Oryza sativa L.
  • Sp. Pl.
  • ARROZ.


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2021): Oryza sativa L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000882438. Accessed on: 21 Sep 2021'

General Information

4. Oryza sativa L., Sp. Pl. 333 (1753). Lectotipo (designado por Duistermaat, 1987): India, Anon. (LINN-460.1). N.v.: Arroz, rice.

Por R.W. Pohl y G. Davidse.

Anuales. Tallos 40-150 cm. Vainas glabras; lígula 7-30 mm, glabra; láminas 24-60 x 6-22 mm, glabras. Panículas 9-30 cm, laxamente contraídas; ramas inferiores hasta 13 cm, 1-3 juntas. Espiguillas 7-10.9 x 2.5-4 mm, oblongas; lemas estériles 1.5-4 mm; lema fértil 7-10.9 x 1.6-2.5 mm, escabrosa sobre y entre las nervaduras, sin arista o con una arista hasta 7 cm; anteras 0.8-2.4 mm, amarillas. Cereal cultivado y ocasionalmente escapado de cultivo en las orillas de los caminos húmedos. T (Novelo et al. 100, MEXU); Ch (Breedlove 38654, MO); Y (Ucan 1559, XAL); B (Jansen y Ives 1157, MO); G (Harmon y Fuentes 2108, MO); H (Nelson 4806, MO); ES (Standley y Padilla 2554, F); N (Stevens 19985, MO); CR (Khan et al. 1171, MO); P (Nee 8109, MO). 0-900 m. (Trópicos; nativa de Asia tropical.)

Éste es el arroz común, ampliamente cultivado en bajas altitudes en todo Mesoamérica. Las espiguillas pueden ser aristadas o sin aristas. Hay una miríada de líneas cultivadas que difieren principalmente por sus características agronómicas. Una clasificación detallada de éstas ha sido presentada por Portères (1956). Como todos los cereales cultivados, las espiguillas son reteni- das en la planta pasada la madurez, permitiendo su cosecha eficiente.

  • Provided by: [L].Flora Mesoamericana
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Annual, aquatic, tufted. Culms erect, rooting at lower submerged nodes, 0.5–1.5 m tall. Leaf sheaths slightly inflated below, upper sheaths tight, glabrous, auricles falcate, ciliate; leaf blades 25–60 × 0.5–2 cm, glabrous, smooth or scabrid on both sides, margins scabrid, apex acuminate; ligule 10–40 mm. Panicle loosely contracted, up to 30 cm, nodding at maturity; branches 1–3 at lowest node, longest 2–12 cm, axils bearded or glabrous. Spikelets oblong to oblong-lanceolate, 7–10 mm, length 2–3.5 times width, persistent; sterile lemmas lanceolate, 1.5–4 mm, apex acuminate; fertile lemma papillose, spinulose, apex acuminate; awn very variable, slender or stout, up to 60 mm or more, scaberulous, sometimes absent. Anthers 1–3 mm. Caryopsis ovate or elliptic to cylindrical, 5–7 mm, whitish yellow to brown or blackish. 2n = 24.

  • Provided by: [E].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Oryza sativa L., Sp. Pl. 333. 1753.

    Anuales; tallos 40–150 cm de alto. Vainas glabras; lígula 7–30 mm de largo, glabra; láminas 24–60 mm de largo y 6–22 mm de ancho, glabras. Panículas 9–30 cm de largo, laxamente contraídas, ramas inferiores hasta 13 cm de largo, 1–3 juntas; espiguillas 7–10.9 mm de largo y 2.5–4 mm de ancho, oblongas; lemas estériles 1.5–4 mm de largo, lema fértil 7–10.9 mm de largo y 1.6–2.5 mm de ancho, escabrosa sobre y entre las nervaduras, sin arista o con una arista hasta 7 cm de largo; anteras 0.8–2.4 mm de largo, amarillas.

    Cereal cultivado y ocasionalmente escapado de cultivo, en todo el país; 0–300 m; fl y fr abr–dic; Moreno 22055, Vincelli 408; nativa de Asia tropical, ampliamente cultivada en los trópicos. Las espiguillas pueden ser aristadas o sin aristas. Hay una miríada de líneas cultivadas que difieren principalmente por sus características agronómicas. Una clasificación detallada de éstas ha sido presentada por Porteres. Como todos los cereales cultivados, las espiguillas son retenidas en la planta pasada la madurez, permitiendo su cosecha eficiente. "Arroz".

  • Provided by: [D].Flora de Nicaragua
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Annual; culms erect, up to 1 m. high or more; sheaths all longer than the internodes, soft, glabrous, auriculate, the auricles sometimes hispid-ciliate; ligule acuminate, mostly 1-2 cm. long; blades 20-40 cm. long, 1-1.5 cm. wide, acu- minate, scabrous; panicles 10-30 cm. long, narrow, dense, becoming top-heavy; spikelets oblong, 7-10 mm. long; glumes narrow, 2-3 mm. long; lemmas hard, ridged by the lateral nerves, more or less hispid, especially on the keel, awnless or awned, the awn variable.

  • Provided by: [H].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    Plantas hasta ca. 1.6 m. Hojas con lígula 8–31 mm; lámina 22.5–63 cm × 5–23 mm. Infl. 9–28(–31) cm, moderadamente aglomerada. Espiguillas 7–11 mm, persistentes; lemas inferiores 1.5–4 mm, la lema superior 7–11 mm,escabrosa, no aristada o con una arista hasta ca. 7 cm; anteras 0.8–2.4 mm.

  • Provided by: [F].Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica
    • Source: [
    • 12
    • ]. 

    "Annual 1–2 m; blades elongate, 8–15 mm wide; panicle 1–3 dm; lemma 7–10 mm, reticulate rugose, short-pilose, its awn, when present, to 5 cm; 2n=24. Asiatic cultigen, cult. in s. U.S. and occasionally adventive as far n. as se. Va., but not persistent."

  • Provided by: [I].New York Botanical Garden
    • Source: [
    • 13
    • ]. 

    is extensively cultivated wherever there is enough water, up to an altitude of c. 2000 m. The chief crop is in Kashmir (Liddar Valley). Tateoka reports that this species is native in India and Indo-China but cultivated throughout the warmer parts of southern Europe, Africa, Asia, Australia and Central and South America. There are numerous cultivars of Rice, their most extensive taxonomic treatment being that of Porteres in J. Agric. trop. 3: 341, 541, 627, 821. 1956.

  • Provided by: [K].Flora of Pakistan
    • Source: [
    • 14
    • ]. 

    Morphology

    Widely cultivated on river flood-plains in W. Africa, and in a few localities grown as an upland crop.

  • Provided by: [J].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Pedicels up to 4 mm. long, stout, scabrous.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Panicle up to 50 cm. long, erect, curved or drooping, very variable in density; rhachis obtusely angular, smooth, glabrous or scattered hairy; branches solitary or clustered, forming a variable angle with the rhachis (from being nearly erect to spreading), angular, scabrous.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Glumes (the narrow rim at the base of the spikelet) varying in colour from pale white to yellow, purple or black.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Spikelets 8-11 x 2·5-3·5 mm., not deciduous (the articulation to the pedicel is usually completely solidified but there are, however, some strains in which the spikelets fall off at maturity), obliquely attached to the pedicel, very variable in shape, asymmetrically oblong to elliptic-oblong in lateral view.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Fertile lemma as described for O. barthii, sometimes coloured, usually awnless, sometimes awned (the awn often purple-pink, more rarely colourless).

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Culms 45-180 cm. tall, 3-many-noded (up to 20), 6-8 mm. in diam., erect or ascending from a geniculate base, terete, hollow, smooth, glabrous.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Sterile lemmas about equal in shape and size, usually 2-3 mm. long (very rarely up to 1/2 the length of the spikelet in certain forms “winged varieties”), lanceolate, acute, glossy.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    An annual or rarely short-lived perennial of variable habit.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Sexual organs and caryopsis similar to those of O. barthii.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Paleas as described for O. barthii.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Leaf-laminae 12-65 x 0·4 — 1·75 cm., linear, tapering to an acute point, bright green to glaucous, rather flaccid, glabrous or puberulous, rarely scattered with short hairs, smooth on the lower, asperulous on the upper surface; midrib usually distinct.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Ligule (1·25)1·5-3 cm. long, triangular, acute, entire or split, usually glabrous, sometimes tinged with pink, purple or brown in some varieties or strains.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Leaf-sheath coarsely striate, tight when young, later somewhat loose, often somewhat spongy, green or sometimes tinged with brown or purple, smooth, glabrous; the lowest usually longer, the upper shorter than the internodes.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Distribution

    Cultivated throughout tropical and warm temperate regions at low altitudes.

  • Provided by: [H].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    Distribution Map

     
    • Introduced distribution
    Introduced into
    • Southern America Brazil Acre
    • Amapí
    • Amazonas
    • Parí
    • Rondônia
    • Roraima
    • Tocantins
    • Alagoas
    • Bahia
    • Ceará
    • Maranh
    • Paraába
    • Pernambuco
    • Piauá
    • Rio Grande do Norte
    • Sergipe
    • Paraní
    • Rio Grande do Sul
    • Santa Catarina
    • Espirito Santo
    • Minas Gerais
    • Rio de Janeiro
    • São Paulo
    • Brazilia Distrito Federal
    • Goiás
    • Mato Grosso
    • Mato Grosso do Sul

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    ARROZ.

     Information From

    MBG Floras Images
    http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
    Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
    • A Missouri Botanical Garden
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020
    http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br
    Brazil Flora G (2014): Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020. v393.147. Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botanico do Rio de Janeiro. Dataset/Checklist. doi:10.15468/1mtkaw
    • C Group Brazil Flora, REFLORA Program
    Flora de Nicaragua
    http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
    WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
    • D Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • E Missouri Botanical Garden
    Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Costa%20Rica
    Hammel, B. E.; Grayum, M. H.; Herrera, C.; Zamora, N. Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2003-2014
    • F Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • G
    Flora de Panama
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
    Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
    • H Missouri Botanical Garden
    New York Botanical Garden
    Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
    • I Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • J The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    Flora of Pakistan
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Pakistan
    Flora of Pakistan. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2020.
    • K Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora Mesoamericana
    http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/fm/
    Gerrit Davidse, Mario Sousa Sánchez, A. O. Chater, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Instituto de Biología, Missouri Botanical Garden, Natural History Museum (London, England) UNAM, 1994
    • L Missouri Botanical Garden
    Poaceae
    • M CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • N CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).