Solanum americanum Mill.
  • "(L. ) Mill. and Mill., Gard. Dict. ed. 8, no. 5. 1768., 1768."
  • erva-moura


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Solanum americanum Mill. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0001025878. Accessed on: 12 Jul 2020'

General Information

Herbs annual or short-lived perennial, glabrescent or puberulent with simple hairs. Stems green or purple, mostly erect, 25-100 cm tall. Petiole 1-2 cm; leaf blade ovate, 4-8 × 2-4 cm, membranous, glabrescent or sparsely pubescent, base truncate to cuneate, margin entire or sparingly dentate, apex acute. Inflorescences extra-axillary, subumbellate, 3-6(-l0)-flowered; peduncle 1-2.5 cm. Pedicel 5-10 mm. Calyx cup-shaped, 1.5-2 mm in diam., lobed nearly halfway; lobes ovate, pubescent abaxially, ciliate. Corolla white, rarely bluish or purplish, sometimes with a yellow eye, 3-5 mm, lobed halfway or more; lobes ovate-oblong, 3-4 mm, pubescent abaxially, ciliate. Filaments short, ca. 0.5 mm, puberulent; anthers 1-1.5 mm. Fruiting pedicel erect or nodding; fruiting calyx strongly reflexed. Berry shiny black, occasionally ripening green, globose, 5-8 mm in diam. Seeds discoid, 1.5-2 mm in diam. Fl. Jun-Oct, Fr. Jul-Jan.

  • Provided by: [G].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
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    Solanum americanum Mill., Gard. Dict., ed. 8, Solanum no. 5. 1768; S. nodiflorum Jacq.; S. nigrum var. nodiflorum (Jacq.) A. Gray; S. nigrum var. americanum (Mill.) O.E. Schulz.

    Hierbas perennes de vida corta, hasta 1 m de alto, inermes; tallos a veces con dientes suaves, glabrescentes o puberulentos con tricomas eglandulares simples, recurvados. Hojas solitarias o en pares desiguales, con las hojas más pequeñas similares en forma a las mayores, ovadas a lanceoladas, 2–10 cm de largo, ápice puntiagudo, base obtusa o estrecha, subenteras o sinuado-dentadas, glabras o puberulentas; pecíolos hasta 3 cm de largo, puberulentos (glabrescentes), apicalmente alados. Inflorescencias racimos subumbelados hasta con 10 flores, volviéndose laterales, aplicado-pubescentes, pedúnculos no ramificados, 0.5–3 cm de largo, pedicelos 3–10 mm de largo; cáliz ca 1 mm de largo, subtruncado a lobado hasta la 1/2 de su longitud; corola 6–10 mm de diámetro, blanca, raramente azulada o con un ojo conspicuo, lobada hasta la 1/2 de su longitud, lobos lanceolados a oblongos; anteras 0.8–1.7 mm de largo. Baya globosa, 0.4–0.8 cm de diámetro, glabra, negro lustrosa cuando madura, pedicelos fructíferos delgados pero ligeramente más largos, ascendentes a patentes; semillas lenticulares, 1.2–1.5 mm de diámetro.

    Maleza abundante en todo el país; 0–1600 m; fl y fr todo el año; Stevens 3571, 7310; cosmopolita, quizás nativa de Sudamérica. Esta especie diploide, perteneciente al complejo S. nigrum (sección Solanum), se diferencia de la planta hexaploide S. nigrum L., de Europa templada, por sus frutos lustrosos y erectos, y las anteras y semillas pequeñas. Se parece bastante a S. nigrescens pero tiene las anteras pequeñas y es el único miembro de este grupo que se encuentra a elevaciones bajas en Nicaragua. Los frutos y el follaje se comen en algunos sitios, aunque algunas razas son tóxicas.

  • Provided by: [H].Flora de Nicaragua
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    Short-lived or annual herb, rarely to 1.5 m tall, glabrate or pubescent; stems terete to strongly angled and toothed, often purplish; not sarmentose. Leaves small to large (2-20 cm long), entire or mostly somewhat toothed. Inflorescence several-flowered, umbellate or nearly so, the peduncle slender, unbranched, appressed-pubescent; pedicels slender, appressed-pubescent, deflexed in bud but erect and spreading in fruit. Flowers small, calyx lobes deltoid to lanceolate, not accrescent; corolla white, blue or mauve, with or without a conspicuous eye, small, to 1 cm across; anthers mostly 0.9-1.4(-2.1) mm long. Fruit black, shiny, 4-8(-15) mm across; seeds 1.2-1.5 mm across. Chomosome number n = 12.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora de Panama
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    Morphology

    Seeds 24–70(100) per berry, with light bone-colour and often flushed with purple, 0.8–1.5 mm long, ± ovate in outline, pitted all over.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Ovary c. 1 mm in diameter, ± globose, glabrous; style 1.3–4 mm long, straight or obscurely sigmoidal, the stigma level with the tip of the anthers or protruding by up to 1.2 mm.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 1
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    Fruits shiny, black or purplish-black, with shiny, opaque 4–7(8) mm in diameter, globose or slightly depressed-globose, with or without sclerotic granules, glabrous, edible when mature.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 1
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    Corolla white, cream or yellowish, with or without a conspicuous yellow-green eye, sometimes flushed with purple, mauve or blue, 1.6–4(5) mm across, rotate to deeply stelliform; lobes 1.5–3.5 × 0.5–1.7 mm, oblong or ovate to lanceolate, obtuse or acute, puberulous outside.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
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    Calyx 1–2(2.5) mm long, campanulate, in fruit somewhat enlarged; lobes 0.2–1.2 × 0.2–1 mm, oblong, semi-elliptic or ovate to lanceolate, rounded to acute, sparsely pubescent to glabrous, in fruit elongated to 1.5 × 2 mm, often strongly reflexed.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 1
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    Stamen filaments 0.3–1.5 mm long; anthers 0.7–1.5(2) mm long, oblong.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Branches ± angular to narrowly winged, the ridges or wings smooth or with widely spaced, short teeth or prickle-like hairs.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 1
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    Erect or widely spreading annual to short-lived perennial, (10)20–76(150) cm tall, sometimes flushed purplish, glabrescent to moderately pubescent with simple, curved, usually appressed, eglandular hairs.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Cymes lateral, unbranched, ± umbelliform, (1)3–6(10)-flowered; peduncle 0.2–2.8 cm long, slender, deflexed in bud, erect or ascending later, in fruit elongated to 3.7 cm; pedicels 2–7 mm long, slender, in fruit elongated to 14 mm, usually erect and splayed, occasionally reflexed.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Leaves solitary or occasionally geminate; petiole 0.45–5 cm long, ± narrowly winged particularly distally; lamina 1.8–12 × 0.8–5.5 cm, elliptic to ovate-lanceolate or ovate, base truncate or rounded to cuneate, oblique, ± decurrent into the petiole, apex obtuse or acute, ± acuminate, entire to sinuate, rarely sinuate-dentate, ciliolate, both surfaces often sparsely pubescent, glabrescent.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Herb, up to 1.5 m high, unarmed. Leaves entire, glabrous. Cymes umbellate. Corolla 8-10 mm in diameter. Fruit black. Flowers white.

  • Provided by: [C].e-Flora of South Africa
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    • 6
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    Habit

    herb

  • Provided by: [D].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 4
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    Cytology

    Chromosome number: 2n=24.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 1
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    Habitat

    Disturbed places.

  • Provided by: [C].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Distribution Map

     
    • Native distribution
    Found in
    • Southern America Brazil Acre
    • Amapí
    • Amazonas
    • Parí
    • Rondônia
    • Roraima
    • Tocantins
    • Alagoas
    • Bahia
    • Ceará
    • Maranh
    • Paraába
    • Pernambuco
    • Piauá
    • Rio Grande do Norte
    • Sergipe
    • Paraní
    • Rio Grande do Sul
    • Santa Catarina
    • Espirito Santo
    • Minas Gerais
    • Rio de Janeiro
    • São Paulo
    • Brazilia Distrito Federal
    • Goiás
    • Mato Grosso
    • Mato Grosso do Sul

    Synonyms

    Homotypic Synonyms

    Heterotypic Synonyms

    Synonyms

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    erva-mouraPortuguese
    maria-pretinhaPortuguese

     Information From

    MBG Floras Images
    http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
    Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
    • A Missouri Botanical Garden
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    e-Flora of South Africa
    e-Flora of South Africa. v1.21. 2018. South African National Biodiversity Institute. http://ipt.sanbi.org.za/iptsanbi/resource?r=flora_descriptions&v=1.21
    • C All Rights Reserved
    Flora de Panama
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
    Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
    • D Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • E
    Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020
    http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br
    Brazil Flora G (2014): Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020. v393.147. Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botanico do Rio de Janeiro. Dataset/Checklist. doi:10.15468/1mtkaw
    • F Group Brazil Flora, REFLORA Program
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • G Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora de Nicaragua
    http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
    WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
    • H Missouri Botanical Garden
    SolanaceaeSource.org
    http://solanaceaesource.org/
    PBI Solanum Project. 2017. Solanaceae Source. Jan.31st, 2015. http://www.solanaceaesource.org/.
    • I All Rights Reserved
    • J Solanaceaesource.org
    • K CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • L CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).