Culms erect or geniculately ascending, 20–70 cm tall, 3–4-noded, smooth. Leaf sheaths loosely overlapping, shorter or lower longer than internodes, smooth, glabrous; leaf blades involute, 7–11 cm × 1–2 mm, adaxial surface pubescent, abaxial surface smooth; ligule 0.2–0.5 mm, truncate. Panicle linear, 10–20 × 0.5–1 cm, loose to somewhat dense, mostly curved or nodding, base enclosed by uppermost leaf sheath or just exserted from it. Spikelets oblong or wedge-shaped, 8–10 mm (excluding awns), florets 4–7; lower glume minute, 1–3 mm, upper glume linear-lanceolate, 3–8 mm, apex acute; lemmas 5–7 mm, back scabrid, 5-veined, margins scabrid or ciliolate, apex acuminate; awn 1.3–1.8 cm. Stamen 1; anther 0.4–1 mm. Caryopsis reddish brown, ca. 4 mm. Fl. and fr. Apr–Jul. 2n = 42.
2. Vulpia myuros (L.) C. Gmelin, Fl. Bad. 1: 8 (1805).
Por R.W. Pohl.
Plantas hasta ca. 75 cm, los tallos erectos a decumbentes.Hojas con lígula <1 mm; lámina 2–10 cm × ca. 1 mm, pu-berulenta. Infl. 5.5–20 cm, verde. Espiguillas 8–10 mm;gluma inferior 0.2–2 mm, la superior 3–4.5 mm; lemainferior 5.5–8 mm, ciliadas en los márgenes superiores, laarista 8–15 mm.
"Erect or ascending annual 1–7 dm; blades slender, commonly involute, 0.5–3 mm wide, usually thinly hairy above; infl a contracted, often rather dense panicle or spike-like raceme 3–25 cm, often not fully exserted from the sheath, the branches variously erect to drooping; spikelets 3–7-fld, 5.5–12 mm (excl. awns); florets only loosely imbricate, the rachilla-joints ca 1 mm; glumes thin, glabrous, subulate, the first 1-veined and mostly 0.5–2.5 mm, the second 3-veined, at least twice as long, 2.3–5.5 mm; lowest lemma 4.5–7 mm, usually scabrous above, with an awn 7.5–22 mm; anther usually 1, under 1 mm; grains 3–4.5 mm; 2n=14, 42. Native of Europe, now a widespread weed in temp. and subtrop. regions. (Festuca m.; V. megalura, with ciliate-margined lemmas)"
Panicle linear, 5–30 cm. long, loose to somewhat dense, mostly curved or nodding, enclosed below by the uppermost sheath, or just exserted from it.
Leaf-blades 2–15 cm. long and 0.5–3 mm. wide, flat or rolled, firm to flaccid, rough on the margins, puberulous above.
Spikelets oblong or wedge-shaped, 7–10 mm. long (excluding awns), 3–7-flowered, green or purplish; lower glume linear-lanceolate, 1–3 mm. long; upper glume subulate-lanceolate, 3–8 mm. long; lemmas 5–7 mm. long, scabrid, tipped with a scaberulous awn up to 15 mm. long; anther usually 1, 0.3–1 mm. long.
Culms 10–70 cm. high, tufted or solitary, erect or geniculately ascending, slender.
Annual, up to 0.7 m tall. Leaves linear; ligule an unfringed membrane. Inflorescence a panicle, not fully exserted from uppermost leaf. Spikelets 6-10 mm long (excluding awns), many-flowered; glumes unequal, shorter than spikelet, lower less than half as long as upper glume; lemmas tapering into awn 1-2 times as long, straight, not basally twisted.
Like V. bromoides but panicle partly enclosed in upper leaf sheath, lower glume always less than half a long as upper glume.
Tufted annual 50-700 mm high; culms usually densely fascicled. Leaf blade 20-150 x 0.5-3.0 mm. Inflorescence 50-120 mm long, partially enclosed in uppermost leaf sheath; spikelets usually adpressed to the central axis. Spikelet 6-10 x 1.5-2.5 mm (excluding awns), green or purplish, 3-7-flowered; lower glume 0.5-2.0 mm long, usually scale-like, but can be to nearly 1/2 as long as upper glume; upper glume 3-6 mm long, acute, 1-3-nerved; lemma scabrid, awn up to 15 mm long, scaberulous; callus rounded; anther 0.3-1.0 mm long.
Annual; up to 0.7 m high; tufted. Culms usually densely fascicled. Leaf blades 20-150 x 0.5-3.0 mm. Flowers: panicle open; 50-120 mm long; partially enclosed in uppermost leaf sheaths; spikelets 6-10 mm long; excluding awns; usually appressed to central axis; lower glume 0.5-2.0 mm long; often scale-like or to nearly 1/2 as long as upper; upper glume 3-6 mm long; acute; callus of lemma rounded.
Disturbed places in wet or damp areas but extending also to the more arid regions.
American weed found in W Cape, E Cape, Free State and KwaZulu-Natal.
Naturalised from western, central and southern Europe. Introduced worldwide in temperate regions. L, FS, KZN, NC, WC, EC.