, somewhat stout, erect or geniculately ascending, glabrous, smooth or scabrous towards the spike.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
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    Anthers c. 2·5 mm. long, linear.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
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    Lemmas 6-8 mm. long, 5-9-nerved, muticous or awned, dorsally rounded, elliptic to ovate, somewhat rigid, smooth; awn (if present) up to 20 mm. long, straight, scabrous.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 5
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    Superior glume 7-9-nerved, as long as or longer than the rest of the spikelet, narrowly oblong, obtuse, rigid, smooth or asperulous.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
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    Spikelets 12-25 x 4-6 mm., 4-10-flowered, elliptic-oblong, oblong or obovate-oblong in outline, moderately compressed about their own length or slightly more apart.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
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    A rather robust annual.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
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    Caryopsis c. 7 mm. long, elliptic-oblong in outline, tightly enclosed by the lemma and palea.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
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    Spikelets oblong, 12–26 mm. long, 4–10-flowered; upper glume usually reaching to or exceeding uppermost lemma, rigid, 7–9-nerved, obtuse; lemmas elliptic to ovate, 6–8 mm. long, smooth, obtuse, awned or awnless.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
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    Spikes erect, 10–30 cm. long and 5–12 mm. wide, rigid, green, the spikelets about their own length or more apart.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
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    Stiff annual.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
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    Leaf-blades 6–40 cm. long and 3–13 mm. wide, flat, with short spreading auricles at the base.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
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    Culms 30–90 cm. high, tufted or solitary, erect or geniculate at the base, slender to moderately stout.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
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    Annual to 1 m tall. Leaves linear; ligule an unfringed membrane. Inflorescence a simple, true spike; 100-300 mm long. Spikelets 8-28 mm long, laterally compressed, glabrous, awnless, sunk and lying edgeways in partial cavities on main axis, separated by ± own length, one edge against rhachis, green, many-flowered; glumes usually 1, with 2 only in terminal spikelets, as long as spikelet; lemmas rounded, swollen at maturity, awnless or with awn up to 20 mm long.

  • Provided by: [C].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
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    Robust annual, culms solitary or tufted, up to 0.9 m high. Leaf blades 150-300 mm long, 3-7 mm wide. Spikelets 8-28 mm long, 3-8 mm wide. Glumes ascending or spreading, not concealing spikelets, 3/4 to 1 1/2 times spikelet length; lemmas elliptical to ovate, very turgid at maturity, awn absent or to 20 mm long. Mature caryopsis 2-3 times as long as wide.

  • Provided by: [C].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
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    Annual to 1 m. Leaves linear. Spikelets in a simple spike, green, 8-28 mm long, lemmas swollen at maturity.

  • Provided by: [C].e-Flora of South Africa
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    Annual; up to 0.9 m high; robust. Culms solitary or tufted. Leaf blades 150-300 x 3-7 mm. Flowers: panicle a single; flat spike; spikelets 8-28 x 3-8 mm; glumes ascending or spreading; not concealing spikelets; 3/4-1 and1/2 x spikelet length; lemmas elliptical to ovate; very turgid at maturity; awn absent or up to 20 mm long; mature caryopsis 2-3 x as long as wide.

  • Provided by: [C].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
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    Habitat

    Disturbed areas.

  • Provided by: [C].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
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    Usually in cultivated or fallow lands, gardens or other disturbed areas, often associated with wheat.

  • Provided by: [C].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 11
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    Disturbed areas.

  • Provided by: [C].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 12
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    Dry Grassland. Cultivated or fallow lands; gardens or other disturbed areas; often associated with wheat.

  • Provided by: [C].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 13
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    Distribution

    Widespread European weed.

  • Provided by: [C].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 10
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    Native to warm temperate countries.

  • Provided by: [C].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 11
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    European weed.

  • Provided by: [C].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 12
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    Native to warm temperate countries.

  • Provided by: [C].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 13
    • ]. 

    Distribution Map

     
    • Introduced distribution
    Introduced into
    • Southern America Brazil Rio Grande do Sul
    • Santa Catarina
    • São Paulo

    Synonyms

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    JoioPortuguese

      Bibliography

     Information From

    New York Botanical Garden
    Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
    • A Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    e-Flora of South Africa
    e-Flora of South Africa. v1.21. 2018. South African National Biodiversity Institute. http://ipt.sanbi.org.za/iptsanbi/resource?r=flora_descriptions&v=1.21
    • C All Rights Reserved
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • D
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • E
    Flora Mesoamericana
    http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/fm/
    Gerrit Davidse, Mario Sousa Sánchez, A. O. Chater, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Instituto de Biología, Missouri Botanical Garden, Natural History Museum (London, England) UNAM, 1994
    • F Missouri Botanical Garden
    Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020
    http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br
    Brazil Flora G (2014): Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020. v393.147. Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botanico do Rio de Janeiro. Dataset/Checklist. doi:10.15468/1mtkaw
    • G Group Brazil Flora, REFLORA Program
    Poaceae
    • H CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • I CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).