Solanum aculeastrum Dunal
  • "Dunal, (D. ) Dunal, Dunal, and B. ex Dunal, Prodr. [A. P. de Candolle] 13(1): 366. 1852., 1852."


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Solanum aculeastrum Dunal. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0001025704. Accessed on: 27 Oct 2020'

General Information

Erect shrub to small tree, 1-6 m, prickly. Young stems terete, densely stellate-pubescent and prickly, with porrect to multangulate, sessile or variously stalked trichomes, the stalks to 2 mm long, the rays 8-12, 0.1-0.5 mm long, the midpoints shorter than the rays or up to 1 mm long, the prickles 8-17 mm long, 3-10 mm wide at base, curved, occasionally straight, strongly flattened, prominent, orange to orange-brown, glabrous to sparsely stellate-pubescent in the lower half, spaced 5-20 mm apart; bark of older stems stellate-pubescent to glabrescent, gray to red-brown or brown.
Sympodial units plurifoliate.
Leaves lobed, the blades 8-15 cm long, 6-12 cm wide, 1.5-2 times longer than wide, ovate, sometimes elliptic, chartaceous, drying strongly discolorous; adaxial surface red-green to yellow-green, glabrescent; abaxial surface white-gray, densely stellate-pubescent, with porrect and multangulate, sessile or stalked trichomes, the stalks to 0.1 mm long, the rays 8-12, 0.15-0.8 mm long, the midpoints same length as the rays or up to 1 mm long, with 0-2 prickles on both surfaces; the primary veins 3-6 pairs, the tertiary venation visible on both surfaces; base cordate to truncate, sometimes auriculate; margins lobed, the lobes 2-3 on each side, 1.5-4.5 cm long, extending 1/4-3/4 of the distance to the midvein, broad-deltate, often with secondary lobing, apically obtuse, sometimes rounded; apex acute; petiole 1.2-3 cm long, ca. 1/6 of the leaf blade length, densely stellate-pubescent, with 0-2 prickles.
Inflorescences apparently terminal or lateral, 3-6 cm long, unbranched or rarely branched, with 4-12 flowers, 1(-5) flowers open at any one time; axes densely stellate-pubescent, unarmed; peduncle 0-3.5 cm long; pedicels 1-3.5 cm long, erect, articulated at the base, densely stellate-pubescent, with 0-2 prickles on long-styled flowers, unarmed on short-styled flowers; pedicel scars spaced 1-4 mm apart.
Flowers 5-merous, heterostylous and the plants andromonoecious, with the lowermost 1(-2) flowers long-styled and hermaphrodite, the distal flowers short-styled and staminate. Calyx 3-15 mm long, with 2-10 prickles in long-styled flowers, unarmed in short-styled flowers, the lobes 2-7 mm long, deltate, apically acute to apiculate, densely stellate-pubescent. Corolla 1.5-3.2 cm in diameter, white, sometimes mauve, stellate, lobed for 1/2-4/5 of the way to the base, the lobes 6-15 mm long, 2-5 mm wide, broad-deltate, spreading, densely stellate-pubescent abaxially, the trichomes porrect, sessile, the rays 8-12, 0.1-0.3 mm long, the midpoints shorter than the rays. Stamens equal, with the filament tube 2-3 mm long and the free portion of the filaments 0.5-1.5 mm long; anthers 4.5-6.5 mm long, connivent, tapering, poricidal at the tips. Ovary densely stellate-pubescent in the upper 1/5; style 0.7-1 cm long in long-styled flowers, slender to stout, straight to recurved, sparsely stellate-pubescent near the base.
Fruit a spherical to ellipsoid berry, often apiculate or acute at the distal end, retaining the same shape throughout development or widening with age, 1(-3) per infructescence, 3-5 cm long, 2-4.5 cm wide, the pericarp smooth to warty, evenly green when young, green-yellow to yellow at maturity; fruiting pedicels 2.5-4.5 cm long, 1.8-3.5 mm in diameter at base, woody, erect to pendulous, with 0-5 prickles; fruiting calyx lobes not elongating, covering ca. 1/6 of the mature fruit or less, moderately reflexed, with 0(-10) prickles.
Seeds ca. 50-100 per berry, 4-5 × 2.7-4 × 0.3-0.8 mm, flattened-reniform, almost round, often somewhat irregular in outline, yellowish to pale orange-brown, the surface smooth or with raised outlines of cells or small pits.

  • Provided by: [F].SolanaceaeSource.org
    • Diagnostic Description

      Discolorous leaves, mostly recurved prickles, large yellow fruits. Poisonous, used medicinally.

    • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
      • Source: [
      • 7
      • ]. 

      Morphology

      With mostly very big sharp hook-like spines, but sometimes also unarmed.

    • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
      • Source: [
      • 1
      • ]. 

      A tree or shrub up to 20 ft. high

    • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
      • Source: [
      • 1
      • ]. 

      White tomentum on all parts, except the surface of the leaves

    • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
      • Source: [
      • 1
      • ]. 

      Corolla violaceous to purple or pale mauve, yellowish or whitish, sometimes with purplish-brown markings, 1.3–3 cm across, ± rotate to stelliform; lobes 4–17 × 1.5–3.5 mm, narrowly ligulate, acute, involute at the margins, tomentose outside and hairy mainly on midrib to subglabrous inside.

    • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 5
      • ]. 

      Cymes lateral, usually leaf-remote or occasionally leaf-opposed, at first sometimes appearing terminal, unbranched or occasionally forked, sub-umbelliform or racemiform, tomentose, usually sparingly armed, the prickles ± straight, 2–13-flowered, usually the lowest flower(s) larger and more prickly, sometimes all flowers unarmed, occasionally flowers solitary; peduncle none or very short; pedicels (5)8–15(23) mm long, slender but stouter in fertile flower(s), erect to recurved, leaving raised scars after abscission, in fruit elongated to 5 cm, strongly thickened distally and stout, ± recurved or deflexed.

    • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 5
      • ]. 

      Calyx (4)5-lobed or divided, greyish-white tomentose, ± prickly or unarmed, in fruit somewhat enlarged, very often more deeply divided, somewhat glabrescent, sparsely prickly; tube 2–4 mm long, ± campanulate; lobes 2–8 × 1.5–4 mm, triangular to ovate-elliptic or oblong, acute to long-acuminate, hairy mainly on the midrib to glabrous inside, in fruit rather leathery, to 10 × 5 mm, broadly lanceolate.

    • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 5
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      Branches tomentose, gradually glabrescent, the recurved prickles usually conspicuous.

    • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 5
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      Leaves solitary, the upper ones often appearing geminate or ternate; petiole (0.3)1–3 cm long; lamina membranous, 3–20 × 1.5–13.5 cm, ovate to elliptic or oblong-lanceolate, sometimes obovate or ± circular, base sub-hastate or truncate, rounded to cuneate, and ± unequal-sided, apex acute to obtuse or acuminate, irregularly sinuate-lobed to divided, the lobes ± triangular to elongate, entire to sinuate-lobulate, rounded, obtuse or sub-acuminate, the sinuses rounded between the lobes, upper surface ± hairy to glabrous, lower surface very densely greyish-white tomentose, generally with ± straight prickles on the midrib at least beneath.

    • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 5
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      Shrub or small tree, 1.2–4.5 m (elsewhere said to reach 8 m), conspicuously armed [or elsewhere unarmed in var. albifolium (C.H. Wright) Bitter]; hairs stellate, forming a white or cineraceous powdery-looking tomentum on all parts except upper side of the leaves, sessile or subsessile, echinoid, regular, soft, short or minute; prickles brown becoming reddish-brown upwards, to 20 mm long and 15 mm wide at the base, stout and recurved to rarely acicular, very sharp, stellate-felty at base and subglabrous upwards to quite glabrous.

    • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 5
      • ]. 

      Stamens (4)5–6(10); filaments 0.5–1 mm long; anthers 4–8 mm long, lanceolate-ellipsoid, obtuse basally.

    • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 5
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      Ovary 1.5–3(5.5) × 1–3(5) mm, ± globose or ovoid, ± densely hairy, 2-locular; style 6–8(10) mm long, very much shorter in male flowers, straight, very shortly hairy in the lower half or tomentose to near the apex in male flowers.

    • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 5
      • ]. 

      Fruit glossy, greenish becoming yellowish when ripe, later reddish, purplish or brown to blackish, 3.5–5 × 3–5 cm, ± globose to ellipsoid, smooth or warty, ± hairy on upper part, poisonous.

    • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 5
      • ]. 

      Seeds dirty-yellowish or brownish, 3–5(6) × 2.5–3.5(6) mm, strongly flattened, oblique-reniform or orbicular to ovate or obovate in outline, minutely reticulate all over.

    • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 5
      • ]. 

      Shrub or small tree, 1.2-5 m, conspicuously armed; hairs stellate, forming a white or cineraceous powdery-looking tomentum on all parts except upper side of the leaves, sessile or subsessile, echinoid, regular, soft, short or minute; prickles brown becoming reddish-brown upwards, to 20 mm long and 15 mm wide at the base, stout and recurved to rarely acicular, very sharp, stellate-felty at base and subglabrous upwards to quite glabrous. Branches tomentose, gradually glabrescent, the recurved prickles usually conspicuous. Leaves solitary, the upper ones often appearing geminate or ternate; petiole (0.3)1-3 cm long; lamina membranous, 3-20 x 1.5-13.5 cm, ovate to elliptic or oblong-lanceolate, sometimes obovate or ± circular, base sub-hastate or truncate, rounded to cuneate, and ± unequal-sided, apex acute to obtuse or acuminate, irregularly sinuate-lobed to divided, the lobes ± triangular to elongate, entire to sinuate-lobulate, rounded, obtuse or sub-acuminate, the sinuses rounded between the lobes, upper surface ± hairy to glabrous, lower surface very densely greyish-white tomentose, generally with ± straight prickles on the midrib at least beneath. Cymes lateral, usually leaf-remote or occasionally leaf-opposed, at first sometimes appearing terminal, unbranched or occasionally forked, sub-umbelliform or racemiform, tomentose, usually sparingly armed, the prickles ± straight, 2-13-flowered, usually the lowest flower(s) larger and more prickly, sometimes all flowers unarmed, occasionally flowers solitary; peduncle none or very short; pedicels (5)8- 15(23) mm long, slender but stouter in fertile flower(s), erect to recurved, leaving raised scars after abscission, in fruit elongated to 5 cm, strongly thickened distally and stout, ± recurved or deflexed. Calyx (4)5-lobed or divided, greyish-white tomentose, ± prickly or unarmed, in fruit somewhat enlarged, very often more deeply divided, somewhat glabrescent, sparsely prickly; tube 2-4 mm long, ± campanulate; lobes 2-8 x 1.5-4 mm, triangular to ovate-elliptic or oblong, acute to long-acuminate, hairy mainly on the midrib to glabrous inside, in fruit rather leathery, to 10 x 5 mm, broadly lanceolate. Corolla violaceous to purple or pale mauve, yellowish or whitish, sometimes with purplish-brown markings, 1.3-3 cm across, ± rotate to stelliform; lobes 4-17 x 1.5-3.5 mm, narrowly ligulate, acute, involute at the margins, tomentose outside and hairy mainly on midrib to subglabrous inside. Stamens (4)5-6(10); filaments 0.5-1 mm long; anthers 4-8 mm long, lanceolate-ellipsoid, obtuse basally. Ovary 1.5-3(5.5) x 1-3(5) mm, ± globose or ovoid, ± densely hairy, 2-locular; style 6-8(10) mm long, very much shorter in male flowers, straight, very shortly hairy in the lower half or tomentose to near the apex in male flowers. Fruit glossy, greenish becoming yellowish when ripe, later reddish, purplish or brown to blackish, 3.5-5 x 3-5 cm, ± globose to ellipsoid, smooth or warty, ± hairy on upper part, poisonous. Seeds dirty-yellowish or brownish, 3-5(6) x 2.5-3.5(6) mm, strongly flattened, oblique-reniform or orbicular to ovate or obovate in outline, minutely reticulate all over.

    • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
      • Source: [
      • 7
      • ]. 

      Small tree or shrub, 1-6 m high. Stems and leaves spiny. Spines 5 mm across base, curved. Leaves deeply sinuately lobed, discolorous. Inflorescence lateral. Fruit yellow. Flowers white or pale violet.

    • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
      • Source: [
      • 8
      • ]. 

      Habitat

      Grassland, woodland, forests, also disturbed places.

    • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
      • Source: [
      • 7
      • ]. 

      Forest margins and in grassland.

    • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
      • Source: [
      • 8
      • ]. 

      Distribution

      Upland areas across East and Southern Africa, with some occurrence in West Africa. Solanum aculeastrum appears to be most abundant across Uganda, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, and Tanzania, with a second area of common occurrence in eastern South Africa; this may be an artifact of uneven collecting, however. Forest margins, grassland, scrub, and open disturbed places at 1200-2100 m elevation, occasionally found up to 3200 m elevation.

    • Provided by: [F].SolanaceaeSource.org
      • Tropical and southern Africa; South Africa: Limpopo, Mpumalanga, KwaZulu-Natal, Western Cape, Eastern Cape. Also cultivated, introduced in Queensland, Australia.

      • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
        • Source: [
        • 7
        • ]. 

        Uses

        Commonly quoted names throughout the distribution include Mutugunda, Omutugunda, and Mutura; more rarely mentioned are Umotobo, Kood (Lateba), Niva fera-fera, Temberere, Imitobotobo (Kirundi), and Motobatoba (Ruanda).

      • Provided by: [F].SolanaceaeSource.org
        •   Bibliography

          • 1 Solanaceae, H. heine. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963
          • 2 Bitter in Fedde Rep. 16: 166 (1923).
          • 3 "F.T.A. 4, 2: 243"
          • 4 "in DC. Prod. 13, 1: 366 (1852)"
          • 5 Solanaceae, A.E. Gonçalves. Flora Zambesiaca 8:4. 2005
          • 6 “Collectanea [Jacquin] 1: 100. 1787 ['1786'].”. Submitted.
          • 7 Gonçalves, AE. 2005. 119. Solanaceae. Fl. Zambes. 8(4): 1 - 124. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London.
          • 8 Herman, PPJ; Retief, E. 1997. Plants of thenorthern provinces of South Africa: keys and diagnostic characters. Strelitzia 6: 1 - 681. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.

           Information From

          Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
          https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
          http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
          • A
          e-Flora of South Africa
          e-Flora of South Africa. v1.21. 2018. South African National Biodiversity Institute. http://ipt.sanbi.org.za/iptsanbi/resource?r=flora_descriptions&v=1.21
          • B All Rights Reserved
          Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
          https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
          http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
          • C The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
          Global Tree Search
          https://tools.bgci.org/global_tree_search.php
          BGCI. 2018. GlobalTreeSearch online database. Botanic Gardens Conservation International. Richmond, U.K. Available at www.bgci.org. Accessed on 30/11/2018.
          • D Botanic Gardens Conservation International
          SolanaceaeSource.org
          http://solanaceaesource.org/
          PBI Solanum Project. 2017. Solanaceae Source. Jan.31st, 2015. http://www.solanaceaesource.org/.
          • E All Rights Reserved
          • F
          • G Solanaceaesource.org
          • H CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
          World Flora Online consortium
          http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
          World Flora Online Data. 2018.
          • I CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).