Nicandra physalodes (L.) Gaertn.
  • "(L. ) Gaertn., Fruct. Sem. Pl. 2(2): 237 (t. 131, fig. 2). 1791 [Apr-May 1791], 1791."


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Nicandra physalodes (L.) Gaertn. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0001023631. Accessed on: 21 Oct 2020'

General Information

Stems erect, angular, 40-150 cm tall, glabrescent or sparsely pubescent. Petiole 1.5-6 cm; leaf blade ovate or elliptic, 4-20 × 2-13 cm, papery, sparsely pubescent on both surfaces, base cuneate, margin lobed or coarsely sinuate-dentate, apex acute or short acuminate. Pedicel 1.5-4 cm. Calyx 0.8-3 cm, deeply parted; lobes broadly ovate, apex acute, 2.5-4 cm in diam. Corolla pale blue, blue-purple, or bluish with white center, 2.5-4 cm wide. Berry brown or yellow, 1-2 cm in diam. Seeds pale brown, 1-1.2 mm in diam. Fl. summer, fr. autumn.

  • Provided by: [F].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Nicandra physalodes (L.) Gaertn., Fruct. Sem. Pl. 2: 237. 1791; Atropa physalodes L.

    Hierbas erectas, hasta 80 cm de alto, glabras. Hojas simples, ovadas, 8–20 cm de largo y 4–12 cm de ancho, ápice y lobos agudos o acuminados, base cuneada o acuminada, dentado-lobadas, haz escasamente pubescente; pecíolos 3–7 cm de largo. Flores solitarias, actinomorfas, 5-meras, mayormente en las dicotomías del tallo o en las axilas de las hojas, pedicelo 1–3 cm de largo; cáliz 1–2.5 cm de largo, lobado casi hasta la base, lobos apicalmente agudos y apiculados, apareciendo basalmente sagitados; corola campanulada, 1.5–3 cm de largo, blanca con una mancha azul cerca de la base de cada lobo, distalmente azulada o purpúrea, levemente lobada, lobos mayormente obtusos; estambres insertos cerca de la base del tubo, filamentos basalmente tomentosos, anteras oblongas, inclusas, amarillas, dehiscencia longitudinal; ovario 3–5-locular. Fruto una baya seca, 2 cm de ancho, verde-amarillenta, envuelta por el cáliz acrescente, cáliz fructífero en forma de vesícula, angular, 2–3 cm de largo; semillas numerosas, subdiscoides, 1.5–2 mm de diámetro, cafés, con el embrión enrollado.

    Maleza de pastizales y orillas de caminos, zonas pacífica y norcentral; 575–1200 m; fl y fr todo el año, pero mayormente florece la segunda mitad del año; Stevens 9967, 15588; nativa de Perú, hoy en día ampliamente distribuida. Género monotípico.

    P. Horton. Taxonomic account of Nicandra (Solanaceae) en Australia. J. Adelaide Bot. Gard. 1: 351–356. 1979.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora de Nicaragua
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Morphology

    Corolla pale pinkish violet or pale blue to purple on the limb and upper tube, usually whitish in lower part, (1.3)1.7–3 cm long, c. 27 mm in diameter, campanulate, with a mixture of very short glandular and eglandular hairs at least along the nerves, and also with numerous longer eglandular hairs inside the tube around the base of the filaments; tube often turning yellowish with age; limb (2)2.3–5(5.7) cm across, the lobes spreading.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Leaves alternate, membranaceous; petiole (0.5)1–7 cm long, ± winged, ± sheathing at the base; lamina (2)3–23.5(38) × (1)1.5–13.5(36) cm, ovate to lanceolate, sometimes triangular- or rhombic-ovate, ± oblong or elliptic, broadly cuneate to attenuate or occasionally truncate to subcordate, often oblique at the base, ± decurrent on the petiole, obtuse acute or acuminate at the apex, usually irregularly and coarsely toothed or lobed on the margins, glabrous or with a few small hairs mainly above, sometimes only on the nerves and the margins.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Branches glabrous or sparsely hairy at least around the nodes with a few simple, short hairs.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Calyx green becoming brown and chartaceous, segments 5, 9–22 mm long, ovate,± strongly cordate-sagittate at the base and ± acuminate at the apex, concave, with adjacent margins doubled back (reduplicate) forming longitudinal wings, the margins fused for almost half their length, sparsely puberulous with small glandular hairs and scattered eglandular hairs; fruiting calyx brown and papery, accrescent, (1.8)2–3.5(4) × 1.6–3.7 cm, with segments strongly reduplicate and reticulately-veined.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Flowers erect at first then nodding, inserted beside the petiole-base and appearing axillary, or axillary in the upper leaves; pedicel (0.6)1.2–3(3.5) cm long, at least initially clothed with minute, 1–3-celled ± patent eglandular hairs, and also with a few many-celled glandular hairs; fruiting pedicel elongating to c. 4 cm.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Fruit a dry berry, pale green to yellow or brown when ripe, erect, enclosed within the enlarged calyx, 12–18 mm in diameter, gynophore up to c. 2 mm long on the base of the calyx.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Seeds light to dark brown, 1.5–2 × 1.2–1.7 mm, sticky.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Annual herb, usually much-branched and often ± robust, (0.1)0.2–2.5(3) m high, sometimes purple tinged.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Stamen filaments 4–7 mm long, sometimes with long, eglandular hairs; anthers often greenish or bluish-margined, 2.5–3.5 mm long.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Ovary 2.5–4.5 × 2.4–5 mm; style 4–4.8 mm long, straight.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Annual herb, up to 2 m high. Leaves ovate-oblong, sinuate-serrate, acuminate, up to 130 x 75 mm, petiolate. Flowers solitary. Calyx segments cordate, enlarging and completely enclosing berry. Flowers purple to mauve.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Cytology

    Chromosome number: 2n=20, 22.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Habitat

    Herb of cultivation, occurring in disturbed areas.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Distribution

    Native to South America.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Distribution Map

     
    • Introduced distribution
    Introduced into
    • Southern America Brazil Parí
    • Alagoas
    • Bahia
    • Ceará
    • Paraába
    • Pernambuco
    • Sergipe
    • Paraní
    • Santa Catarina
    • Espirito Santo
    • Minas Gerais
    • Rio de Janeiro
    • São Paulo
    • Brazilia Distrito Federal
    • Goiás
    • Mato Grosso do Sul

      Bibliography

     Information From

    MBG Floras Images
    http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
    Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
    • A Missouri Botanical Garden
    e-Flora of South Africa
    e-Flora of South Africa. v1.21. 2018. South African National Biodiversity Institute. http://ipt.sanbi.org.za/iptsanbi/resource?r=flora_descriptions&v=1.21
    • B All Rights Reserved
    Flora de Nicaragua
    http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
    WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
    • C Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • D
    Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020
    http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br
    Brazil Flora G (2014): Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020. v393.147. Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botanico do Rio de Janeiro. Dataset/Checklist. doi:10.15468/1mtkaw
    • E Group Brazil Flora, REFLORA Program
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • F Missouri Botanical Garden
    SolanaceaeSource.org
    http://solanaceaesource.org/
    PBI Solanum Project. 2017. Solanaceae Source. Jan.31st, 2015. http://www.solanaceaesource.org/.
    • G All Rights Reserved
    • H Solanaceaesource.org
    • I CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • J CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).