Phalaris arundinacea L.
  • Sp. Pl.


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Phalaris arundinacea L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000889610. Accessed on: 06 Jul 2020'

General Information

Perennial, rhizomatous; rhizomes extensively spreading. Culms reedlike, erect, leafy, 0.6–1.5 m tall, 6–8-noded. Leaf sheaths glabrous, not inflated; leaf blades 10–35 cm × 10–18 mm, tapering to a fine apex; ligule 2–3 mm. Panicle contracted, linear-oblong in outline, lobed, interrupted, 8–15 cm; branches short, erect, densely spiculate. Spikelets oblong, laterally compressed, 4–6 mm; glumes narrowly lanceolate, glabrous or puberulous, pale green streaked darker green or purplish, keel scabrid, wingless or very narrowly winged upward, apex sharply acute; sterile lemmas equal, subulate, 1.5–1.8 mm, villous; fertile lemma broadly lanceolate, 3–4 mm, appressed-pubescent upward, shiny; palea boat-shaped, keels ciliolate. Anthers 2.5–3 mm. Fl. and fr. Jun–Aug. 2n = 28.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    "Colonial by rhizomes; culms stout, 7–15 dm; main blades usually 1–2 dm × 10–15(–20) mm; panicle 7–25+ cm, dense but branched or lobed, often lightly suffused with purple; glumes 4–6.5 mm, wingless, glabrous to scaberulous; sterile lemmas linear-subulate, evidently villous, 1–2 mm; fertile lemma 3–4.5 mm, appressed-hairy distally; 2n=14, 28, 35, 42. Streambanks, lake-shores, marshes, and moist ground; circumboreal, in Amer. from Nf. to Alas., s. to N.C., Kans., and Calif., more abundant westward. Ribbon-grass, with green- and white-striped lvs, is a horticultural variant."

  • Provided by: [E].New York Botanical Garden
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Morphology

    Fig. 32.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Glumes 3.5–7.5 mm. long, acute, wingless or with a very narrow and inconspicuous wing on the keel; sterile florets 2, subulate, 1.2–2.3 mm. long, villous; fertile floret lanceolate, 2.7–4.5 mm. long, dull yellow to grey-brown, sparsely pubescent.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Culms 50–150 cm. tall.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Perennial from scaly creeping rhizomes.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Panicle 7–40 cm. long, dense, lobed or interrupted, with short branches up to 5 cm. long, these spreading at anthesis but otherwise contracted about the main axis.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Leaf-blades up to 20 cm. long and 15 mm. wide.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Perennial, rhizomatous (rhizomes scaly, creeping), up to 1.5 m high. Leaf blades 50-200 mm long, 5-15 mm wide. Spikelets 3.5-7.5 mm long. Panicle 70-160 mm long, 10-30 mm wide, often interrupted in lower part; glumes wingless, gradually tapering to tip; female-fertile floret sparsely pubescent; sterile florets 2, 1.2-2.3 mm long.

  • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Perennial; up to 1.5 m high; rhizomes scaly; creeping. Culms erect. Leaf blades 50-200 x 5-15 mm. Flowers: panicle compact; spike-like; 15-110 x 10-25 mm; occasionally interrupted at base; spikelets 3.5-7.5 mm long; glumes wingless to narrowly winged; gradually tapering to apex; female-fertile floret sparsely pubescent; sterile florets 2; ± equal in length; 1.0-2.5 mm long.

  • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Habitat

    Marshes, riverbanks, swamp margins and damp hollows in upland areas.

  • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Mesic Grassland. Marshes; riverbanks; swamp margins and damp hollows in upland areas.

  • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Distribution

    Native to northern America.

  • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Native to northern U.S.A.

  • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Distribution Map

     
    • Introduced distribution
    Introduced into
    • Southern America Brazil Rio Grande do Sul
    • Santa Catarina
    • Rio de Janeiro

    Synonyms

      Bibliography

     Information From

    e-Flora of South Africa
    e-Flora of South Africa. v1.21. 2018. South African National Biodiversity Institute. http://ipt.sanbi.org.za/iptsanbi/resource?r=flora_descriptions&v=1.21
    • A All Rights Reserved
    Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020
    http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br
    Brazil Flora G (2014): Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020. v393.147. Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botanico do Rio de Janeiro. Dataset/Checklist. doi:10.15468/1mtkaw
    • B Group Brazil Flora, REFLORA Program
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • C Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • D
    New York Botanical Garden
    Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
    • E Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
    International Union for Conservation of Nature
    https://www.iucn.org/
    IUCN 2016. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-2
    • F All Rights Reserved
    International Union for Conservation of Nature v.3
    https://www.iucnredlist.org/
    IUCN 2019. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2019-1.
    • G See IUCN Terms and conditions of use http://www.iucnredlist.org/info/terms-of-use
    Poaceae
    • H CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • I CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).