Capsicum frutescens L.
  • Sp. Pl. 189. 1753


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2022): Capsicum frutescens L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0001020090. Accessed on: 12 Aug 2022'

General Information

Capsicum frutescens L., Sp. Pl. 189. 1753. Arbustos (herb?), erectos, ramificados, hasta 1.5 m de alto. Hojas solitarias o en pares, ovadas, hasta 12 cm de largo y 4.5 cm de ancho, ápice acuminado, base cuneada o atenuada, escasamente pubescentes; pecíolos 0.5--3 cm de largo. Flores (rarely solitary) usually two or more at a node, pedicelo 1--3 cm de largo; cáliz con umbones de hasta 0.5 mm de largo; corola 2–7 mm de largo, lobada hasta ca la 1/2 de su longitud, greenish white; anteras 1.5 mm de largo. Fruto una baya narrowly elliptical to conical, orange to red.Growing in disturbed areas (and cultivated), en todo el país; 0—1000 m; fl sep, fr sep—may; Moreno 12134, Stevens 20687; perhaps native to Colombia and Peru; introduced southeastern United States to Argentina, West Indies, Old World Tropics. This taxon was included in the concept of Capsicum annuum (from which it is very difficult to separate) in the published Flora de Nicaragua. “Chile.”

  • Provided by: [I].Flora de Nicaragua
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Small shrub, herbaceous or quite woody to 2 m tall, glabrous to pubescent, mostly fine-puberulent. Flowers, above the first node, more than one to a node; pedicels mostly thickening and erect in fruit; calyx cyathiform-to almost tubular, truncate or with small, deltoid umbos, lacking a constriction at the base near the pedicel; the corolla white or greenish, the lobes spreading to recurved; the anthers blue to violet, rarely yellow; the style exserted 1.5 mm or more beyond the anthers. Mature fruit erect, deciduous, soft fleshed, of various shape, mostly red.

  • Provided by: [B].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Subshrub, 0.4-1.5 m tall, with drooping branches; twigs nearly cylindrical to slightly angled, puberulent, becoming glabrous with age. Leaf blades 1.5-9 x 0.9-5 cm, elliptic, ovate, to lanceolate, chartaceous, the lower surface puberulent, especially in the axils of veins, the apex short-acuminate to acute, the base acute, cuneate, or obtuse to rounded, the margins wavy; petioles 0.5-2 cm long. Flowers solitary in leaf axils or less often paired, reflexed; pedicels 4-8 mm long (much longer in fruits), puberulent or glabrous. Calyx bell-shaped, truncate to minutely toothed at apex, 1-1.5 mm long; corolla white, 2-2.5 mm long, the lobes spreading, slightly reflexed at tips, anthers violet, connivent around the style. Berry ovoid, 6-9 mm long, turning from dark green to yellow and finally red; cultivated forms varying in shape and color. Seeds numerous, lenticular, light brown, ca. 3 mm long.

  • Provided by: [C].Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Differs from Capsicum annuum mainly in the number of flowers (2-3), elliptic (not ovate to lanceolate leaves) and pedicels longer than the capsules.

  • Provided by: [H].Flora of Pakistan
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Diagnostic Description

    Fruits more or less erect, with slender pedicels; flowers mostly 2-whorled.

  • Provided by: [F].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    Morphology

    Undershrub 2-3 ft. high, much-branched, angular

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Nearly glabrous stems

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Flowers white or pale yellow.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Leaves usually solitary, rarely 2 appearing together; petiole 0.3–3 cm long; lamina membranous or papyraceous, 1.5>i>–15 × 0.7>i>–6 cm, lanceolate to broadly ovate or elliptic, base rounded to attenuate, and often unequal-sided, apex obtusely acuminate to obtuse, ± entire, ciliate, with scattered hairs, sometimes only along the nerves above, paler, duller, with a few hairs in the axils of the nerves beneath.

  • Provided by: [G].Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Seeds brownish, 3.2>i>–3.7 × 2.5>i>–3 mm, obovate to sub-circular in outline.

  • Provided by: [G].Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Erect or spreading, ± bushy, short-lived perennial, up to 2 m tall.

  • Provided by: [G].Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Branches often quite woody, terete or slightly angular, ± striate or somewhat channelled, glossy, pubescent when young to ± glabrous.

  • Provided by: [G].Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Filaments 1–2 mm long; anthers blue to purple, rarely yellow, 1.5–2.2 mm long, oblong or oblong-ovate in outline.

  • Provided by: [G].Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Corolla white or yellowish to greenish, rarely purplish, often with yellow markings in the throat, rotate-campanulate; limb 6>i>–10 mm across; lobes 1.5>i>–4 mm long, ovate-triangular, acute, ± ciliolate, spreading or reflexed.

  • Provided by: [G].Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Fruit erect from the nodes, green, becoming orangish or red when mature, glossy, 0.9>i>–2 × 0.4>i>–0.6 cm, ovoid-oblong or irregularly fusiform, obtusely pointed, smooth, glabrous, very pungent or acrid, edible.

  • Provided by: [G].Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Ovary 1–1.8 mm long, ± ovoid or ellipsoid, rounded or tapering, glabrous, 2-locular; style 3.4–5 mm long, straight, not or slightly thickened distally into a small stigma.

  • Provided by: [G].Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Calyx ± rugose, 1.5>i>–2.5 mm long, cupular or sub-tubular, 5- or 10-ribbed, truncate or with short, obtuse teeth or deltate umbos, glabrous or slightly pubescent; in fruit enlarged and surrounding the base of it.

  • Provided by: [G].Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Flowers 2>i>–3(4)-whorled, rarely solitary; pedicels 10>i>–20 mm long, ± terete, striate, slender, thickened upwards, glabrous, ± erect or curved distally, in fruit elongated to 30 mm and slender.

  • Provided by: [G].Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Erect or spreading, ± bushy, short-lived perennial, up to 2 m tall. Branches often quite woody, terete or slightly angular, ± striate or somewhat channelled, glossy, pubescent when young to ± glabrous. Leaves usually solitary, rarely 2 appearing together; petiole 0.3-3 cm long; lamina membranous or papyraceous, 1.5-15 x 0.7-6 cm, lanceolate to broadly ovate or elliptic, base rounded to attenuate, and often unequal-sided, apex obtusely acuminate to obtuse, ± entire, ciliate, with scattered hairs, sometimes only along the nerves above, paler, duller, with a few hairs in the axils of the nerves beneath. Flowers 2-3(4)-whorled, rarely solitary; pedicels 10-20 mm long, ± terete, striate, slender, thickened upwards, glabrous, ± erect or curved distally, in fruit elongated to 30 mm and slender. Calyx ± rugose, 1.5-2.5 mm long, cupular or sub-tubular, 5- or 10-ribbed, truncate or with short, obtuse teeth or deltate umbos, glabrous or slightly pubescent; in fruit enlarged and surrounding the base of it. Corolla white or yellowish to greenish, rarely purplish, often with yellow markings in the throat, rotate-campanulate; limb 6-10 mm across; lobes 1.5-4 mm long, ovate-triangular, acute, ± ciliolate, spreading or reflexed. Filaments 1-2 mm long; anthers blue to purple, rarely yellow, 1.5-2.2 mm long, oblong or oblong-ovate in outline. Ovary 1-1.8 mm long, ± ovoid or ellipsoid, rounded or tapering, glabrous, 2-locular; style 3.4-5 mm long, straight, not or slightly thickened distally into a small stigma. Fruit erect from the nodes, green, becoming orange or red when mature, glossy, 0.9-2 x 0.4-0.6 cm, ovoid-oblong or irregularly fusiform, obtusely pointed, smooth, glabrous, very pungent or acrid, edible. Seeds brownish, 3.2-3.7 x 2.5-3 mm, obovate to sub-circular in outline.

  • Provided by: [F].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    Habit

    Small shrub

  • Provided by: [B].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Habitat

    Very rare garden escape, naturalized in disturbed places.

  • Provided by: [F].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    Distribution

    Capsicum frutescens is a widespread species found from the southeastern United States to Argentina and has been introduced to many countries.

  • Provided by: [B].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    A common roadside weed. Center Line Road (A2122), Ajax (A2653). Also on St. Croix and St. Thomas; Puerto Rico and the Lesser Antilles.

  • Provided by: [C].Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Indigenous to tropical America, now widely cultivated in mainly the tropics and subtropics for the pungent and spicy fruit. South Africa: KwaZulu-Natal.

  • Provided by: [F].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    Distribution Map

     
    • Introduced distribution
    Specimens
    Introduced into
    • Southern America Brazil Amapí
    • Amazonas
    • Bahia

      Bibliography

     Information From

    MBG Floras Images
    http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
    Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
    • A Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora de Panama
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
    Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden
    https://www.nybg.org/
    Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
    • C Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • D The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020
    http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br
    Brazil Flora G (2014): Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020. v393.147. Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botanico do Rio de Janeiro. Dataset/Checklist. doi:10.15468/1mtkaw
    • E Group Brazil Flora, REFLORA Program
    e-Flora of South Africa
    e-Flora of South Africa. v1.21. 2018. South African National Biodiversity Institute. http://ipt.sanbi.org.za/iptsanbi/resource?r=flora_descriptions&v=1.21
    • F All Rights Reserved
    Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • G
    Flora of Pakistan
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Pakistan
    Flora of Pakistan. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2020.
    • H Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora de Nicaragua
    http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
    WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
    • I Missouri Botanical Garden
    Solanaceae
    Solanaceae. World Flora Online Data. 2022.
    • J All Rights Reserved
    • K CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online Consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • L CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).